Arjun N. Patel and Jeffrey M. Sutton
Amy A. Kirkham and Katarzyna J. Jerzak
Background: The 49% decrease in breast cancer mortality since 1986 has increased the number of breast cancer survivors requiring survivorship care. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the 2022 prevalence of breast cancer survivors diagnosed within the past 15 years among Canadian women. Methods: We extracted the projected female breast cancer cases from 2007 to 2021 and rates of net survival (competing noncancer causes of death removed) from the Canadian Cancer Society’s statistical reports. Overall survival was extracted from published Ontario data. Using known survival rates for 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, we interpolated remaining years and applied the corresponding net and overall survival rates to the projected cases for each year from 2007 to 2021 to determine survivors in 2022. Prevalence for predefined age groups was also calculated. As an example of excess healthcare costs attributable to breast cancer, we calculated the excess costs of heart failure hospitalizations. Results: From 2007 to 2021, there were 370,756 breast cancer cases. Using net survival, 318,429 (85.9%) of these patients were projected to survive breast cancer by 2022, a prevalence of 2.1% of Canadian women. Using overall survival, prevalence was 1.8%. Prevalence increased with age group, from 0.01% of those aged 20 to 24 years to 12.7% of those aged ≥90 years, and from 1.0% among the working and/or child-raising (age 20–64 years) to 5.4% among elderly populations (age ≥65 years). Among these survivors, 24.9% of projected heart failure hospitalizations would be in excess of those among matched control subjects, with projected excess costs of $16.5 million CAD. Given the excess healthcare costs, potential for reduced contributions to the workforce, and reduced quality of life associated with long-term impairments and risk of excess non–breast cancer death, enhanced breast cancer survivorship care is warranted. Conclusions: With an overall prevalence of 2% among Canadian women, breast cancer survivors represent an increasing segment of the working-age and elderly populations.
Cameron Czech, Ashley Chen, Katherine P. Morgan, Carlos Zamora, Sherif El-Refai, Norleena Poynter, and Simon Khagi
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant central nervous system neoplasm that remains largely incurable. Limited treatment options currently exist after disease progression on standard-of-care first-line therapy. However, repurposing the use of approved therapies in patients with potentially targetable genomic alterations continues to be an emerging area of interest. This report presents the first description of a patient with isocitrate dehydrogenase wild-type GBM with an underlying RET amplification who demonstrated a near-complete response while receiving therapy with the RET inhibitor selpercatinib. The case highlights the excellent blood-brain barrier penetration of selpercatinib, as well as its potential role in the management of RET-amplified GBM. Larger biomarker-enriched studies are needed to confirm the results of this case report. Given the rare incidence of RET alterations in GBM, findings from this report can help guide and support optimal treatment strategies for patients with RET-altered GBM.
Tammy T. Hshieh, Clark DuMontier, Timothy Jaung, Nupur E. Bahl, Chelsea E. Hawley, Lee Mozessohn, Richard M. Stone, Robert J. Soiffer, Jane A. Driver, and Gregory A. Abel
Background: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are common among older adults with blood cancers, but their association with frailty and how to manage them optimally remain unclear. Patients and Methods: From 2015 to 2019, patients aged ≥75 years presenting for initial oncology consult underwent screening geriatric assessment. Patients were determined to be robust, prefrail, or frail via deficit accumulation and phenotypic approaches. We quantified each patient’s total number of medications and PIMs using the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS) and a scale we generated using the NCCN Medications of Concern called the Geriatric Oncology Potentially Inappropriate Medications (GO-PIM) scale. We assessed cross-sectional associations of PIMs with frailty in multivariable regression models adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidity. Results: Of 785 patients assessed, 603 (77%) were taking ≥5 medications and 421 (54%) were taking ≥8 medications; 201 (25%) were taking at least 1 PIM based on the ARS and 343 (44%) at least 1 PIM based on the GO-PIM scale. Among the 468 (60%) patients on active cancer treatment, taking ≥8 medications was associated with frailty (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.82; 95% CI, 1.92–4.17). With each additional medication, the odds of being prefrail or frail increased 8% (aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04–1.12). With each 1-point increase on the ARS, the odds of being prefrail or frail increased 19% (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03–1.39); with each additional PIM based on the GO-PIM scale, the odds increased 65% (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.34–2.04). Conclusions: Polypharmacy and PIMs are prevalent among older patients with blood cancers; taking ≥8 medications is strongly associated with frailty. These data suggest careful medication reconciliation for this population may be helpful, and deprescribing when possible is high-yield, especially for PIMs on the GO-PIM scale.
Xiao Li, Xuan Rao, Ming-Jing Wei, Wei-Guo Lu, Xing Xie, and Xin-Yu Wang
Background: We sought to identify the absolute risk of specific HPV genotype for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/3+) and to develop a risk-based management strategy in an HPV-positive population. Methods: HPV genotyping was performed based on a 3-year cervical cancer screening cohort. The study endpoints were histologic CIN2+/3+. The prevalence of specific HPV genotype was calculated by minimum, any type, and hierarchical attribution estimate. The absolute CIN2+/3+ risks of specific HPV genotype were estimated and risk-based management strategy was established according to the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guideline. The efficacy of conventional and risk-based management strategies for non-16/18 HPVs were further evaluated. Results: Eligible data were available for 8,370 women with a median age of 48 years (interquartile range, 42–53 years). At baseline, there were 1,062 women with HPV-positive disease, including 424 with multiple and 639 with single infections. CIN2+/3+ cases represented 113/74, 23/8, 20/7, and 52/31 patients at baseline and first-, second-, and third-year visits, respectively. Women with multiple HPV infections at baseline were more prone to persistent infection than those with single infection (P<.0001). HPV16 and HPV52 were the top 2 ranking among baseline and 3-year cumulative CIN2+/3+ cases. Based on the absolute risk of specific HPV genotype combined with cytology for CIN2+/3+, all non-16/18 HPVs were divided into 4 risk-stratified groups. Compared with conventional strategy, the risk-based strategy had higher specificity (P=.0000) and positive predictive value (P=.0322) to detect CIN3+ and needed fewer colposcopies for each CIN3+ case. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, we propose a new extended HPV genotyping protocol, which would provide a better strategy for achieving precise risk-based management of HPV-positive populations.