Goals of first-line therapy in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) should focus on balancing risk versus benefit to the individual while increasing efficacy and decreasing toxicity. Overall, the ABVD regimen is well tolerated but slightly less effective, with a better safety profile compared with escalated BEACOPP. BV-AVD is somewhere in between ABVD and escalated BEACOPP on the cure/morbidity scale. Interim PET is predictive, but new prognostic biomarkers are emerging that may better identify patients at high risk for treatment failure. In patients with interim PET-negative cHL, de-escalating therapy does not impact overall survival along 1) with no proven role for radiotherapy. cHL is largely a disease of young people, and the choice of treatment should always take into account the potential for both short- and long-term toxicity with the goal of optimizing survivorship.
Presenter: Ranjana H. Advani
Presenter: Jennifer R. Brown
The choice of therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (newly diagnosed as well as relapsed/refractory disease) depends on the disease (presence or absence of del(17p) or TP53 mutation) and patient characteristics (age, comorbidities, functional status and patient preference). Many patients can choose between continuous treatment with a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor or time-limited therapy with venetoclax/obinutuzumab. For patients with 17p deletions, the data support the use of continuous treatment with a BTK inhibitor, although these patients should also be referred to clinical trials evaluating novel combination therapy options with minimal residual disease monitoring. The choice of therapy for relapsed disease also depends on prior therapy and duration of response to prior therapy in addition to the disease and patient characteristics (as mentioned earlier). BTK inhibitor– or venetoclax-based regimens are recommended for patients experiencing relapse following chemoimmunotherapy. In the case of disease relapse following BTK inhibitor therapy, prospective data are available only for venetoclax-based regimens, whereas disease relapse (after a period of durable remission) following time-limited therapy with venetoclax-based regimens can be managed through re-treatment with venetoclax or a BTK inhibitor.
Presenter: Ronald S. Go
The histiocytoses, a group of clonal and reactive conditions, arise from monocytic macrophage or dendritic cell lineages. The current NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Histiocytic Neoplasms reflect the most up-to-date, evidence-based data relating to the evaluation and management of this disease. Specifically, the guidelines focus on adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Erdheim-Chester disease, and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Because these disorders are rare, challenges have arisen regarding clinical suspicion, histologic diagnosis, treatment, and molecular subtyping. Future versions of the NCCN Guidelines will address the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients, as well as malignant histiocytosis.
Kevin O’Brien, Rahul Dave, Skand Shekhar, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Leora E. Comis, Beth I. Solomon, Marcus Chen, William A. Gahl, Edmond FitzGibbon, Bernadette R. Gochuico, and Juvianee I. Estrada-Veras
Adult-onset histiocytoses (AOH), primarily Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD), and adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis (ALCH), are a group of related histiocytic neoplastic disorders featuring multisystemic manifestations. The disorders are largely incurable, and are essentially chronic neoplastic diseases with a variable prognosis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent debilitating and even life-threatening complications. Survivorship issues abound in AOH, due to their multisystemic manifestations and the sometimes recalcitrant chronic inflammation, which can lead to other debilitating complications such as fatigue, weakness, and pain. Because these disorders are rare, few healthcare professionals are proficient in their management; therefore the aim of these guidelines is to offer guidance on how to manage patients, and how to create survivorship care plans through the efforts of an interdisciplinary team.
The Cancer Center Cessation Initiative Sustainability Working Group
The NCI’s Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) has a specific objective of helping cancer centers develop and implement sustainable programs to routinely address tobacco cessation with patients. Sustaining tobacco treatment programs requires the maintenance of (1) core program components, (2) ongoing implementation strategies, and (3) program outcomes evaluation. NCI funding of C3I included a commitment of resources toward sustainability. This article presents case studies to illustrate key strategies in developing sustainability capacity across 4 C3I-funded sites. Case studies are organized according to the domains of sustainability capacity defined in the Clinical Sustainability Assessment Tool (CSAT). We also describe the C3I Sustainability Working Group agenda to make scientific and practical contributions in 3 areas: (1) demonstrating the value of tobacco use treatment in cancer care, (2) identifying implementation strategies to support sustainability, and (3) providing evidence to inform policy changes that support the prioritization and financing of tobacco use treatment. By advancing this agenda, the Sustainability Working Group can play an active role in advancing and disseminating knowledge for tobacco treatment program sustainability to assist cancer care organizations in addressing tobacco use by patients with cancer within and beyond C3I.
