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Karen L. Rech and Rong He

Histiocytic neoplasms, including Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), and Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), present a diagnostic challenge due to nonspecific fibroinflammatory infiltrates and a diverse clinical presentation. The pathologist can play a key role in classification of these disorders through multidisciplinary collaboration and correlation of pathologic features with clinical and radiologic findings. The histopathologic differential diagnosis is broad, requiring knowledge of the possible diagnoses at each specific anatomic site, and a careful assessment to exclude other inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. An immunohistochemistry panel including CD163, CD1a, langerin, S100, Factor XIIIa, OCT2, and BRAF V600E can provide definitive diagnosis in LCH and RDD, whereas ECD requires classic clinical features as well as confirmation of an activating MAPK pathway mutation by genetic studies.

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Presenter: Matthew J. Matasar

Despite a growing therapeutic arsenal to treat relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), outcomes remain poor. Only approximately half of patients with this disease are eligible to receive curative autologous stem cell transplant, and of those, only half will be cured. Moreover, for patients who are transplant-ineligible, there are few effective options. Dr. Matthew J. Matasar discussed the current unmet needs in the treatment of patients with R/R DLBCL, treatment strategies in the second- and third-line settings, and emerging therapeutic options.

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Michael A. Cilento, Nicola K. Poplawski, Sellvakumaram Paramasivam, David M. Thomas, and Ganessan Kichenadasse

PARP inhibitors are orally administered antineoplastic agents that affect the homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway, and are approved by the FDA for the treatment of ovarian, breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. This report presents a case of recurrent endometrial carcinoma occurring in a woman with a germline pathogenic PALB2 whole-exon deletion. This uncommon finding in a patient with endometrial carcinoma provided the opportunity to use a management strategy of PARP inhibition with olaparib, resulting in a prolonged response to treatment; however, disease progression eventually occurred. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying resistance to PARP inhibition, and the potential future treatment options in this setting. Current recommendations for risk management of female carriers of PALB2 variants focus on breast and ovarian cancer risk. This case raises the additional question of a potential role for risk-reducing hysterectomy in female carriers of PALB2 variants.

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Ronald S. Go, Eric Jacobsen, Robert Baiocchi, Ilia Buhtoiarov, Erin B. Butler, Patrick K. Campbell, Don W. Coulter, Eli Diamond, Aron Flagg, Aaron M. Goodman, Gaurav Goyal, Dita Gratzinger, Paul C. Hendrie, Meghan Higman, Michael D. Hogarty, Filip Janku, Reem Karmali, David Morgan, Anne C. Raldow, Alexandra Stefanovic, Srinivas K. Tantravahi, Kelly Walkovich, Ling Zhang, Mary Anne Bergman, and Susan D. Darlow

Histiocytic neoplasms are rare hematologic disorders accounting for less than 1% of cancers of the soft tissue and lymph nodes. Clinical presentation and prognosis of these disorders can be highly variable, leading to challenges for diagnosis and optimal management of these patients. Treatment often consists of systemic therapy, and recent studies support use of targeted therapies for patients with these disorders. Observation (“watch and wait”) may be sufficient for select patients with mild disease. These NCCN Guidelines for Histiocytic Neoplasms include recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of adults with the most common histiocytic disorders: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Erdheim-Chester disease, and Rosai-Dorfman disease.

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The Cancer Center Cessation Initiative Implementation Science Working Group

Every patient with cancer deserves access to evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions as part of their routine oncology care. The NCI Cancer Moonshot funded the Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) to help establish and/or expand tobacco treatment programs at 52 NCI-designated Cancer Centers. Although this initiative has broadened the availability of tobacco treatment services across US cancer centers, the reach and utilization of these services remains low among patients. To help address the remaining gap between the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatments for tobacco use in the oncologic context, staff and investigators at C3I sites and the C3I Coordinating Center formed the C3I Implementation Science Working Group. The mission of this working group is to bring together clinicians, scientists, and policymakers who share a common interest in implementation science and treating tobacco use in the oncologic context to collaborate on projects aimed at shrinking the practice gap in this area. Through case study examples, we describe how the C3I Implementation Science Working Group is supporting efforts to identify effective ways to increase the utilization of evidence-based tobacco treatments within cancer treatment settings and promote the broader impact and long-term sustainability of C3I.