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Association Between Pretreatment Chest Imaging and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Pneumonitis Among Patients With Lung Cancer

Alexander Wong, Maria Riley, Songzhu Zhao, Jessica Zimmer, Matthew Viveiros, Jing Gennie Wang, Vincent Esguerra, Mingjia Li, Gabrielle Lopez, Kari Kendra, David P. Carbone, Kai He, Asrar Alahmadi, Jacob Kaufman, Regan M. Memmott, Peter G. Shields, Jeremy Brownstein, Karl Haglund, Meng Welliver, Gregory A. Otterson, Carolyn J. Presley, Lai Wei, Dwight H. Owen, and Kevin Ho

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a first-line and perioperative treatment for lung cancer. Pneumonitis is a potentially life-threatening complication of ICI treatment in 2% to 5% of patients; however, risk factors for developing ICI pneumonitis (ICI-p) remain undefined. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with lung cancer who received at least one dose of ICI from 2015 through 2020 at The Ohio State University. Pneumonitis cases were documented by the treating oncologist and retrospectively evaluated for agreement between an oncologist and a pulmonologist. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded and summarized between those with and without pneumonitis for the overall cohort. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses using the Fine-Gray competing risk model were used to examine the associations. Results: A total of 471 patients with lung cancer were included, of which 402 had non–small cell lung cancer and 69 had small cell lung cancer; 39 (8%) patients in the overall cohort developed ICI-p. Preexisting interstitial abnormalities and prior chest radiation were both significantly associated with ICI-p on univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 8.91; 95% CI, 4.69–16.92; P<.001; and HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.50–5.28; P=.001). On multivariable analyses, interstitial abnormalities remained a strong independent risk factor for ICI-p when controlling for chest radiation and type of immunotherapy (HR, 9.77; 95% CI, 5.17–18.46; P<.001). Among patients with ICI-p (n=39), those with severe (grade 3–5) pneumonitis had worse overall survival compared with those with mild (grade 1 or 2) pneumonitis (P=.001). Abnormal pulmonary function test results at both 12 and 18 months prior to ICI initiation were not significantly associated with ICI-p. Conclusions: Preexisting interstitial abnormalities on chest CT and prior chest radiation are independent risk factors that are strongly associated with ICI-p in patients with lung cancer. These findings highlight a potential need for closer observation for ICI-p among patients with these risk factors.

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Associations Between Surrogates’ Decisional Regret Trajectories and Bereavement Outcomes

Fur-Hsing Wen, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Wen-Chi Shen, Ming-Mo Hou, Po-Jung Su, Wen-Chi Chou, Jen-Shi Chen, Wen-Cheng Chang, and Siew Tzuh Tang

Background: Family surrogates experience heterogeneous decisional regret and negative long-lasting postdecision impacts. Cross-sectional findings on the associations between decisional regret and surrogates’ bereavement outcomes are conflicting and cannot illustrate the directional and dynamic evolution of these associations. In this study, we sought to longitudinally examine the associations between 4 previously identified decisional-regret trajectories and bereavement outcomes among family surrogates of terminally ill patients with cancer. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal, observational study included 377 family surrogates. Decisional regret was measured using the 5-item Decision Regret Scale, and 4 decisional regret trajectories were identified: resilient, delayed-recovery, late-emerging, and increasing-prolonged. Associations between bereavement outcomes (depressive symptoms, prolonged grief symptoms, and physical and mental health-related quality of life [HRQoL]) and decisional-regret trajectories were examined simultaneously by multivariate hierarchical linear modeling using the resilient trajectory as a reference. Results: Surrogates in the delayed-recovery, late-emerging, and increasing-prolonged trajectories experienced significantly higher symptoms of prolonged grief (β [95% CI], 1.815 [0.782 to 2.848]; 2.312 [0.834 to 3.790]; and 7.806 [2.681 to 12.931], respectively) and poorer physical HRQoL (−1.615 [−2.844 to −0.386]; −1.634 [−3.226 to −0.042]; and −4.749 [−9.380 to −0.118], respectively) compared with those in the resilient trajectory. Membership in the late-emerging and increasing-prolonged trajectories was associated with higher symptoms of depression (β [95% CI], 2.942 [1.045 to 4.839] and 8.766 [2.864 to 14.668], respectively), whereas only surrogates in the increasing-prolonged decisional-regret trajectory reported significantly worse mental HRQoL (−4.823 [−8.216 to −1.430]) than those in the resilient trajectory. Conclusions: Surrogates who experienced delayed-recovery, unresolved, or late-emerging decisional regret may carry ceaseless doubt, guilt, or self-blame for patient suffering, leading to profound symptoms of prolonged grief, depressive symptoms, and worse HRQoL over their first 2 bereavement years.

