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Matthew Barth, Ana C. Xavier, Saro Armenian, Anthony N. Audino, Lindsay Blazin, David Bloom, Jong Chung, Kimberly Davies, Hilda Ding, James B. Ford, Paul J. Galardy, Rabi Hanna, Robert Hayashi, Cathy Lee-Miller, Andrea Judit Machnitz, Kelly W. Maloney, Lianna Marks, Paul L. Martin, David McCall, Martha Pacheco, Anne F. Reilly, Mikhail Roshal, Sophie Song, Joanna Weinstein, Sara Zarnegar-Lumley, Nicole McMillian, Ryan Schonfeld, and Hema Sundar

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Pediatric Aggressive Mature B-Cell Lymphomas include recommendations for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and sporadic variants of Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMBL is now considered as a distinct entity arising from mature thymic B-cells accounting for 2% of mature B-cell lymphomas in children and adolescents. This discussion section includes the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with PMBL.

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Margaret Tempero

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Daenielle Lang and Kristen K. Ciombor

The global incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma is stable or decreasing overall; however, the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients aged <50 years is increasing. Although some of this increase is due to hereditary cancer syndromes, this is not the sole explanation. Patients with early-onset rectal cancer in particular have unique disease patterns and face distinct challenges in their treatment. Molecular patterns of disease in this patient cohort are noteworthy and often represent an opportunity to target these cancers more effectively. Recent and ongoing trials focusing on minimizing toxicities and necessary therapy modalities and maximizing response and patient outcome are of paramount importance in this patient population. Additional resources are needed for this patient population, including fertility counseling and preservation, financial guidance, genetic counseling, and psychosocial support.

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Boshen Jiao, Yaw A. Nyame, Josh J. Carlson, Louis P. Garrison Jr, and Anirban Basu

Background: Two pivotal randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrate that abiraterone acetate + prednisone (AAP) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly extends the survival of men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) compared with ADT alone. Their subgroup analyses indicate that the survival benefit is significant for younger men but not older men. We aimed to assess whether publication of the RCTs was associated with differential real-world AAP utilization by age groups. Methods: Using TriNetX electronic medical records data collected from 43 healthcare organizations across the United States, we performed a difference-in-differences event study among men with newly diagnosed mHSPC observed from June 2014 to June 2019. Eligible subjects were identified based on a comprehensive published algorithm. We analyzed the change in utilization rate of AAP before versus after publication of the RCTs among men aged <70 years versus ≥70 years, adjusting for demographic factors and clinical conditions. Results: Our study included 6,888 men with newly diagnosed mHSPC with 12,738 observations, of whom 46% were aged <70 years. The prepublication trends of AAP utilization were similar between the age groups, whereas publication of the RCTs was associated with a 3.5% higher adjusted uptake rate of AAP among younger men (95% CI, 1.2%–5.8%) relative to older men. This estimate reflects an uptake rate nearly 3 times higher than would have been expected had younger men followed the same utilization trends as older men. The estimates remained consistent throughout the postpublication period. Conclusions: Our study suggests that publication of the RCTs was associated with faster uptake of AAP among younger versus older men with newly diagnosed mHSPC, despite the absence of clinical guidance for differential treatment selection. This finding highlights the importance of confirmatory studies among older men, considering the uncertainties of subgroup analyses in RCTs.

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Camille F. Ng, John Glaspy, Veronica R. Placencio-Hickok, Shant Thomassian, Jun Gong, Arsen Osipov, Andrew E. Hendifar, and Natalie Moshayedi

Despite advances in cancer therapeutics, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains among the deadliest malignancies, with a poor prognosis at time of diagnosis. Research in PDAC has suggested that adaptive signaling in the tumor microenvironment may promote tumor proliferation and survival. Several FGFR fusion genes—specifically FGFR2—are involved with the creation and progression of cancer. These mutations are found in a variety of cancer types. This report presents a unique case of a young patient with stage IV PDAC with a known FGFR2 fusion. This molecular alteration afforded a remarkable response to FGFR inhibitor therapy, erdafitinib, after the patient experienced disease progression on multiple chemotherapy regimens.

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Adam J. Widman, Bevin Cohen, Vivian Park, Tara McClure, Jedd Wolchok, and Mini Kamboj

Background: Whether COVID-19 vaccination and the associated immune response increases susceptibility to immune-related adverse events (irAEs) among patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) remains unknown. Short-term follow-up can assess the safety of concurrent administration of the vaccine and ICI treatment. Methods: We conducted an electronic health record analysis of a cohort of 408 patients with cancer receiving ICI therapy and who were vaccinated for COVID-19 between January 16 and March 27, 2021. Patients were seen in follow-up for 90 days from the day of the first dose in this single-institution tertiary care center. We evaluated the incidence of irAEs and the frequency of each event type and grade among patients who experienced an irAE. We also evaluated the incidence of irAEs in patients who began a new immunotherapy agent after vaccination. Results: Among 408 patients with cancer receiving ICI therapy (median age, 71 years; 217 [53%] male), administration of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine within 90 days of ICI treatment was not associated with an increased incidence of irAEs. A total of 27 (7%) patients experienced a new irAE within the observation period. Among patients with previous irAEs from ICIs (n=54), 3 (6%) experienced a recurrent irAE, and of those initiating a new immunotherapy (n=52), 9 (17%) experienced an irAE. No excess risk of COVID-19 diagnosis was seen in this subset of patients receiving ICI therapy, and no breakthrough COVID-19 cases were seen after full COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions: These findings should reassure providers that COVID-19 vaccination during ICI therapy is safe and efficacious.