Purpose: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by multiple somatically acquired mutations that affect genes of different functional categories. It has been well established in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) that the cumulative number of somatic mutations has an impact on overall survival. However, no such data exist for AML. In this study, we sought to determine the number of clinically significant somatic mutations for each cytogenetically defined risk group of AML and to determine whether this had an impact on overall survival (OS). Methods: In this retrospective, single-center study, all adult patients diagnosed with AML from August 2016–December 2017 were reviewed. Baseline characteristics, somatic mutations in the diagnostic bone marrow as detected by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), and survival outcomes were analyzed. NGS panel was done in-house and could identify 94 genes. Patients were divided into favorable, intermediate, and poor risk groups based on cytogenetics, and molecular abnormalities using NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for AML, version 1.2018. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analyses were utilized. Results: A total of 105 AML patients were included; baseline characteristics and frequency of identified clinically significant (CS) mutations are described in the presentation. The FLT3 mutation occurred in the highest frequency (22%) followed by DNMT3A & ASXL1 (15%). 17 (16%) patients were favorable risk, 33 (31%) intermediate risk, and 55 (52%) were poor risk. 67.6% of patients were male, and the median age was 64 (20–79) years. There was a difference in the number of CS mutations between the intermediate risk group and favorable risk group (P=.007), but not between the favorable risk and poor risk groups (P=.221) or between the intermediate risk group and poor risk group (P=.093). Increased number of CS mutations (≥ 5) was seen with equal frequency across risk groups and predicted for shorter overall survival in both univariate (HR=2.80; P=.039) and by multivariate Cox regression analysis (P=.001) independently from assigned risk group. There were no differences in age, gender, smoke, geographic, and different risk groups by multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Our study shows that ≥ 5clinically significant somatic mutations were associated with adverse outcomes and decreased survival, independent of risk groups and induction regimen. Thus, it may be a useful prognostic factor. This finding needs to be validated using a larger sample size.
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Zin W. Myint, Rani Jayswal, Ranjana Arora, Gregory P. Monohan, Amit Goldberg, Roger Fleischman, Roger Herzig, Hayder Saeed, Gerhard C. Hildebrandt and Reshma Ramlal
Ahmed Abdalla, Amr Aref, Amer Alame, Mohamad Barawi, Danny Ma and Zyad Kafri
Background: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines recently recognized total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) as an acceptable option in patients with T3 and any N rectal cancer. Previous studies suggested that patients who received chemotherapy prior to conventional preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) and surgery allowed patients to receive more of their planned treatment with a better toxicity profile and increase in pathological response. However, those studies used a long course of FOLFOX or used capecitabine and oxaliplatin as an induction regimen. We are conducting a phase 2 prospective clinical trial to evaluate the use of 6 cycles of FOLFOX as TNT in patients with T2-T3/N0-N+. Patients and Methods: Patients with T2-T3/N0-N+ enrolled on our phase 2 prospective trial were included for this analysis. Patients received 6 cycles of FOLFOX (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin), which was administered every 2 weeks. After 3 weeks of recovery period, patients then received conventional CRT with 5FU or capecitabine. All patients got MRI and endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) at baseline, after completing FOLFOX 3-months regimen and after finishing conventional CRT. Patients underwent either full-thickness local excision or total mesorectal resection depending on their tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy. The time interval between completion of radiation therapy and surgery ranged between 7and 12 weeks. Results: A total of 10 patients completed the chemotherapy and CRT treatment regimen. 9 patients proceeded to surgery and the 10th patient is scheduled for surgery. Clinical downstaging by MRI or ERUS was shown in 9 of 10 patients with only 6 cycles of FOLFOX. Complete clinical response was achieved in 6 patients as evident by ERUS/MRI of the pelvis after 3 months of FOLFOX before CRT. Complete pathological response was found in 4 of 9 patients (44%). In addition, 4 other patients had significant albeit not complete pathological response. Conclusions: This study suggests that adding only 6 cycles of neoadjuvant FOLFOX before CRT improved clinical and pathological downstaging of T2-T3/N0-N+ rectal adenocarcinoma and may facilitate organ preservation surgery. This is strategy needs to be investigated in larger phase III trials to validate these findings.