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Authors’ Reply to the Letter to the Editor by Nguyen et al

Xudong Ni and Yao Zhu

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Basal Cell Skin Cancer, Version 2.2024, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Chrysalyne D. Schmults, Rachel Blitzblau, Sumaira Z. Aasi, Murad Alam, Arya Amini, Kristin Bibee, Jeremy Bordeaux, Pei-Ling Chen, Carlo M. Contreras, Dominick DiMaio, Jessica M. Donigan, Jeffrey M. Farma, Karthik Ghosh, Kelly Harms, Alan L. Ho, John Nicholas Lukens, Lawrence Mark, Theresa Medina, Kishwer S. Nehal, Paul Nghiem, Kelly Olino, Soo Park, Tejesh Patel, Igor Puzanov, Jason Rich, Aleksandar Sekulic, Ashok R. Shaha, Divya Srivastava, Valencia Thomas, Courtney Tomblinson, Puja Venkat, Yaohui Gloria Xu, Siegrid Yu, Mehran Yusuf, Beth McCullough, and Sara Espinosa

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer in the United States. Due to the high frequency, BCC occurrences are not typically recorded, and annual rates of incidence can only be estimated. Current estimated rates are 2 million Americans affected annually, and this continues to rise. Exposure to radiation, from either sunlight or previous medical therapy, is a key player in BCC development. BCC is not as aggressive as other skin cancers because it is less likely to metastasize. However, surgery and radiation are prevalent treatment options, therefore disfigurement and limitation of function are significant considerations. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) outline an updated risk stratification and treatment options available for BCC.

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Giving Thanks

Margaret Tempero

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Highlights of the NCCN Oncology Research Program

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Letter to the Editor: Disaggregating Asian Prostate Cancer Cohorts Can Help Us Improve Care for All Patients With Prostate Cancer

David-Dan Nguyen, Jethro C.C. Kwong, Alexandre R. Zlotta, and Christopher J.D. Wallis

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Mitigating the Risk of Aberrant Use of Opioids in Patients With Cancer Pain

Marcin Chwistek

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: B-Cell Lymphomas, Version 6.2023

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Andrew D. Zelenetz, Leo I. Gordon, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, Babis Andreadis, Nancy L. Bartlett, L. Elizabeth Budde, Paolo F. Caimi, Julie E. Chang, Beth Christian, Sven DeVos, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Luis E. Fayad, Thomas M. Habermann, Muhammad Saad Hamid, Francisco Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Boyu Hu, Mark S. Kaminski, Yasmin Karimi, Christopher R. Kelsey, Rebecca King, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Megan Lim, Marcus Messmer, Mayur Narkhede, Rachel Rabinovitch, Praveen Ramakrishnan, Erin Reid, Kenneth B. Roberts, Hayder Saeed, Stephen D. Smith, Jakub Svoboda, Lode J. Swinnen, Joseph Tuscano, Julie M. Vose, Mary A. Dwyer, and Hema Sundar

Novel targeted therapies (small molecule inhibitors, antibody–drug conjugates, and CD19-directed therapies) have changed the treatment landscape of relapsed/refractory B-cell lymphomas. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors continue to evolve in the management of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), in both the relapsed/refractory and the frontline setting. Anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapies are now effective and approved treatment options for relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and MCL. Bispecific T-cell engagers represent a novel immunotherapeutic approach for relapsed FL and DLBCL after multiple lines of therapies, including prior CAR T-cell therapy. These NCCN Guideline Insights highlight the significant updates to the NCCN Guidelines for B-Cell Lymphomas for the treatment of FL, DLBCL, and MCL.

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