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Effect of Adapted Physical Activity in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: The APACaP GERCOR Randomized Trial

Cindy Neuzillet, Olivier Bouché, Christophe Tournigand, Benoist Chibaudel, Lucile Bauguion, Leïla Bengrine-Lefevre, Daniel Lopez-Trabada Ataz, May Mabro, Jean-Philippe Metges, Denis Péré-Vergé, Thierry Conroy, Astrid Lièvre, Morgan Andre, Françoise Desseigne, François Goldwasser, Julie Henriques, Amélie Anota, and Pascal Hammel

Background: The impact of adapted physical activity (APA) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (aPDAC) is unknown. This study evaluated whether APA in addition to standard care improved HRQoL in patients who have aPDAC who are receiving first-line chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with locally advanced/metastatic PDAC and an ECOG performance status of 0 to 2 were randomized (1:1) to receive standard care (standard arm) or standard care plus a home-based 16-week APA program (APA arm). The primary objective was the effect of the APA program on 3 dimensions of the EORTC QLQ-C30: global health status, physical function, and fatigue at week 16 (W16), with a one-sided type I error of 0.017 for each dimension. The primary HRQoL analysis was performed in patients with available baseline and W16 scores for the dimensions (ie, the modified intention-to-treat population 1 [mITT1]), and secondary longitudinal HRQoL analyses using the mixed model for repeated measures (MMRM) and time until definitive deterioration (TUDD) methods were performed in the mITT1 population and in patients with baseline and at least one follow-up questionnaire (mITT2 population). A difference of ≥5 points was considered to be clinically relevant. Results: Of 326 included patients, 313 were randomized to the standard (n=157) or APA (n=156) arms. In the mITT1 population (n=172), the mean differences in global health status, physical function, and fatigue at W16 adjusted from baseline were −0.98 (SD, 23.9; P=.39), −2.08 (SD, 21.3; P=.26), and 4.16 (SD, 29.2; P=.17), respectively, showing a non–statistically significant benefit with APA. In the mITT2 population (n=259), APA was associated with statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in 5 and 8 dimensions of the HRQoL in the longitudinal MMRM and TUDD analyses, respectively. Conclusions: APA improved several dimensions of HRQoL in patients with aPDAC receiving first-line chemotherapy and standard care.

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Highlights of the NCCN Oncology Research Program

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Integrating Immune Therapies for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

Lekha Mikkilineni and Surbhi Sidana

Patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) that is refractory to a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD), and an anti-CD38 antibody (triple-class refractory MM) have poor outcomes. Recently, 2 classes of T-cell engaging therapies—CAR T-cell therapy and bispecific T-cell engaging antibodies (BsAbs)—have resulted in unprecedented response rates and survival outcomes in these heavily pretreated patients. The most common targets are BCMA and GPRC5D, with other targets in development. The main classes of adverse effects include cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, infections, and cytopenias, as well as adverse effects unique to specific products. As of September 2023, 2 BCMA-targeting CAR-T cell products, 2 BCMA-targeting BsAbs, and 1 GPRC5D-targeting BsAb, are FDA-approved for standard-of-care use in patients with RRMM who received at least 4 prior lines of therapy, including prior treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, an IMiD, and an anti-CD38 antibody. Earlier-line use is under investigation and has shown promising results. Several other investigational CAR-T constructs and bispecific antibodies are in clinical development. As these therapies become more widely used, including in earlier-line setting, efforts to understand optimal sequencing and mitigate toxicities remain critical.

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JAK2 R683S Mutation Resulting in Dual Diagnoses of Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia and Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Overlap Syndrome

Nathan M. Krah, Laura Miotke, Peng Li, Jay L. Patel, Anneli R. Bowen, Anthony D. Pomicter, and Ami B. Patel

A 66-year-old male presented with hypereosinophilia, thrombocytosis, extensive thrombosis refractory to direct oral anticoagulant therapy, and evidence of end-organ damage, including rash, splenic infarcts, and pulmonary infiltrates. Bone marrow biopsy revealed myeloid malignancy consistent with both chronic eosinophilic leukemia and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) with SF3B1 mutation and thrombocytosis. Next-generation sequencing of the patient’s eosinophils and neutrophil compartments revealed pathologic variants in EZH2 and SF3B1 in addition to a noncanonical JAK2 R683S mutation that has not been previously described in myeloproliferative disorders or other chronic myeloid neoplasms. These mutations were not present in the patient’s lymphoid cell fraction, suggesting that the hematopoietic malignancy arose in a myeloid-committed progenitor cell. Based on this case and previous work from our group, we propose that noncanonical JAK2 mutations may permit signal transduction that biases toward eosinophilic differentiation in chronic myeloid neoplasms. Although the patient’s blood counts initially responded to ruxolitinib and hydroxyurea, the response was not durable. Early referral for allogenic bone marrow transplant appears necessary to prevent long-term complications and disease progression in myeloid neoplasms with clonal hypereosinophilia driven by noncanonical JAK2 mutations.

