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    Mateos M, Hernandez J, Hernandez M. Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone in elderly untreated patients with multiple myeloma: results of a multicenter phase 1/2 study. Blood 2006;108:2165-2172.

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    Sonneveld P, Schmidt-Wolf I, van der Holt B. HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 randomized phase III trial comparing bortezomib, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (PAD) vs VAD followed by high-dose melphalan (HDM) and maintenance with bortezomib or thalidomide in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) [abstract]. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 40.

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    Cavo M, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F. Superior complete response rate and progression-free survival after autologous transplantation with up-front velcade-thalidomide-dexamethasone compared with thalidomide-dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma [abstract]. Blood 2008;112:Abstract 158.

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    Cavo M, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F. Bortezomib with thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a randomised phase 3 study. Lancet 2010;376:2075-2085.

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    Kaufman JL, Nooka A, Vrana M. Bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy for patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma: a retrospective study. Cancer 2010;116:3143-3151.

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    Rosinol L, Cibeira MT, Mateos MV. Phase III PETHEMA/GEM study of induction therapy prior autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in multiple myeloma: superiority of VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone) over TD and VBMCP/VBAD plus bortezomib [abstract]. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 307.

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    Richardson P, Jagannath S, Raje N. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (Rev/Vel/Dex) as front-line therapy for patients with multiple myeloma (MM): preliminary results of a phase 1/2 study [abstract]. Blood 2007;110:Abstract 187.

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    Richardson P, Lonial S, Jakubowiak A. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: encouraging efficacy in high risk groups with updated results of a phase I/II study [abstract]. Blood 2008;112:Abstract 92.

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    Kumar S, Flinn IW, Richardson PG. Novel three- and four-drug combination regimens of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide, for previously untreated multiple myeloma: results from the multi-center, randomized, phase 2 EVOLUTION study [abstract]. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 621.

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    Roussel M, Avet-Loiseau H, Moreau P. Frontline therapy with bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, VRD consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients: primary results of the IFM 2008 phase II study [abstract]. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 624.

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    Reeder CB, Reece DE, Kukreti V. Cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone induction for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: high response rates in a phase II clinical trial. Leukemia 2009;23:1337-1341.

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    Einsele H, Liebisch P, Langer C. Velcade, intravenous cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) induction for previously untreated multiple myeloma (German DSMM XIa Trial) [abstract]. Blood 2009;114:Abstract 131.

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    Kumar S, Flinn IW, Hari PN. Novel three- and four-drug combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide, for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: encouraging results from the multi-center, randomized, phase 2 EVOLUTION study [abstract]. Blood 2009;114:Abstract 127.

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    Zonder JA, Crowley J, Hussein MA. Superiority of lenalidomide (Len) plus high-dose dexamethasone (HD) compared to HD alone as treatment of newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM): results of the randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled SWOG Trial S0232 [abstract]. Blood 2007;110:Abstract 77.

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    Rajkumar SV, Jacobus S, Callander N. A randomized phase III trial of lenalidomide pus high-dose dexamethasone versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (E4A03): a trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [abstract]. Blood 2006;108:Abstract 799.

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    Rajkumar SV, Jacobus S, Callander N. A randomized trial of lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone (RD) versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (E4A03): a trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [abstract]. Blood 2007;110:Abstract 74.

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    Rajkumar SV, Jacobus S, Callander NS. Lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone as initial therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:29-37.

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    Gay F, Hayman SR, Lacy MQ. Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone versus thalidomide plus dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis of 411 patients. Blood 2010;115:1343-1350.

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    Kumar S, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ. Impact of lenalidomide therapy on stem cell mobilization and engraftment post-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. Leukemia 2007;21:2035-2042.

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    Kumar S, Giralt S, Stadtmauer EA. Mobilization in myeloma revisited: IMWG consensus perspectives on stem cell collection following initial therapy with thalidomide-, lenalidomide-, or bortezomib-containing regimens. Blood 2009;114:1729-1735.

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    Zangari M, Tricot G, Polavaram L. Survival effect of venous thromboembolism in patients with multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide and high-dose dexamethasone. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:132-135.

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    Rajkumar S, Blood EA, Vesole D. Phase III clinical trial of thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a clinical trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:431-436.

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    Rifkin R, Gregory SA, Mohrbacher A, Hussein M. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone provide significant reduction in toxicity compared with doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a phase III multicenter randomized trial. Cancer 2006;106:848-858.

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    Gregory WM, Richards MA, Malpas JS. Combination chemotherapy versus melphalan and prednisolone in the treatment of multiple myeloma: an overview of published trials. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:334-342.

