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Margaret Tempero

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Yifan Wang, Adeline Cuggia, Yen-I Chen, Josée Parent, Agatha Stanek, Robert E. Denroche, Amy Zhang, Robert C. Grant, Céline Domecq, Bryn Golesworthy, Chaya Shwaartz, Ayelet Borgida, Spring Holter, Julie M. Wilson, George Chong, Grainne M. O’Kane, Jennifer J. Knox, Sandra E. Fischer, Steven Gallinger, Zu-Hua Gao, William D. Foulkes, Kevin A. Waschke, and George Zogopoulos

Background: Individuals with a family history of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) or with a germline mutation in a PC susceptibility gene are at increased risk of developing PC. These high-risk individuals (HRIs) may benefit from PC surveillance. Methods: A PC surveillance program was developed to evaluate the detection of premalignant lesions and early-stage PCs using biannual imaging and to determine whether locally advanced or metastatic PCs develop despite biannual surveillance. From January 2013 to April 2020, asymptomatic HRIs were enrolled and followed with alternating MRI and endoscopic ultrasound every 6 months. Results: Of 75 HRIs, 43 (57.3%) had a germline mutation in a PC susceptibility gene and 32 (42.7%) had a familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) pedigree. Branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) were identified in 26 individuals (34.7%), but only 2 developed progressive lesions. One patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) developed locally advanced PC arising from a BD-IPMN. Whole-genome sequencing of this patient’s PC and of a second patient with PJS-associated PC from the same kindred revealed biallelic inactivation of STK11 in a KRAS-independent manner. A review of 3,853 patients from 2 PC registries identified an additional patient with PJS-associated PC. All 3 patients with PJS developed advanced PC consistent with the malignant transformation of an underlying BD-IPMN in <6 months. The other surveillance patient with a progressive lesion had FPC and underwent resection of a mixed-type IPMN that harbored polyclonal KRAS mutations. Conclusions: PC surveillance identifies a high prevalence of BD-IPMNs in HRIs. Patients with PJS with BD-IPMNs may be at risk for accelerated malignant transformation.

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William G. Wierda, Jennifer Brown, Jeremy S. Abramson, Farrukh Awan, Syed F. Bilgrami, Greg Bociek, Danielle Brander, Asher A. Chanan-Khan, Steve E. Coutre, Randall S. Davis, Herbert Eradat, Christopher D. Fletcher, Sameh Gaballa, Armin Ghobadi, Muhammad Saad Hamid, Francisco Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Brian Hill, Paul Kaesberg, Manali Kamdar, Lawrence D. Kaplan, Nadia Khan, Thomas J. Kipps, Shuo Ma, Anthony Mato, Claudio Mosse, Stephen Schuster, Tanya Siddiqi, Deborah M. Stephens, Chaitra Ujjani, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Jennifer A. Woyach, J. Christine Ye, Mary A. Dwyer, and Hema Sundar

The treatment landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) has significantly evolved in recent years. Targeted therapy with Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors and BCL-2 inhibitors has emerged as an effective chemotherapy-free option for patients with previously untreated or relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL. Undetectable minimal residual disease after the end of treatment is emerging as an important predictor of progression-free and overall survival for patients treated with fixed-duration BCL-2 inhibitor-based treatment. These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss the updates to the NCCN Guidelines for CLL/SLL specific to the use of chemotherapy-free treatment options for patients with treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory disease.

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Yan Hiu Athena Lee, Jiandong Zhou, Jeremy Man Ho Hui, Xuejin Liu, Teddy Tai Loy Lee, Kyle Hui, Jeffrey Shi Kai Chan, Abraham Ka Chung Wai, Wing Tak Wong, Tong Liu, Kenrick Ng, Sharen Lee, Edward Christopher Dee, Qingpeng Zhang, and Gary Tse

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the risks of new-onset prostate cancer between metformin and sulfonylurea users with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This population-based retrospective cohort study included male patients with T2DM presenting to public hospitals/clinics in Hong Kong between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009. We only included patients prescribed either, but not both, metformin or sulfonylurea. All patients were followed up until December 31, 2019. The primary outcome was new-onset prostate cancer and the secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed between metformin and sulfonylurea users based on demographics, comorbidities, antidiabetic and cardiovascular medications, fasting blood glucose level, and hemoglobin A1c level. Subgroup analyses based on age and use of androgen deprivation therapy were performed. Results: The final study cohort consisted of 25,695 metformin users (mean [SD] age, 65.2 [11.8] years) and 25,695 matched sulfonylurea users (mean [SD] age, 65.3 [11.8] years) with a median follow-up duration of 119.6 months (interquartile range, 91.7–139.6 months) after 1:1 propensity score matching of 66,411 patients. Metformin users had lower risks of new-onset prostate cancer (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69–0.93; P=.0031) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86–0.92; P<.0001) than sulfonylurea users. Metformin use was more protective against prostate cancer but less protective against all-cause mortality in patients aged <65 years (P for trend <.0001 for both) compared with patients aged ≥65 years. Metformin users had lower risk of all-cause mortality than sulfonylurea users, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation therapy (P for trend <.0001) among patients who developed prostate cancer. Conclusions: Metformin use was associated with significantly lower risks of new-onset prostate cancer and all-cause mortality than sulfonylurea use in male patients with T2DM.

