Background: Patients with cancer in Canada are often effectively managed in ambulatory settings; however, patients with unmanaged or complex symptoms may turn to the emergency department (ED) for additional support. These unplanned visits can be costly to the healthcare system and distressing for patients. This study used a novel patient-reported outcomes (PROs)–derived symptom complexity algorithm to understand characteristics of patients who use acute care, which may help clinicians identify patients who would benefit from additional support. Patients and Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study used population-based linked administrative healthcare data. All patients with cancer in Alberta, Canada, who completed at least one PRO symptom-reporting questionnaire between October 1, 2019, and April 1, 2020, were included. The algorithm used ratings of 9 symptoms to assign a complexity score of low, medium, or high. Multivariable binary logistic regressions were used to evaluate factors associated with a higher likelihood of having an ED visit or hospital admission (HA) within 7 days of completing a PRO questionnaire. Results: Of the 29,133 patients in the cohort, 738 had an ED visit and 452 had an HA within 7 days of completing the PRO questionnaire. Patients with high symptom complexity had significantly higher odds of having an ED visit (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.59–3.70) or HA (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 3.36–5.26) compared with low complexity patients, controlling for demographic covariates. Conclusions: Given that patients with higher symptom complexity scores were more likely to use acute care, clinicians should monitor these more complex patients closely, because they may benefit from additional support or symptom management in ambulatory settings. A symptom complexity algorithm can help clinicians easily identify patients who may require additional support. Using an algorithm to guide care can enhance patient experiences, while reducing use of acute care services and the accompanying cost and burden.
Linda Watson, Siwei Qi, Claire Link, Andrea DeIure, Arfan Afzal, and Lisa Barbera
Yumo Xie, Jinxin Lin, Ning Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Puning Wang, Shaoyong Peng, Juan Li, Yuanhui Wu, Yaoyi Huang, Zhuokai Zhuang, Dingcheng Shen, Mingxuan Zhu, Xiaoxia Liu, Guangjian Liu, Xiaochun Meng, Meijin Huang, Huichuan Yu, and Yanxin Luo
Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment in patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) tumors holds promise in reshaping organ preservation in rectal cancer. However, the benefits are accompanied by distinctive patterns of response, introducing a dilemma in the response evaluation for clinical decision-making. Patients and Methods: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer with MSI-H/dMMR tumors receiving neoadjuvant ICI (nICI) treatment (n=13) and matched patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT; n=13) were included to compare clinical response and histopathologic features. Results: Among the 13 patients receiving nICI treatment, in the final radiologic evaluation prior to surgery (at a median of 103 days after initiation of therapy), progressive disease (n=3), stable disease (n=1), partial response (n=7), and complete response (n=2) were observed. However, these patients were later confirmed as having pathologic complete response, resulting in pseudoprogression and pseudoresidue with incidences of 23.1% (n=3) and 76.9% (n=10), respectively, whereas no pseudoprogression was found in the 13 patients receiving nCRT. We further revealed the histopathologic basis underlying the pseudoprogression and pseudoresidue by discovering the distinctive immune-related regression features after nICI treatment, including fibrogenesis, dense lymphocytes, and plasma cell infiltration. Conclusions: Pseudoprogression and pseudoresidue were unique and prevalent response patterns in MSI-H/dMMR rectal cancer after nICI treatment. Our findings highlight the importance of developing specific strategies for response evaluation in neoadjuvant immunotherapy to identify patients with a good response in whom sphincter/organ-preserving or watch-and-wait strategies may be considered.
