Patients with synchronous malignancies can be problematic to diagnose and manage because workup and therapeutic targeting for each individual malignancy must be coordinated carefully. This report presents a patient with concurrent chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) managed with concomitant venetoclax and imatinib. Because imatinib is a moderate cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor, close monitoring is required when using with a substrate of 3A4 such as venetoclax. Although the target dose of venetoclax is 400 mg, it was capped at 100 mg due to the interaction. Despite the interaction and possible enhancement of toxicities, the patient has tolerated therapy well, and both diseases have responded to this novel approach. In addition, because aberrant BCL-2 activity has been implicated in CML, the use of venetoclax may contribute to success in the management of this patient’s CML. This case report represents the safe concomitant use of venetoclax and imatinib in a patient with synchronous CML and CLL.
Eugene R. Przespolewski, Jeffrey Baron, Farshid Kashef, Kai Fu, Sheila N. Jani Sait, Francisco Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, and James Thompson
Sushmita Gordhandas, William A. Zammarrelli III, Eric V. Rios-Doria, Angela K. Green, and Vicky Makker
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy, with worldwide increasing incidence and disease-associated mortality. Although most patients with EC are diagnosed with early-stage disease, systemic treatment options for patients with advanced or recurrent EC have historically been limited. EC-focused clinical trials and the ensuing therapeutic landscape have expanded since The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified 4 distinct EC subgroups associated with differential survival. This endeavor revolutionized our understanding of the genomic characterization of EC as well as molecular drivers of this heterogeneous malignancy, leading to precision oncology approaches to therapeutics and advancement in treatment options. This review describes the current status of and recent advancements in therapeutic options for patients with advanced and recurrent EC. The NCCN Guidelines for Uterine Neoplasms provide detailed recommendations regarding the diagnosis, workup, and management of EC.
Po-Ju Lin, Brian J. Altman, Nikesha J. Gilmore, Kah Poh Loh, Richard F. Dunne, Javier Bautista, Chunkit Fung, Michelle C. Janelsins, Luke J. Peppone, Marianne K. Melnik, Kim O. Gococo, Michael J. Messino, and Karen M. Mustian
Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) negatively affects survivors’ walking, engagement in physical activity (PA), and quality of life (QoL). Yoga is an effective therapy for treating CRF; however, evidence from large clinical trials regarding how reducing CRF through yoga influences CRF’s interference with survivors’ walking, engagement in PA, and QoL is not available. We examined the effects of yoga and the mediational influence of CRF on CRF’s interference with walking, PA, and QoL among cancer survivors in a multicenter phase III randomized controlled trial. Patients and Methods: Cancer survivors (n=410) with insomnia 2 to 24 months posttreatment were randomized to a 4-week yoga intervention—Yoga for Cancer Survivors (YOCAS)—or standard care. A symptom inventory was used to assess how much CRF interfered with survivors’ walking, PA, and QoL. The Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form was used to assess CRF. Two-tailed t tests and analyses of covariance were used to examine within-group and between-group differences. Path analysis was used to evaluate mediational relationships between CRF and changes in CRF’s interference with walking, PA, and QoL among survivors. Results: Compared with standard care controls, YOCAS participants reported significant improvements in CRF’s interference with walking, PA, and QoL at postintervention (all effect size = −0.33; all P≤.05). Improvements in CRF resulting from yoga accounted for significant proportions of the improvements in walking (44%), PA (53%), and QoL (45%; all P≤.05). Conclusions: A significant proportion (44%–53%) of the YOCAS effect on CRF’s interference with walking, PA, and QoL was due to improvements in CRF among cancer survivors. Yoga should be introduced and included as a treatment option for survivors experiencing fatigue. By reducing fatigue, survivors further improve their walking, engagement in PA, and QoL.
Xinhe Mao, Wei He, Keith Humphreys, Mikael Eriksson, Natalie Holowko, Fredrik Strand, Per Hall, and Kamila Czene
Background: We aimed to identify factors associated with false-positive recalls in mammography screening compared with women who were not recalled and those who received true-positive recalls. Methods: We included 29,129 women, aged 40 to 74 years, who participated in the Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA) between 2011 and 2013 with follow-up until the end of 2017. Nonmammographic factors were collected from questionnaires, mammographic factors were generated from mammograms, and genotypes were determined using the OncoArray or an Illumina custom array. By the use of conditional and regular logistic regression models, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk factors and risk models and false-positive recalls. Results: Women with a history of benign breast disease, high breast density, masses, microcalcifications, high Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year risk scores, KARMA 2-year risk scores, and polygenic risk scores were more likely to have mammography recalls, including both false-positive and true-positive recalls. Further analyses restricted to women who were recalled found that women with a history of benign breast disease and dense breasts had a similar risk of having false-positive and true-positive recalls, whereas women with masses, microcalcifications, high Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year risk scores, KARMA 2-year risk scores, and polygenic risk scores were more likely to have true-positive recalls than false-positive recalls. Conclusions: We found that risk factors associated with false-positive recalls were also likely, or even more likely, to be associated with true-positive recalls in mammography screening.