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Letter to Santa

Margaret Tempero

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Multiple Myeloma, Version 2.2024, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Shaji K. Kumar, Natalie S. Callander, Kehinde Adekola, Larry D. Anderson Jr, Muhamed Baljevic, Rachid Baz, Erica Campagnaro, Jorge J. Castillo, Caitlin Costello, Christopher D’Angelo, Srinivas Devarakonda, Noura Elsedawy, Alfred Garfall, Kelly Godby, Jens Hillengass, Leona Holmberg, Myo Htut, Carol Ann Huff, Malin Hultcrantz, Yubin Kang, Sarah Larson, Hans C. Lee, Michaela Liedtke, Thomas Martin, James Omel, Timothy Robinson, Aaron Rosenberg, Douglas Sborov, Mark A. Schroeder, Daniel Sherbenou, Attaya Suvannasankha, Jason Valent, Asya Nina Varshavsky-Yanovsky, Rashmi Kumar, and Jenna Snedeker

The treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved to include several new options. These include new combinations with second generation proteasome inhibitors (PI); second generation immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, CAR T cells, bispecific antibodies, selinexor, venetoclax, and many others. Most patients with MM undergo several cycles of remissions and relapse, and therefore need multiple lines of combination therapies. Selecting treatment options for relapsed/refractory MM requires consideration of resistance status to specific classes, and patient-specific factors such as age and other comorbidities should be considered. The NCCN Guidelines for MM provide a framework on which to base decisions regarding workup, treatment, and follow-up of newly diagnosed and previously treated MM. This manuscript outlines the recommendations from NCCN Guidelines for MM specific to relapsed/refractory disease.

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Cervical Cancer, Version 1.2024

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Catheryn M. Yashar, Rebecca Arend, Emma Barber, Kristin Bradley, Rebecca Brooks, Susana M. Campos, Junzo Chino, Hye Sook Chon, Marta Ann Crispens, Shari Damast, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Stephanie Gaillard, Robert Giuntoli II, Scott Glaser, Jordan Holmes, Brooke E. Howitt, Jayanthi Lea, Gina Mantia-Smaldone, Andrea Mariani, David Mutch, Christa Nagel, Larissa Nekhlyudov, Mirna Podoll, Kerry Rodabaugh, Ritu Salani, John Schorge, Jean Siedel, Rachel Sisodia, Pamela Soliman, Stefanie Ueda, Renata Urban, Emily Wyse, Nicole R. McMillian, Shaili Aggarwal, and Sara Espinosa

The NCCN Guidelines for Cervical Cancer provide recommendations for all aspects of management for cervical cancer, including the diagnostic workup, staging, pathology, and treatment. The guidelines also include details on histopathologic classification of cervical cancer regarding diagnostic features, molecular profiles, and clinical outcomes. The treatment landscape of advanced cervical cancer is evolving constantly. These NCCN Guidelines Insights provide a summary of recent updates regarding the systemic therapy recommendations for recurrent or metastatic disease.

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Patient Navigation for Timely, Guideline-Adherent Adjuvant Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A National Landscape Analysis

Evan M. Graboyes, Michelle Chappell, Kelsey A. Duckett, Katherine Sterba, Chanita Hughes Halbert, Elizabeth G. Hill, Bhishamjit Chera, Jessica McCay, Sidharth V. Puram, Salma Ramadan, Vlad C. Sandulache, Russel Kahmke, Brian Nussenbaum, Anthony J. Alberg, Electra D. Paskett, and Elizabeth Calhoun

Background: Aligned with the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Head and Neck Cancers, in November 2021 the Commission on Cancer approved initiation of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) within 6 weeks of surgery for head and neck cancer (HNC) as its first and only HNC quality metric. Unfortunately, >50% of patients do not commence PORT within 6 weeks, and delays disproportionately burden racial and ethnic minority groups. Although patient navigation (PN) is a potential strategy to improve the delivery of timely, equitable, guideline-adherent PORT, the national landscape of PN for this aspect of care is unknown. Materials and Methods: From September through November 2022, we conducted a survey of health care organizations that participate in the American Cancer Society National Navigation Roundtable to understand the scope of PN for delivering timely, guideline-adherent PORT for patients with HNC. Results: Of the 94 institutions that completed the survey, 89.4% (n=84) reported that at least part of their practice was dedicated to navigating patients with HNC. Sixty-eight percent of the institutions who reported navigating patients with HNC along the continuum (56/83) reported helping them begin PORT. One-third of HNC navigators (32.5%; 27/83) reported tracking the metric for time-to-PORT at their facility. When estimating the timeframe in which the NCCN and Commission on Cancer guidelines recommend commencing PORT, 44.0% (37/84) of HNC navigators correctly stated ≤6 weeks; 71.4% (60/84) reported that they did not know the frequency of delays starting PORT among patients with HNC nationally, and 63.1% (53/84) did not know the frequency of delays at their institution. Conclusions: In this national landscape survey, we identified that PN is already widely used in clinical practice to help patients with HNC start timely, guideline-adherent PORT. To enhance and scale PN within this area and improve the quality and equity of HNC care delivery, organizations could focus on providing better education and support for their navigators as well as specialization in HNC.

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Physical Activity is Medicine

Alfredo Carrato