Nimesh Adhikari, Myo H. Zaw, Sriman Swarup, Anita Sultan, Upama Sharma, Wai P. Thi, Nay N. Yee, Khaing K. Htwe, Tun W. Naing and Kyaw Z. Thein
Background: Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), a kinase downstream of the B-cell receptor, involves in the B cell survival and proliferation and has become an attractive therapeutic target. Ibrutinib is an oral potent, covalent inhibitor of BTK and hence employed in many hematologic malignancies. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and pulmonary toxicities among patients treated with ibrutinib. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and meeting abstracts through September 2018. Phase 3 RCTs that mention AF and pulmonary toxicities as adverse effects were incorporated in the analysis. Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the estimated pooled risk ratio with 95% CI. Random effects model was applied. Results: 4 phase III RCTs with a total of 1,383 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma were eligible. Studies comparing Ibrutinib (I) vs ofatumumab, I vs chlorambucil, I+ bendamustine (B)+ rituximab (R) vs placebo + B+ R, and I vs R were included in the analysis. The AF incidence was 41 (5.686%) in the ibrutinib group vs 8 (1.208%) in the control arm. The relative risk (RR) for AF was statistically significant at 3.825 (95% CI: 1.848–7.917; P<.0001) and RD was 0.041 (95% CI: 0.023–0.059; P<.0001). The RR of all-grade side effects was as follows: cough, 1.133 (95% CI: 0.724–1.773; P=.584); edema, 1.375 (95% CI: 0.943–2.006; P=.098); pneumonia, 1.227 (95% CI: 0.884–1.703; P=.221); and upper respiratory infections (URI), 1.075 (95% CI: 0.809–1.429; P=.616). The RR of high-grade side effects was as follows: cough, 0.373 (95% CI: 0.063–2.209; P=.277); edema, 1.232 (95% CI: 0.199–7.649; P=.822); pneumonia, 1.277 (95% CI: 0.847–1.926; P=.243); and URI, 1.555 (95% CI: 0.239–10.127; P=.644). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that patients on ibrutinib noted a significant increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation with a relative risk of 3.825. However, the risk of pulmonary toxicities was not statistically increased in the ibrutinib group.
Meily Arevalo, Myo H. Zaw, Anita Sultan, Sriman Swarup, Nay N. Yee, Wai L. Thein, Myet M. Zin, Nusrat Jahan and Kyaw Z. Thein
Background: Ibrutinib targets Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, a kinase involved in signaling of B-cell and chemokine receptors, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies. Ibrutinib has been shown to improve survival in hematologic malignancies, and yet the tolerability has not been elucidated. We undertook systematic review and pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials (RTCs) to determine the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities and the rate of treatment discontinuation due to adverse events. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE databases and meeting abstracts through September 2018. Phase 3 RCTs that mention gastrointestinal toxicities and the rate of treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were incorporated in the analysis. Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the estimated pooled risk ratio with 95% CI. Random effects model was applied. Results: 6 phase III RCTs with a total of 1,811 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia were included. Studies comparing ibrutinib vs ofatumumab, ibrutinib vs chlorambucil, ibrutinib + bendamustine + rituximab vs placebo + bendamustine + rituximab, ibrutinib vs temsirolimus, and ibrutinib vs rituximab were included in the analysis. The incidence of treatment discontinuation due to adverse events was 9.30% in the ibrutinib group vs 13.13% in the control arm. The relative risk (RR) for treatment discontinuation was 0.740 (95% CI: 0.385–1.423; P=.367). The pooled RR of all-grade side effects were as follows: diarrhea, 1.955 (95% CI: 1.304–2.933; P=.001); nausea, 1.038 (95% CI: 0.702–1.534; P=.852); vomiting, 1.048 (95% CI: 0.547–2.007; P=.888); and stomatitis, 1.262 (95% CI: 0.112–14.173; P=.850). The RR of high-grade adverse effects were as follows: diarrhea, 1.749 (95% CI: 0.866–3.530; P=.119); nausea, 2.237 (95% CI: 0.478–10.471; P=.306); vomiting, 0.429 (95% CI: 0.111–1.659; P=.220); and stomatitis, 0.309 (95% CI: 0.028–3.440; P=.340). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that patients on ibrutinib arm noted increased risk of all-grade diarrhea. Nevertheless, other GI toxicities as well as treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were not statistically significant in the ibrutinib group compared with the control arm.