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Cary P. Gross, Craig S. Meyer, Sarika Ogale, Matthew Kent, and William B. Wong

Background: Evidence suggests that patients with Medicaid experience lower-quality cancer care than those with commercial insurance. Whether this trend persists in the era of personalized medicine is unclear. This study examined the associations between Medicaid (vs commercial) insurance and receipt of biomarker testing, targeted therapy, and overall survival in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who received an aNSCLC diagnosis from January 2011 to September 2019 using a nationwide US healthcare database. Eligible patients were aged 18 to 64 years with Medicaid or commercial insurance at diagnosis. Receipt of biomarker testing (ALK, EGFR, ROS1, BRAF, and PD-L1) was assessed. The likelihood of testing, biomarker-driven therapy (cancer immunotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment), and mortality were compared by insurance type using adjusted Cox regression. Results: Our sample included 6,145 commercially insured and 865 Medicaid beneficiaries. Medicaid beneficiaries were more likely to be Black or African American (20% vs 9.3%; P <.001) and were less likely to have undergone biomarker testing (57% vs 71%; P <.001). In the adjusted analysis, Medicaid beneficiaries were less likely to have evidence of testing (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; P <.001), any first-line treatment (HR, 0.72; P <.001), and first-line biomarker-driven therapy (HR, 0.70; P <.001). Medicaid beneficiaries with evidence of biomarker testing had a lower risk of death compared with those without evidence of biomarker testing (HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.06–1.52]; P =.010). Higher risk of death was observed in patients with Medicaid versus commercially insured patients (HR, 1.23; P <.001); this result remained unchanged after adjusting for biomarker testing (HR, 1.22; P < .001) but was partially ameliorated after adjustment for testing and treatment type (HR, 1.12; P =.010). Conclusions: Medicaid beneficiaries with aNSCLC were less likely to receive biomarker testing and biomarker-driven therapies, which may in part contribute to a higher observed risk of mortality compared with commercially insured patients.

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Alex T. Ramsey, Timothy B. Baker, Faith Stoneking, Nina Smock, Jingling Chen, Giang Pham, Aimee S. James, Graham A. Colditz, Ramaswamy Govindan, Laura J. Bierut, and Li-Shiun Chen

Background: Tobacco cessation after a cancer diagnosis can extend patient survival by improving outcomes for primary cancer and preventing secondary cancers. However, smoking is often unaddressed in cancer care, highlighting the need for strategies to increase treatment reach and cessation. This study examined a low-burden, point-of-care tobacco treatment program (ELEVATE) featuring an electronic health record–enabled smoking module and decision support tools to increase the reach and effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This study included adult outpatient tobacco smokers (n=13,651) in medical oncology, internal medicine, and surgical oncology clinics from a large midwestern healthcare system. We examined reach and effectiveness of ELEVATE with 2 comparisons: (1) preimplementation versus postimplementation of ELEVATE and (2) ELEVATE versus usual care. Data were evaluated during 2 time periods: preimplementation (January through May 2018) and postimplementation (June through December 2018), with smoking cessation assessed at the last follow-up outpatient encounter during the 6 months after these periods. Results: The proportion of current tobacco smokers receiving cessation treatment increased from pre-ELEVATE to post-ELEVATE (1.6%–27.9%; difference, 26.3%; relative risk, 16.9 [95% CI, 9.8–29.2]; P<.001). Compared with 27.9% treatment reach with ELEVATE in the postimplementation time period, reach within usual care clinics ranged from 11.8% to 12.0% during this same period. The proportion of tobacco smokers who subsequently achieved cessation increased significantly from pre-ELEVATE to post-ELEVATE (12.0% vs 17.2%; difference, 5.2%; relative risk, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1–1.5]; P=.002). Compared with 17.2% smoking cessation with ELEVATE in the postimplementation time period, achievement of cessation within usual care clinics ranged from 8.2% to 9.9% during this same period. Conclusions: A low-burden, point-of-care tobacco treatment strategy increased tobacco treatment and cessation, thereby improving access to and the impact of evidence-based cessation treatment. Using implementation strategies to embed tobacco treatment in every healthcare encounter promises to engage more smokers in evidence-based treatment and facilitate smoking cessation, thereby improving care cancer for patients who smoke.

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Elizabeth A. Griffiths, Vivek Roy, Laura Alwan, Kimo Bachiashvili, John Baird, Rita Cool, Shira Dinner, Mark Geyer, John Glaspy, Ivana Gojo, Ashley Hicks, Avyakta Kallam, Wajih Zaheer Kidwai, Dwight D. Kloth, Eric H. Kraut, Daniel Landsburg, Gary H. Lyman, Anjlee Mahajan, Ryan Miller, Victoria Nachar, Seema Patel, Shiven Patel, Lia E. Perez, Adam Poust, Fauzia Riaz, Rachel Rosovsky, Hope S. Rugo, Shayna Simon, Sumithira Vasu, Martha Wadleigh, Kelly Westbrook, Peter Westervelt, Ryan A. Berardi, and Lenora Pluchino

The NCCN Guidelines for Hematopoietic Growth Factors provide recommendations for the appropriate use of growth factors in the clinical management of febrile neutropenia (FN), chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT), and chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA). Management and prevention of these sequelae are an integral part of supportive care for many patients undergoing cancer treatment. The purpose of these guidelines is to operationalize the evaluation, prevention, and treatment of FN, CIT, and CIA in adult patients with nonmyeloid malignancies and to enable the patient and clinician to assess management options for FN, CIT, and CIA in the context of an individual patient’s condition. These NCCN Guidelines Insights provide a summary of the important recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Hematopoietic Growth Factors, with particular emphasis on the incorporation of a newly developed section on CIT.