Background: Germline genetic testing (GT) for BRCA1/2 is instrumental in identifying patients with breast and ovarian cancers who are eligible for PARP inhibitors (PARPi). Little is known about recent trends and determinants of GT since PARPi were approved for these patients. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients in a nationwide electronic health record (EHR)–derived oncology-specific database with the following GT eligibility criteria: breast cancer diagnosed at age ≤45 years, triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed at age ≤60 years, male breast cancer, or ovarian cancer. GT within 1 year of diagnosis was assessed and stratified by tumor type. Multivariable log-binomial regressions estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs) of GT by patient and tumor characteristics. Results: Among 2,982 eligible patients with breast cancer, 56.4% underwent GT between January 2011 and March 2020, with a significant increase in GT over time (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05–1.11, for each year), independent of when PARPi were approved for BRCA1/2-mutated metastatic breast cancer in January 2018. In multivariable analyses, older age (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.96, for every 5 years) and Medicare coverage (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49–0.96 vs commercial insurance) were associated with less GT. Among 5,563 eligible patients with ovarian cancer, 35.4% underwent GT between January 2011 and March 2020, with a significant increase in GT over time (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07–1.14, for each year) that accelerated after approval of PARPi for BRCA1/2-mutated, chemotherapy-refractory ovarian cancer in December 2014 (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.19–1.70). Older age (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93–0.97, for every 5 years) and Black or African American race (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65–0.98 vs White race) were associated with less GT. Conclusions: GT remains underutilized nationwide among patients with breast and ovarian cancers. Although GT has increased over time, significant disparities by age, race, and insurance status persist. Additional work is needed to design, implement, and evaluate strategies to ensure that all eligible patients receive GT.
Kelsey S. Lau-Min, Anne Marie McCarthy, Katherine L. Nathanson, and Susan M. Domchek
NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer, Version 2.2023
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
David S. Ettinger, Douglas E. Wood, Dara L. Aisner, Wallace Akerley, Jessica R. Bauman, Ankit Bharat, Debora S. Bruno, Joe Y. Chang, Lucian R. Chirieac, Malcolm DeCamp, Thomas J. Dilling, Jonathan Dowell, Gregory A. Durm, Scott Gettinger, Travis E. Grotz, Matthew A. Gubens, Aparna Hegde, Rudy P. Lackner, Michael Lanuti, Jules Lin, Billy W. Loo Jr, Christine M. Lovly, Fabien Maldonado, Erminia Massarelli, Daniel Morgensztern, Thomas Ng, Gregory A. Otterson, Sandip P. Patel, Tejas Patil, Patricio M. Polanco, Gregory J. Riely, Jonathan Riess, Steven E. Schild, Theresa A. Shapiro, Aditi P. Singh, James Stevenson, Alda Tam, Tawee Tanvetyanon, Jane Yanagawa, Stephen C. Yang, Edwin Yau, Kristina M. Gregory, and Miranda Hughes
The NCCN Guidelines for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) provide recommendations for management of disease in patients with NSCLC. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on neoadjuvant and adjuvant (also known as perioperative) systemic therapy options for eligible patients with resectable NSCLC.
Michael G. Cohen, Andrew D. Althouse, Robert M. Arnold, Douglas White, Edward Chu, Margaret Rosenzweig, Kenneth J. Smith, and Yael Schenker
Background: Palliative care specialists are experts in conducting advance care planning (ACP) but are a limited resource. Oncology nurses often have special relationships with their patients and thus may be poised to provide primary palliative care. We sought to determine the impact of a nurse-led primary palliative care intervention on ACP uptake among patients with advanced cancer. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a cluster randomized controlled trial examining the impact of nurse-based primary palliative care. In the parent trial, patients with advanced cancer received either monthly primary palliative care visits with trained nurses within their cancer center or standard care. Nurses in the intervention arm received special training in ACP. ACP uptake was assessed at enrollment and 3 months later evaluating (1) whether an end-of-life conversation (EOLC) occurred with one’s oncologist, and (2) completion of an advance directive (AD). Multivariable logistic regression tested differences in ACP uptake by treatment arm adjusted for age, religious importance, education, time with current oncologist, and performance status. Results: Of 672 patients enrolled, 182/336 (54%) patients in the intervention arm and 196/336 (58%) in the standard care arm lacked an EOLC at baseline and completed the 3-month assessment. Of those, 82/182 (45.1%) patients in the intervention arm and 29/196 (14.8%) in the standard care arm reported having an EOLC at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio, 5.28; 95% CI, 3.10–8.97; P<.001). Similarly, 111/336 (33%) patients in the intervention arm and 105/336 (31%) in the standard care arm lacked an AD at baseline and completed the 3-month assessment. Of those, 48/111 (43.2%) patients in the intervention arm and 19/105 (18.1%) in the standard care arm completed an AD over the study period (adjusted odds ratio, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.89–7.16; P<.001). Conclusions: Nurse-led primary palliative care increased ACP uptake among patients with advanced cancer. Training oncology nurses embedded within community cancer centers to provide primary palliative care may help improve ACP access.
Verity Chadwick, Michaela Kim, Georgia Mills, Catherine Tang, Antoinette Anazodo, Rachel Dear, Rachael Rodgers, Orly Lavee, Samuel Milliken, Georgia McCaughan, John Moore, Barbara Withers, and Nada Hamad
Background: Chemotherapy predisposes people who menstruate to abnormal uterine bleeding that can be life-threatening and may also damage ovaries, resulting in premature menopause. The purpose of this study was to explore the incidence of menstrual history documentation and counseling before, during, and after cancer treatment. Patients and Methods: The medical charts of 137 consecutive females (self-reported) aged 18 to 49 years receiving anticancer treatment at a major tertiary metropolitan hospital in Australia between 2017 and 2020 were reviewed. Data collected included primary diagnosis, stage of cancer, treatment(s) received, rates of remission or progression, documentation of involvement of a specialist gynecologist, reproductive history, menstrual disturbances, menstruation counseling or intervention offered, and diagnosis of early ovarian failure. Results: Only 16.1% of patients had their menstrual history documented at the initial consult, and 49.6% had their menstrual history documented at a subsequent consult with their treating oncologist or hematologist. Most (82.4%) patients with a menstrual history documented experienced menstrual disturbance posttreatment, most commonly amenorrhea (48.0%), followed by menopause or menopause symptoms (20.6%), irregular menstrual bleeding (16.7%), menorrhagia (13.7%), dysmenorrhea (3.9%), and iron deficiency from bleeding (2.9%). Menopause/Menopausal symptoms and iron deficiency were more likely to be treated than other disturbances. Conclusions: Menstruation disturbance is a common side effect of cancer treatment. Menstrual care should be integral to cancer care for people who menstruate, and higher engagement could be achieved through education of medical and allied health staff, information technology systems automating prompts and referral pathways, regular audits to ensure compliance, better alliances between cancer and fertility specialists, and the creation of accessible patient information to promote awareness and facilitate discussion.