Candice Baldeo, Tasneem Kaleem, Ricardo Paz-Fumagalli, John Copland and Michael Menefee
Introduction: Individuals receiving systemic anticancer therapies for advanced solid tumors routinely undergo imaging studies to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Mixed response (MR) to cancer therapy is a common but poorly described phenomenon. There is a paucity of data regarding both the incidence and possible mechanisms of this clinical quandary. Potential etiologies include tumor heterogeneity, differences in tumor microenvironment, and discrepancies in drug delivery to different tumor deposits. It is also possible that MR simply reflects differences in the rate of resistance emerging. MR represents a therapeutic dilemma for the clinician. Methods: Mixed tumor response was defined as: One tumor decreasing in size; one tumor increasing in size (classified as RECIST response/progressions), One tumor stable; another tumor progressing, One tumor stable; another tumor responding, New tumor; another tumor responding or remaining stable. Between 2015 and 2017, 120 restaging CT scans were reviewed of patients who had received at least 1 line of therapy for advanced cancer diagnosis which showed MR; hematologic malignancies were excluded. Charts were reviewed to determine the clinical decision that was made at the time of the MR. Results: A total of 120 scans with MR were reviewed from various solid tumor diagnoses. 38 scans were excluded due to loss of follow-up or death. Of the remaining 82 scans, therapy was switched in 30, the same therapy was continued in 50, and an additional agent was added to the current treatment in 2 cases (Table). Of the patients in which treatment was switched, 20% (6/30) showed response to treatment on the following scan. Of the cases that were kept on current treatment, none showed response on the following restaging scan which was done 6–8 weeks later. There were 4 (10%) deaths prior to the next scan in the group that had treatment switched and similarly 5 deaths (10%) prior to the next scan in the group in which treatment remained the same. Conclusion: MR is associated with a poor prognosis, irrespective of treatment decisions. These data are retrospective and our sample size is small, so definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. However, changing therapy when a MR is observed may be of benefit to some patients. A prospective evaluation to more accurately describe and understand the MR phenomenon is warranted.
Hinda Boutrid, Maryam Lustberg, Jeffrey Vandeusen, Sagar Sardesai, Daniel Stover, Robert Wesolowski, Mathew Cherian, Julie Stephens, Marilly Palettas, Evan Morgan, Mohmoud Kassem, Michael Berger, Craig A. Vargo, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy and Nicole Williams
Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 5%–15% of all invasive breast cancer cases. ILC has the propensity for distant late recurrence with widespread metastatic disease. To our knowledge, there is limited data on the clinical outcomes and treatment strategies of metastatic ILC. This retrospective study evaluates the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in the metastatic ILC population at a single institution, focusing on first line treatment received in the metastatic setting. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients (Pts) diagnosed with metastatic ILC diagnosed at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 using an IRB approved protocol. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment modalities were summarized with descriptive statistics. OS (time from metastasis to death or last known follow-up) and PFS (time from diagnosis of metastasis to progression) were compared between types of first-line treatment: endocrine therapy (ET), chemotherapy (chemo), chemo followed by ET, ET plus CDK 4/6 inhibitor, or other treatments. OS and PFS estimates were generated using Kaplan Meier methods and compared using Log-rank tests. Results: 60 female pts were included in this study. The median age was 59 years (24–78). 45 (75%) pts were postmenopausal, 44 (73%) ER+/PR+, 14 (23%) ER+/PR-, and 2 (3%) ER-PR-, 28 (47%) with only bone metastases, 19 (32%) with visceral and bone metastases, and 13 (22%) with liver metastases. Twenty-eight (47%) pts received first line ET therapy, 12 (20%) received ET + CDK 4/6 inhibitor, 7 (12%) received chemo alone, 4 (7%) received chemo followed by ET, and 9 (15%) received other types of first line therapy. The median OS was 3.0 years, and the median PFS was 1.4 years. No difference in the Kaplan-Meier curves was found between first-line treatment groups in OS or PFS (OS: P=.247; PFS: P=.436). Discussion: ILC is a histologically distinct disease from invasive ductal cancer. It has been previously shown that invasive lobular cancer may not be as sensitive to adjuvant chemotherapy. We showed that in the metastatic setting there was no difference in PFS and OS among first line treatment groups. ET remains preferred treatment option; however, based on our data, chemotherapy can be considered in patient with metastatic ILC in the appropriate clinical context such as visceral crisis.
