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## Comorbidities, Rather Than Older Age, Are Strongly Associated With Higher Utilization of Healthcare in Colorectal Cancer Survivors

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors generally have a higher healthcare utilization (HCU) than the general population due to cancer burden. However, it is unclear which factors are associated with this increased uptake. Our study aimed to (1) compare CRC-related and non-CRC visits to general practitioners (GPs) and medical specialists (MSs) by comorbidities, and (2) assess whether HCU differs by demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. Methods: We used data from a German population-based cohort of 1,718 survivors of stage I–III CRC diagnosed in 2003 through 2010 who provided information on HCU at 5-year follow-up. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate least-square means of CRC-related and non-CRC HCU according to the Charlson comorbidity index and comorbidity cluster, adjusting for relevant demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics. Results: A higher comorbidity level was associated with more CRC-related MS visits and non-CRC GP visits. In addition to being strongly associated with non-CRC GP visits, comorbidity clusters were associated with CRC-related GP and MS visits, but their association varied by specific cardiometabolic comorbidities. HCU was less dependent on prognostic factors for CRC, such as age and tumor stage, but was strongly associated with disease recurrence, depression, and emotional functioning. Conclusions: Comorbidities, rather than age or tumor stage, were related to HCU, suggesting that CRC survivors use healthcare mainly for reasons other than cancer 5 years postdiagnosis. Improved communication between primary and tertiary healthcare providers could enhance the medical care of cancer survivors with complex health needs and thereby also reduce healthcare costs.

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## Benefit of Postoperative Radiotherapy for Patients With Nonmetastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Population-Based Analysis

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with high recurrence rates and poor prognosis, even after radical surgery. The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ACC has not been well explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adjuvant RT on the survival outcome of patients with ACC. Patients and Methods: All patients with nonmetastatic ACC who underwent complete resection were identified from the SEER database (2004–2016). Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors associated with survival. Results: Of 365 patients with nonmetastatic ACC, 55 (15.1%) received adjuvant RT and the remainder underwent surgery alone. Patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups, but those with a higher disease stage were more likely to receive adjuvant RT. Overall, patients receiving RT seemed to have better survival compared with the non-RT group (3-year OS rate, 63.1% vs 52.8%; P<.062). After adjustment for confounding factors, adjuvant RT was indeed associated with a 48% decreased risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29–0.91; P=.023) for all patients. In addition, adjuvant RT may confer a survival benefit only in patients with a high risk of recurrence (3-year OS rate, 55.1% vs 40.0%; P=.048) rather than in those with low/moderate-risk ACC (P=.559). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adjuvant RT may be associated with improved survival in patients with nonmetastatic ACC who underwent radical surgery, especially those with high risk of recurrence.

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## A Case of Microsatellite Instability–High Colon Cancer in a Young Woman With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

Two major molecular pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis, chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI), are considered to be mutually exclusive. Distinguishing CIN from MSI-high tumors has considerable therapeutic implications, because patients with MSI-high tumors can derive considerable benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors, and tumors that evolved through the CIN pathway do not respond to these agents. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic syndrome that is defined by a mutation in the APC gene and is thought to lead to carcinogenesis through the CIN pathway. Here, we report a case of a young woman with FAP who was treated for medulloblastoma as a child and developed advanced MSI-high colon cancer as a young adult. Her response to second-line immunotherapy enabled resection of her colon cancer, and she is free of disease >10 months after surgery. This case highlights the potential for overlap between the CIN and MSI carcinogenic pathways and associated therapeutic implications.

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## Gender, Productivity, and Philanthropic Fundraising in Academic Oncology

Background: Philanthropic donations are important funding sources in academic oncology but may be vulnerable to implicit or explicit biases toward women. However, the influence of gender on donations has not been assessed quantitatively. Methods: We queried a large academic cancer center’s development database for donations over 10 years to the sundry funds of medical and radiation oncologists. Types of donations and total amounts for medical oncologists and radiation oncologists hired prior to April 1, 2018 (allowing ≥2 years on faculty prior to query), were obtained. We also obtained publicly available data on physician/academic rank, gender, specialty, disease site, and Hirsch-index (h-index), a metric of productivity. Results: We identified 127 physicians: 64% men and 36% women. Median h-index was higher for men (31; range, 1–100) than women (17; range, 3–77; P=.003). Men were also more likely to have spent more time at the institution (median, 15 years; range, 2–43 years) than women (median, 12.5 years; range, 3–22 years; P=.025). Those receiving donations were significantly more likely to be men (70% vs 30%; P=.034). Men received significantly higher median amounts ($259,474; range,$0–$29,507,784) versus women ($37,485; range, $0–$7,483,726; P=.019). On multivariable analysis, only h-index and senior academic rank were associated with donation receipt, and only h-index with donation amount. Conclusions: We found significant gender disparities in receipt of philanthropic donations on unadjusted analyses. However, on multivariable analyses, only productivity and rank were significantly associated with donations, suggesting gender disparities in productivity and promotions may contribute to these differences.

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## Health Literacy in Surgical Oncology Patients: An Observational Study at a Comprehensive Cancer Center

Background: Low health literacy is associated with increased resource use and poorer outcomes in medical and surgical patients with various diseases. This observational study was designed to determine (1) the prevalence of low health literacy among surgical patients with cancer at an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC), and (2) associations between health literacy and clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients receiving surgery (N=218) for gastrointestinal (60%) or genitourinary cancers (22%) or sarcomas (18%) were recruited during their postsurgical hospitalization. Patients self-reported health literacy using the Brief Health Literacy Screening Tool (BRIEF). Clinical data (length of stay [LoS], postacute care needs, and unplanned presentation for care within 30 days) were abstracted from the electronic medical records 90 days after surgery. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between health literacy and clinical outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results: Of 218 participants, 31 (14%) showed low health literacy (BRIEF score ≤12). In regression analyses including 212 patients with complete data, low health literacy significantly predicted LoS (β = −1.82; 95% CI, −3.00 to −0.66; P=.002) and postacute care needs (odds ratio [OR], 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07–0.91). However, health literacy was not significantly associated with unplanned presentation for care in the 30 days after surgery (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.20–1.29). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the prevalence of low health literacy in a surgical cancer population at a high-volume NCI-designated CCC and its association with important clinical outcomes, including hospital LoS and postacute care needs. Universal screening and patient navigation may be 2 approaches to mitigate the impact of low health literacy on postsurgical outcomes.

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## Hitting the Right Spot: Advances in the Treatment of NSCLC With Uncommon EGFR Mutations

An understanding of the biology of uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is evolving. These mutations are important for the selection of targeted therapy and the development of resistance. The advent of genomic profiling has led to guideline-recommended molecular testing to identify patients with NSCLC who carry uncommon EGFR mutations to aid in the selection of appropriate targeted therapy. This article discusses the efficacy and safety of current and emerging targeted therapies for the treatment of uncommon EGFR mutations in NSCLC to aid in developing patient-specific treatment plans.