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Tammy T. Hshieh, Clark DuMontier, Timothy Jaung, Nupur E. Bahl, Chelsea E. Hawley, Lee Mozessohn, Richard M. Stone, Robert J. Soiffer, Jane A. Driver, and Gregory A. Abel

Background: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are common among older adults with blood cancers, but their association with frailty and how to manage them optimally remain unclear. Patients and Methods: From 2015 to 2019, patients aged ≥75 years presenting for initial oncology consult underwent screening geriatric assessment. Patients were determined to be robust, prefrail, or frail via deficit accumulation and phenotypic approaches. We quantified each patient’s total number of medications and PIMs using the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS) and a scale we generated using the NCCN Medications of Concern called the Geriatric Oncology Potentially Inappropriate Medications (GO-PIM) scale. We assessed cross-sectional associations of PIMs with frailty in multivariable regression models adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidity. Results: Of 785 patients assessed, 603 (77%) were taking ≥5 medications and 421 (54%) were taking ≥8 medications; 201 (25%) were taking at least 1 PIM based on the ARS and 343 (44%) at least 1 PIM based on the GO-PIM scale. Among the 468 (60%) patients on active cancer treatment, taking ≥8 medications was associated with frailty (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.82; 95% CI, 1.92–4.17). With each additional medication, the odds of being prefrail or frail increased 8% (aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04–1.12). With each 1-point increase on the ARS, the odds of being prefrail or frail increased 19% (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03–1.39); with each additional PIM based on the GO-PIM scale, the odds increased 65% (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.34–2.04). Conclusions: Polypharmacy and PIMs are prevalent among older patients with blood cancers; taking ≥8 medications is strongly associated with frailty. These data suggest careful medication reconciliation for this population may be helpful, and deprescribing when possible is high-yield, especially for PIMs on the GO-PIM scale.

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Xiao Li, Xuan Rao, Ming-Jing Wei, Wei-Guo Lu, Xing Xie, and Xin-Yu Wang

Background: We sought to identify the absolute risk of specific HPV genotype for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/3+) and to develop a risk-based management strategy in an HPV-positive population. Methods: HPV genotyping was performed based on a 3-year cervical cancer screening cohort. The study endpoints were histologic CIN2+/3+. The prevalence of specific HPV genotype was calculated by minimum, any type, and hierarchical attribution estimate. The absolute CIN2+/3+ risks of specific HPV genotype were estimated and risk-based management strategy was established according to the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guideline. The efficacy of conventional and risk-based management strategies for non-16/18 HPVs were further evaluated. Results: Eligible data were available for 8,370 women with a median age of 48 years (interquartile range, 42–53 years). At baseline, there were 1,062 women with HPV-positive disease, including 424 with multiple and 639 with single infections. CIN2+/3+ cases represented 113/74, 23/8, 20/7, and 52/31 patients at baseline and first-, second-, and third-year visits, respectively. Women with multiple HPV infections at baseline were more prone to persistent infection than those with single infection (P<.0001). HPV16 and HPV52 were the top 2 ranking among baseline and 3-year cumulative CIN2+/3+ cases. Based on the absolute risk of specific HPV genotype combined with cytology for CIN2+/3+, all non-16/18 HPVs were divided into 4 risk-stratified groups. Compared with conventional strategy, the risk-based strategy had higher specificity (P=.0000) and positive predictive value (P=.0322) to detect CIN3+ and needed fewer colposcopies for each CIN3+ case. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, we propose a new extended HPV genotyping protocol, which would provide a better strategy for achieving precise risk-based management of HPV-positive populations.

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Louisa Liu, Yanghee Woo, Massimo D’Apuzzo, Laleh Melstrom, Mustafa Raoof, Yu Liang, Michelle Afkhami, Stanley R. Hamilton, and Joseph Chao

Despite the use of first-line therapies like fluoropyrimidine and platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy, gastric cancer (GC) continues to carry a poor prognosis. Recent subgroup analyses of first-line phase III trials have demonstrated that patients with microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) metastatic GC derive significant improvement in survival rates when immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are combined with chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone. However, it remains to be seen whether the success of ICIs in the metastatic setting can be translated into earlier stages of GC with resectable disease. We report 6 cases of locally advanced, nonmetastatic MSI-H GC that all demonstrated favorable response following treatment with pembrolizumab in addition to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. With the exception of immune-related colitis in one patient, pembrolizumab was well-tolerated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported US case series of patients treated with an ICI in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced, nonmetastatic, resectable or unresectable MSI-H GC.

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Rebecca A. Vanderwall, Alison Schwartz, Lindsay Kipnis, Catherine M. Skefos, Samantha M. Stokes, Nizar Bhulani, Michelle Weitz, Rebecca Gelman, Judy E. Garber, and Huma Q. Rana