Elizabeth J. Cathcart-Rake, Juliana M. Kling, Evelyn F. Carroll, Caroline Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer Le-Rademacher, Jennifer L. Ridgeway, Cesar A. Gonzalez, and Aminah Jatoi
Nadeem Abu-Rustum, Catheryn Yashar, Rebecca Arend, Emma Barber, Kristin Bradley, Rebecca Brooks, Susana M. Campos, Junzo Chino, Hye Sook Chon, Christina Chu, Marta Ann Crispens, Shari Damast, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Robert Giuntoli II, Ernest Han, Jordan Holmes, Brooke E. Howitt, Jayanthi Lea, Andrea Mariani, David Mutch, Christa Nagel, Larissa Nekhlyudov, Mirna Podoll, Ritu Salani, John Schorge, Jean Siedel, Rachel Sisodia, Pamela Soliman, Stefanie Ueda, Renata Urban, Stephanie L. Wethington, Emily Wyse, Kristine Zanotti, Nicole R. McMillian, and Shaili Aggarwal
Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (also known as endometrial cancer, or more broadly as uterine cancer or carcinoma of the uterine corpus) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in the United States. It is estimated that 65,950 new uterine cancer cases will have occurred in 2022, with 12,550 deaths resulting from the disease. Endometrial carcinoma includes pure endometrioid cancer and carcinomas with high-risk endometrial histology (including uterine serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma [also known as malignant mixed Müllerian tumor], and undifferentiated/dedifferentiated carcinoma). Stromal or mesenchymal sarcomas are uncommon subtypes accounting for approximately 3% of all uterine cancers. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Uterine Neoplasms focuses on the diagnosis, staging, and management of pure endometrioid carcinoma. The complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for Uterine Neoplasms is available online at NCCN.org.
Dirk Mehrens, Kristina K.M. Kramer, Lena M. Unterrainer, Leonie Beyer, Peter Bartenstein, Matthias F. Froelich, Fabian Tollens, Jens Ricke, Johannes Rübenthaler, Nina-Sophie Schmidt-Hegemann, Annika Herlemann, Marcus Unterrainer, and Wolfgang G. Kunz
Background: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer poses a therapeutic challenge with poor prognosis. The VISION trial showed prolonged progression-free and overall survival in patients treated with lutetium Lu 177 vipivotide tetraxetan (177Lu-PSMA-617) radioligand therapy compared with using the standard of care (SoC) alone. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of 177Lu-PSMA-617 treatment compared with SoC therapy. Methods: A partitioned survival model was developed using data from the VISION trial, which included overall and progression-free survival and treatment regimens for 177Lu-PSMA-617 and SoC. Treatment costs, utilities for health states, and adverse events were derived from public databases and the literature. Because 177Lu-PSMA-617 was only recently approved, costs for treatment were extrapolated from 177Lu-DOTATATE. Outcome measurements included the incremental cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness ratio. The analysis was performed in a US setting from a healthcare system perspective over the lifetime horizon of 60 months. The willingness-to-pay threshold was set to $50,000, $100,000, and $200,000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The 177Lu-PSMA-617 group was estimated to gain 0.42 incremental QALYs. Treatment using 177Lu-PSMA-617 led to an increase in costs compared with SoC ($169,110 vs $85,398). The incremental cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness ratio for 177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy was $200,708/QALYs. Sensitivity analysis showed robustness of the model regarding various parameters, which remained cost-effective at all lower and upper parameter bounds. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations, therapy using 177Lu-PSMA-617 was determined as the cost-effective strategy in 37.14% of all iterations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $200,000/QALYs. Conclusions: Treatment using 177Lu-PSMA-617 was estimated to add a notable clinical benefit over SoC alone. Based on the model results, radioligand therapy represents a treatment strategy for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with cost-effectiveness in certain scenarios.
Luxi Chen, John Davelaar, Srinivas Gaddam, Kambiz Kosari, Nicholas Nissen, George Chaux, Christopher Lee, Eric Vail, Andrew Hendifar, Jun Gong, Karen Reckamp, and Arsen Osipov
Pancreatic metastasis of primary lung adenocarcinoma is a rare occurrence, accounting for <0.3% of all pancreatic malignancies. Given that the prognosis and treatment options for primary pancreatic cancer differ greatly from pancreatic metastases from a primary site, an accurate diagnosis is critical. This report presents a unique case of a 65-year-old man who was admitted with significant unintentional weight loss, fatigue, abdominal pain, and jaundice, and found to have a pancreatic mass initially thought to be primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma and subsequently diagnosed as an EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma with metastases to the pancreas via early application of next-generation sequencing (NGS). The use of NGS early in the patient’s clinical course not only changed the treatment strategy but also drastically altered the prognosis. Although metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis and survival rate, treatment of EGFR-mutated non–small cell lung cancer with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors is associated with high response rates. Importantly, our case demonstrates that timely application of NGS very early in the disease course is paramount to the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of solid malignancies.