The Cancer Center Cessation Initiative Telehealth Working Group
The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated a rapid transformation in healthcare delivery. Ambulatory care abruptly shifted from in-person to telehealth visits with providers using digital video and audio tools to reach patients at home. Advantages to telehealth care include enhanced patient convenience and provider efficiencies, but financial, geographic, privacy, and access barriers to telehealth also exist. These are disproportionately greater for older adults and for those in rural areas, low-income communities, and communities of color, threatening to worsen preexisting disparities in tobacco use and health. Pandemic-associated regulatory changes regarding privacy and billing allowed many Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) programs in NCI-designated Cancer Centers to start or expand video-based telehealth care. Using 3 C3I programs as examples, we describe the methods used to shift to telehealth delivery. Although telephone-delivered treatment was already a core tobacco treatment modality with a robust evidence base, little research has yet compared the effectiveness of tobacco cessation treatment delivery by video versus phone or in-person modalities. Video-delivery has shown greater medication adherence, higher patient satisfaction, and better retention in care than phone-based delivery, and may improve cessation outcomes. We outline key questions for further investigation to advance telehealth for tobacco cessation treatment in cancer care.
Presenter: Thomas M. Habermann
Several important updates have emerged in the management of early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Three trials resulted in the approval of rituximab + cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone (R-CHOP) for use in these patients internationally. Furthermore, studies have been initiated to determine whether 4 or 6 cycles of this regimen should be administered without radiation therapy (RT). Six cycles of R-CHOP plus central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis and prophylactic testicular RT are recommended for patients with extranodal disease occupying the testicles. Although controversial, there is a reasonable consensus in the literature to consider 6 cycles of R-CHOP plus involved-site RT and CNS prophylaxis for patients with extranodal disease of the breast. Patients with primary bone and gastric extranodal disease do not seem to derive a significant survival benefit from RT. Molecular subtype evaluations may change treatment approaches.
Presenter: Alice S. Mims
For patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are candidates for intensive induction regimens, all therapies include anthracycline- and cytarabine-based backbones. Core-binding factor AML is typically treated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin and 7 + 3 chemotherapy. Patients with FLT3-mutated (ITD or TKD) disease should have midostaurin + 7 + 3 and consolidation, and those with secondary or therapy-related AML should be considered for CPX-351. For patients ineligible for intensive induction regimens, venetoclax has changed the game and should be used in combination with hypomethylating agents or cytarabine. Glasdegib is also approved in combination with low-dose cytarabine. Patients with IDH1/2-mutated disease can be treated with ivosidenib and enasidenib, respectively. Although enasidenib has yet to secure its spot in the up-front setting, data support its use in newly diagnosed AML. An ongoing question in the field concerns how to treat patients with TP53-mutated AML, because most patients do not respond well to currently available therapies and continue to have poor overall outcomes.
Derek J. Erstad, Mariela Blum, Jeannelyn S. Estrella, Prajnan Das, Bruce D. Minsky, Jaffer A. Ajani, Paul F. Mansfield, Naruhiko Ikoma, and Brian D. Badgwell
Background: The optimal number of examined lymph nodes (ELNs) and the positive lymph node ratio (LNR) for potentially curable gastric cancer are not established. We sought to determine clinical benchmarks for these values using a large national database. Methods: Demographic, clinicopathologic, and treatment-related data from patients treated using an R0, curative-intent gastrectomy registered in the National Cancer Database during 2004 to 2016 were evaluated. Patients with node-positive (pTxN+M0) disease were considered for analysis. Results: A total of 22,018 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. Mean age at diagnosis was 65.6 years, 66% were male, 68% were White, 33% of tumors were located near the gastroesophageal junction, and 29% of patients had undergone preoperative therapy. Most primary tumors (62%) were category pT3–4, 67% had a poor or anaplastic grade, and 19% had signet features. Clinical nodal staging was inaccurate compared with staging at final pathology. The mean [SD] number of nodes examined was 19 . On multivariable analysis, the pN category, ELNs, and LNR were independently associated with survival (all P<.0001). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, an optimal ELN threshold of ≥30 was established for patients with pN3b disease and was applied to the entire cohort. Node positivity and LNR had minimal change beyond 30 examined nodes. Stage-specific LNR thresholds calculated by ROC analysis were 11% for pN1, 28% for pN2, 58% for pN3a, 64% for pN3b, 30% for total combined. By using an ELN threshold of ≥30, prognostically advantageous stage-specific LNR values could be determined for 96% of evaluated patients. Conclusions: Using a large national cancer registry, we determined that an ELN threshold of ≥30 allowed for prognostically advantageous LNRs to be achieved in 96% of patients. Therefore, ≥30 examined nodes should be considered a clinical benchmark for practice in the United States.