Victoria T. Brown, Dana Drzayich Antol, Patrick N. Racsa, Melea A. Ward and Jarushka Naidoo
Background: Anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy is standard-of-care for patients with a variety of advanced malignancies. Although clinical trials report a lower incidence of grade 3-4 toxicities than observed with cytotoxic agents, it is imperative that clinicians identify and manage the unique toxicities of these agents. We aimed to identify real-world incidence of immune-related toxicities and management for patients treated with anti-PD1/PD-L1 agents prior to publication of clinical practice guidelines. Methods: Patients enrolled in a Humana Medicare Advantage plan who initiated any anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy September 1, 2014–February 28, 2018 were identified. NCCN Guidelines for immune-related toxicity were used to determine appropriate pharmacy and medical codes from administrative claims data for toxicity identification and management. ICD-10 codes were examined for patients requiring hospital or ED visits, and HCPCS and NDC codes were used for patients requiring toxicity treatment (eg, corticosteroids, anti-TNFα). Results: 6,005 patients were identified; 39.1% were female, median (IQR) age was 72 years (67–77). The majority (64.7%) had thoracic cancers; 16.3% genitourinary cancers; and 12.8% skin cancers. The median number of anti-PD1/PD-L1 doses received was 4 (2–8). Overall, 62.5% (n=3,751) of patients experienced >1 toxicity with half (n=1,913) requiring an inpatient stay or ED visit, and the other half (n=1,838) receiving outpatient toxicity medication. A similar proportion of patients developed >1 toxicity, regardless of age: <75 years, 62.4% (n=2,416); and 62.5% (n=1,335) >75 years. Systemic corticosteroids were used by 61.3% (n=2,300) of patients that experienced toxicity. The most frequently observed toxicity in this dataset by organ system was cardiovascular (18.5%, n=1,108), which was comprised largely of arrhythmias (13.7%; n=823), and endocrine toxicities (15.8%; n=950), mostly type 2 diabetes (11.9%; n=714). Conclusion: Real-world data from a large Medicare Advantage plan indicate that half of patients receiving anti-PD1/anti-PD-L1 may experience a toxicity resulting in an inpatient stay or ED visit with no difference by age. While attribution of toxicity may be challenging using claims data, the spectrum of immune-related toxicities in the real world may differ from those reported in clinical trials. Future research should evaluate incidence and management of toxicities post-guideline release and monitor changes in site of care for management.
Jorge Cortes, Clara Chen, Michael Mauro, Neela Kumar, Catherine Davis and Stuart L. Goldberg
Introduction: Dosing patterns of nilotinib (NIL) in chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CP-CML) patients (Pts) have not been well documented outside of clinical trials. SIMPLICITY (NCT01244750) is an ongoing observational study exploring tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) use in routine clinical practice among CP-CML pts receiving TKIs in the US and Europe since 2010. This analysis reports NIL dosing patterns and explores predictors of dose reductions. A subset analysis focusing on the first-line (1L) approved dose of 300 mg twice daily (BID) will also be presented. Methods: Only SIMPLICITY pts receiving 1L NIL BID (n=349/408) were included. Baseline demographics and dosing patterns (starting dose, dose changes, time to dose reduction, and duration of therapy [DoT]) were analyzed descriptively. Statistical comparisons were made using t-tests, the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and chi-square for categorical variables. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with dose reductions. Results: Of the 349 pts treated with 1L NIL, 281 (80.5%) started at the standard dose of 300 mg (BID) or the 400 mg (BID) dose for imatinib-resistance/intolerance, and 37 (10.6%) and 31 pts (8.9%) started on 150‒200 mg BID and 450‒800 mg BID. European pts were more likely to start on a dose >400 mg BID than US pts (P<.0001). Pts at academic centers were more likely to start on >400 mg BID than those treated at community practices (P<.0029). Among the pts starting NIL at 300 or 400 mg (BID) in 1L, 70.9% remained on these doses; 26.6% received a dose reduction (median time to dose reduction: 80.5 days); and 2.5% received a dose increase. Median DoT with NIL was 30.4 vs 43.9 months for pts with vs without a dose reduction (P=NS). The main reason for dose reduction was intolerance (n=51; 68.9%); in 51% of pts, a specific side effect was cited. Dose reductions were more likely in patients at academic centers (odds ratio=1.996; P=.021), but not in pts experiencing baseline fatigue (OR=1.799; P=0.072). Conclusions: Most pts treated with 1L NIL were started on 300 or 400 mg (BID); however, 1 in 4 pts required a dose reduction, most often due to intolerance. Physicians at academic centers were more likely to reduce the NIL dose than those in community practices. DoT with NIL for pts who received a dose reduction was shorter than that for those who did not. These findings will aid clinical decisions on dose optimization and maintaining response, whilst improving the patient quality of life.