Background: Cancer family history is a vital part of cancer genetic counseling (GC) and genetic testing (GT), but increasing indications for germline cancer GT necessitate less labor-intensive models of collection. We evaluated the impact of GC on patient pedigrees generated by an electronic cancer family history questionnaire (eCFHQ). Methods: An Institutional Review Board–approved review of pedigrees collected through an eCFHQ was conducted. Paired pre-GC and post-GC pedigrees (n=1,113 each group) were analyzed independently by cancer genetic counselors for changes in patient-reported clinical history and to determine whether the pedigrees met NCCN GT criteria. Discrepancy in meeting NCCN GT criteria between pre-GC and post-GC pedigrees was the outcome variable of logistic regressions, with patient and family history characteristics as covariates. Results: Overall, 780 (70%) patients had cancer (affected), 869 (78%) were female, and the median age was 57 years (interquartile range, 45–66 years; range, 21–91 years). Of the 1,113 pairs of pre-GC and post-GC pedigrees analyzed, 85 (8%) were blank, 933 (84%) were not discrepant, and 95 (9%) were discrepant in meeting any NCCN GT criteria. Of the discrepant pedigrees, n=79 (83%) became eligible for testing by at least one of the NCCN GT criteria after GC. Patients with discrepant pedigrees were more likely to report no or unknown history of GT (odds ratio [OR], 4.54; 95% CI, 1.66–18.70; P=.01, and OR, 18.47; 95% CI, 5.04–88.73; P<.0001, respectively) and belonged to racially and/or ethnically underrepresented groups (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08–3.25; P=.02). Conclusions: For most patients (84%), a standalone eCFHQ was sufficient to determine whether NCCN GT criteria were met. More research is needed on the performance of the eCFHQ in diverse patient populations.

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Margaret Tempero

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Bladder Cancer, Version 2.2022

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Thomas W. Flaig, Philippe E. Spiess, Michael Abern, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Kevin Chan, Sam Chang, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Harry W. Herr, Jean Hoffman-Censits, Amar Kishan, Shilajit Kundu, Subodh M. Lele, Ronac Mamtani, Vitaly Margulis, Omar Y. Mian, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Lance C. Pagliaro, Mamta Parikh, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Mark A. Preston, Kyle Richards, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Matthew Tollefson, Jonathan Tward, Jonathan L. Wright, Mary A. Dwyer, Carly J. Cassara, and Lisa A. Gurski

The NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer provide recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of patients with bladder cancer and other urinary tract cancers (upper tract tumors, urothelial carcinoma of the prostate, primary carcinoma of the urethra). These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel discussion behind recent important updates to the guidelines regarding the treatment of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, including how to treat in the event of a bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) shortage; new roles for immune checkpoint inhibitors in non–muscle invasive, muscle-invasive, and metastatic bladder cancer; and the addition of antibody–drug conjugates for metastatic bladder cancer.

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Bharathi Muthusamy, Pradnya D. Patil, and Nathan A. Pennell

Despite remarkable treatment advancements in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recurrence rates for those with resectable, early-stage disease remains high. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies are 2 promising treatment modalities that may improve survival outcomes for patients with resected NSCLC when moved from the advanced stage to the curable setting. There are many clinical studies that have evaluated or are currently evaluating immunotherapy or targeted therapy in the perioperative setting, and recent trials such as CheckMate 816, ADAURA, and IMpower010 have led to new approvals and demonstrated the promise of this approach. This review discusses recent and ongoing neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapy trials in NSCLC, and where the field may be going in the near future.

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Caitlin A. Hester, Giampaolo Perri, Laura R. Prakash, Jessica E. Maxwell, Naruhiko Ikoma, Michael P. Kim, Ching-Wei D. Tzeng, Brandon Smaglo, Robert Wolff, Milind Javle, Michael J. Overman, Jeffrey E. Lee, and Matthew H.G. Katz

Background: This study aimed to determine the clinical relevance of putative radiographic and serologic metrics of chemotherapy response in patients with localized pancreatic cancer (LPC) who do not undergo pancreatectomy. Studies evaluating the response of LPC to systemic chemotherapy have focused on histopathologic analyses of resected specimens, but such specimens are not available for patients who do not undergo resection. We previously showed that changes in tumor volume and CA 19-9 levels provide a clinical readout of histopathologic response to preoperative therapy. Methods: Our institutional database was searched for patients with LPC who were treated with first-line chemotherapy between January 2010 and December 2017 and did not undergo pancreatectomy. Radiographic response was measured using RECIST 1.1 and tumor volume. The volume of the primary tumor was compared between pretreatment and posttreatment images. The percentage change in tumor volume (%Δvol) was calculated as a percentage of the pretreatment volume. Serologic response was measured by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment CA 19-9 levels. We established 3 response groups by combining these metrics: (1) best responders with a decline in %Δvol in the top quartile and in CA 19-9, (2) nonresponders with an increase in %Δvol and in CA 19-9, and (3) other patients. Results: This study included 329 patients. Individually, %Δvol and change in CA 19-9 were associated with overall survival (OS) (P≤.1), but RECIST 1.1 was not. In all, 73 patients (22%) were best responders, 42 (13%) were nonresponders, and there were 214 (65%) others. Best responders lived significantly longer than nonresponders and others (median OS, 24 vs 12 vs 17 months, respectively; P<.01). A multivariable model adjusting for type of chemotherapy regimen, number of chemotherapy doses, and receipt of radiotherapy showed that best responders had longer OS than did the other cohorts (hazard ratio [HR], 0.35; 95% CI, 0.21–0.58 for best responders, and HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37–0.83 for others). Conclusions: Changes in tumor volume and serum levels of CA 19-9—but not RECIST 1.1—represent reliable metrics of response to systemic chemotherapy. They can be used to counsel patients and families on survival expectations even if pancreatectomy is not performed.