Amy Jamieson and Jessica N. McAlpine
Molecular classification provides an objective, reproducible framework for categorization of endometrial cancers (ECs), informing prognosis and selection of therapy. Currently, the uptake of molecular classification, integration in to EC management algorithms, and enrollment in molecular subtype-specific clinical trials lags behind what it could be. Access to molecular testing is not uniform, and subsequent management (surgical, adjuvant therapy) is unacceptably variable. We are in the midst of a critical landscape change in this disease site, with increasing emphasis on the integration of molecular features in EC care that can potentially improve standard of care globally. This article summarizes the rationale for molecular classification of ECs, strategies for implementation in low and high resource settings, and actionable opportunities based on this information.
NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Version 3.2022
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
Ayman Saad, Alison Loren, Javier Bolaños-Meade, George Chen, Daniel Couriel, Antonio Di Stasi, Areej El-Jawahri, Hany Elmariah, Sherif Farag, Krishna Gundabolu, Jonathan Gutman, Vincent Ho, Rasmus Hoeg, Mitchell Horwitz, Joe Hsu, Adetola Kassim, Mohamed Kharfan Dabaja, John Magenau, Thomas Martin, Marco Mielcarek, Jonathan Moreira, Ryotaro Nakamura, Yago Nieto, Cameron Ninos, Caspian Oliai, Seema Patel, Brion Randolph, Mark Schroeder, Dimitrios Tzachanis, Asya Nina Varshavsky-Yanovsky, Madhuri Vusirikala, Frankie Algieri, and Lenora A. Pluchino
The NCCN Guidelines for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) provide an evidence- and consensus-based approach for the use of autologous and allogeneic HCT in the management of malignant diseases in adult patients. HCT is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with certain types of malignancies; however, recurrent malignancy and transplant-related complications often limit the long-term survival of HCT recipients. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide guidance regarding aspects of HCT, including pretransplant recipient evaluation, hematopoietic cell mobilization, and treatment of graft-versus-host disease—a major complication of allogeneic HCT—to enable the patient and clinician to assess management options in the context of an individual patient’s condition. These NCCN Guidelines Insights provide a summary of the important recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for HCT, including the incorporation of a newly developed section on the Principles of Conditioning for HCT.
Tiffany Li, Hannah C. Timmins, Terry Trinh, David Mizrahi, Michelle Harrison, Lisa G. Horvath, Peter Grimison, Michael Friedlander, Matthew C. Kiernan, Madeleine T. King, Claudia Rutherford, David Goldstein, and Susanna B. Park
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a common complication of cancer treatment that produces functional disability. Increasingly, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used to assess CIPN, providing a broader symptom perspective than clinician-graded scales. Understanding when a reported change in CIPN symptoms meets the threshold for clinical significance is challenging. This study aimed to provide interpretation guidelines for validated CIPN PROMs, and thereby enable estimation of thresholds to identify clinically relevant symptoms. Methods: Patients commencing neurotoxic cancer treatments were assessed at 3 timepoints: baseline, midtreatment, and end-of-treatment. Trajectory of CIPN development was assessed by means of CIPN PROMs, EORTC Quality of Life – Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy questionnaire (QLQ-CIPN20), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group – Neurotoxicity questionnaire (FACT/GOG-NTX). Thresholds were estimated for CIPN PROMs using the NCI CTCAE sensory neuropathy scale as the clinical anchor by midtreatment and end-of-treatment. Patients were assigned to a clinical change group according to CIPN development: either no development; grade 1 neuropathy (minimally important difference [MID]); or grade 2 neuropathy (clinically important difference). Distribution-based estimates (SD, 0.5) were also evaluated as supportive evidence. Results: In total, 406 patients were recruited to the study, of whom 62% (n=199/320) developed CIPN by midtreatment and 80% (n=274/343) by end-of-treatment. Anchor-based MID estimates by midtreatment were 5.06 (95% CI, 4.26–5.86) for the QLQ-CIPN20 and 3.54 (95% CI, 2.87–4.20) for the FACT/GOG-NTX. End-of-treatment MIDs were estimated to be 7.32 (95% CI, 6.23–8.40) for the QLQ-CIPN20 and 4.84 (95% CI, 3.98–5.70) for the FACT/GOG-NTX. Distribution-based MID estimations yielded lower values than anchor-based methods, at 3.73 for the QLQ-CIPN20 and 2.64 for the FACT/GOG-NTX at midtreatment and 5.52 for the QLQ-CIPN20 and 3.64 for the FACT/GOG-NTX at end-of-treatment. Conclusions: Findings from the present series aid meaningful interpretation for commonly used validated CIPN PROMs and provide thresholds that serve as guidance on how to interpret score changes, which will be useful for design and evaluation of clinical trials and clinical practice.