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    Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Caravita T. Oral melphalan and prednisone chemotherapy plus thalidomide compared with melphalan and prednisone alone in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367:825-831.

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    Facon T, Mary JY, Hulin C. Melphalan and prednisone plus thalidomide versus melphalan and prednisone alone or reduced-intensity autologous stem cell transplantation in elderly patients with multiple myeloma (IFM 99-06): a randomised trial. Lancet 2007;370:1209-1218.

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    Hulin C, Facon T, Rodon P. Efficacy of melphalan and prednisone plus thalidomide in patients older than 75 years with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: IFM 01/01 trial. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:3664-3670.

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    Hulin C, Facon T, Rodon P. Melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide (MP-T) demonstrates a significant survival advantage in elderly patients >=75 years with multiple myeloma compared with melphalan-prednisone (MP) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, IFM 01/01 [abstract]. Blood 2007;110:Abstract 75.

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    Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Liberati AM. Oral melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: updated results of a randomized controlled trial. Blood 2008;112:3107-3114.

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    Waage A, Gimsing P, Juliusson G. Melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide to newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma: a placebo controlled randomised phase 3 trial [abstract]. Blood 2007;110:Abstract 78.

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    Wijermans P, Schaafsma M, van Norden Y. Melphalan + prednisone versus melphalan + prednisone + thalidomide induction therapy for multiple myeloma in elderly patients: first interim results of the Dutch cooperative group HOVON [abstract]. Haematologica 2008;93:Abstract 178.

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    Wijermans P, Schaafsma M, Termorshuizen F. Phase III study of the value of thalidomide added to melphalan plus prednisone in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: the HOVON 49 Study. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:3160-3166.

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    Mateos MV, Richardson PG, Schlag R. Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone compared with melphalan and prednisone in previously untreated multiple myeloma: updated follow-up and impact of subsequent therapy in the phase III VISTA trial. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:2259-2266.

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    Harousseau J, Palumbo A, Richardson P. Superior outcomes associated with complete response: analysis of the phase III VISTA study of bortezomib plus melphalan-mrednisone versus melphalan-prednisone [abstract]. Blood 2008;112:Abstract 2778.

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    Harousseau JL, Palumbo A, Richardson PG. Superior outcomes associated with complete response in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with nonintensive therapy: analysis of the phase 3 VISTA study of bortezomib plus melphalan-prednisone versus melphalan-prednisone. Blood 2010;116:3743-3750.

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    Yeh Y, Chambers J, Gaugris S, Jansen J. Indirect comparison of the efficacy of melphalan-prednisone-bortezomib relative to melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide and melphalan-prednisone for the first line treatment of multiple myeloma [abstract]. Blood 2008;112:Abstract 2367.

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    Palumbo A, Falco P, Corradini P. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide treatment for newly diagnosed myeloma: a report from the GIMEMA—Italian Multiple Myeloma Network. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:4459-4465.

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    Palumbo A, Falco P, Falcone A. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide for newly diagnosed myeloma: kinetics of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and time-to-event results. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma 2009;9:145-150.

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    Roy V, Stewart A, Bergsagel P. Phase II study of melphalan, prednisone and lenalidomide combination for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients who are not candidates for stem cell transplantation [abstract]. Blood 2008;112:Abstract 2769.

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    Palumbo A, Dimopoulos MA, Delforge M. A phase III study to determine the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in combination with melphalan and prednisone (MPR) in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma [abstract]. Blood 2009;114:Abstract 613.

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    Palumbo A, Delforge M, Catalano J. A phase 3 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide combined with melphalan and prednisone in patients >= 65 years with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM): continuous use of lenalidomide vs fixed-duration regimens [abstract]. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 622.

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    Niesvizky R, Flinn IW, Rifkin RM. Phase 3b UPFRONT study: safety and efficacy of weekly bortezomib maintenance therapy after bortezomib-based induction regimens in elderly, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients [abstract]. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 619.

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    Niesvizky R, Flinn IW, Rifkin RM. Patient-reported quality of life in elderly, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens: results from the phase 3b UPFRONT study [abstract]. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 3026.

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    Badros A, Barlogie B, Morris C. High response rate in refractory and poor-risk multiple myeloma after allotransplantation using a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen and donor lymphocyte infusions. Blood 2001;97:2574-2579.

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    Moreau P, Facon T, Attal M. Comparison of 200 mg/m(2) melphalan and 8 Gy total body irradiation plus 140 mg/m(2) melphalan as conditioning regimens for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: final analysis of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome 9502 randomized trial. Blood 2002;99:731-735.

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