Jeff Dang, Sang Chau, Jessy Delaisla, Divya Prakash and Andrew Hertler
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States. We are challenged with finding the optimal treatment for patient subgroups in a real-world setting. Treatment options have expanded to include immunotherapies versus platinum-based therapies to improve the quality of cancer care. Platinum combinations are known to have overall response rates of 25%–35%, time to progression of 4–6 months, and a median survival of 8–10 months. The purpose of this study was to determine how long metastatic NSCLC patients were on first-line treatments and what characteristics potentially contribute to the duration of therapy prior to progression. Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of metastatic NSCLC that received first line treatment between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017 but later switched to a different treatment because of disease progression or intolerance were included in the study (n=1,222). The sample, obtained from a nationwide database of treatment requests, was stratified into 4 groups based on the type of treatment the patient received: single agent (n=66), PD-1/PDL-1 (n=157), platinum doublet (n=720), and platinum triplet (n=279). Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed as appropriate. Results: The findings suggested that the median duration to progression was shorter for single agents as compared to multiple agent treatments (Χ 2 =7.67, P=.05). The median treatment duration for the groups were as follows: 90 days for single agent, 90 days for PD-1/PDL-1, 93 days for platinum doublet, and 111 days for platinum triplet. Additional analyses were conducted to understand whether pathway adherence and growth factor usage impact the duration of time to discontinuation within each group. Conclusions: These data provide insight into the duration of first line treatments for advanced lung cancer. Shorter duration times were found for single agent treatments as compared to multiple agent treatments.
Olivia G. Fahey, Elizabeth N. Dow, Jennifer K. Piccolo and Ticiana A. Leal
Background: Use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) in oncology continues to rapidly expand. ICPis have a unique toxicity profile and can lead to immune related adverse events (irAEs), some serious and potentially life-threatening. Early detection and appropriate treatment may limit the morbidity and mortality of irAEs and allow patients who are deriving benefit from ICPi to continue treatment. Pharmacists practicing in UW Health Carbone Cancer Center clinics are uniquely positioned to educate patients about common ICPi toxicities and ensure appropriate, early recognition and management of irAEs in collaboration with the multidisciplinary team. Methods: Within lung, melanoma, and gastrointestinal medical oncology clinics, a program was implemented involving pharmacists educating patients and families prior to the start of treatment as well as contacting patients at regular intervals to assess for any signs or symptoms of irAEs. The primary outcome is the number of patients experiencing Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0 (CTCAE) grade 1 or 2 irAEs identified by a pharmacist enrolled in the program. Secondary outcomes include grade ≥ 3 irAEs identified by a pharmacist, the total number of patients enrolled in the program with any irAE, reason for discontinuation of ICPi, emergency department visits, and hospital admissions during the study period. Results: Between November 14, 2017 and October 15, 2018, a total of 81 patients were enrolled in the program with 49 of those patients still enrolled at the end of the study period. These patients experienced a total of 39 grade 1 and 13 grade 2 irAEs, of which 53.8% (n=28) were identified by pharmacists. The most common grade 1 or 2 toxicities identified by pharmacists were gastrointestinal (n=15) and dermatologic (n=6). Endocrine (n=7) and dermatologic (n=7) were the most common grade 1 or 2 irAEs identified by other providers. There were 4 grade 3 irAEs (endocrine, fatigue, liver, and pneumonitis) identified by other providers, and there were no grade 4 irAEs. Conclusion: Proactive pharmacist contact at regular intervals during ICPi treatment resulted in the early discovery of grade 1 or 2 irAEs experienced by patients. This pharmacist-driven approach may allow for earlier treatment of any toxicities experienced after ICPi treatment and reduce the rates of serious irAEs. Current efforts are focused on expanding these services to all UW Health Carbone Cancer Center clinics.