• 1

    ObergKHellmanPKwekkeboomDJelicS. Neuroendocrine bronchial and thymic tumours: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol2010;21(Suppl 5):v220-222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    GovindanRPageNMorgenszternD. Changing epidemiology of small-cell lung cancer in the United States over the last 30 years: analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiologic, and End Results database. J Clin Oncol2006;24:4539-4544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    NavadaSLaiPSchwartzAKalemkerianG. Temporal trends in small cell lung cancer: analysis of the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2006;24(Suppl 18):Abstract 7082.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    SiegelRWardEBrawleyOJemalA. Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths. CA Cancer J Clin2011;61:212-236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    MurrayNTurrisi ATIII. A review of first-line treatment for small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol2006;1:270-278.

  • 6

    HannCLRudinCM. Management of small-cell lung cancer: incremental changes but hope for the future. Oncology (Williston Park)2008;22:1486-1492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    KalemkerianGP. Advances in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer. Semin Respir Crit Care Med2011;32:94-101.

  • 8

    StinchcombeTEGoreEM. Limited-stage small cell lung cancer: current chemoradiotherapy treatment paradigms. Oncologist2010;15:187-195.

  • 9

    JohnsonBEJannePA. Basic treatment considerations using chemotherapy for patients with small cell lung cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am2004;18:309-322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    DemedtsIKVermaelenKYvan MeerbeeckJP. Treatment of extensive-stage small cell lung carcinoma: current status and future prospects. Eur Respir J2010;35:202-215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    YuJBDeckerRHDetterbeckFCWilsonLD. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results evaluation of the role of surgery for stage I small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol2010;5:215-219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    VideticGMMStittLWDarAR. Continued cigarette smoking by patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer is associated with decreased survival. J Clin Oncol2003;21:1544-1549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    ZakowskiMF. Pathology of small cell carcinoma of the lung. Semin Oncol2003;30:3-8.

  • 14

    BrennerBTangLHKlimstraDSKelsenDP. Small-cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract: a review. J Clin Oncol2004;22:2730-2739.

  • 15

    GalanisEFrytakSLloydRV. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. Cancer1997;79:1729-1736.

  • 16

    RemickSCRuckdeschelJC. Extrapulmonary and pulmonary small-cell carcinoma: tumor biology, therapy, and outcome. Med Pediatr Oncol1992;20:89-99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    JohnsonBEWhang-PengJNaylorSL. Retention of chromosome 3 in extrapulmonary small cell cancer shown by molecular and cytogenetic studies. J Natl Cancer Inst1989;81:1223-1228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    GuineeDGJrFishbackNFKossMN. The spectrum of immunohistochemical staining of small-cell lung carcinoma in specimens from transbronchial and open-lung biopsies. Am J Clin Pathol1994;102:406-414.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    GustafssonBIKiddMChanA. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer2008;113:5-21.

  • 20

    RenshawAAHajaJLozanoRLWilburDC. Distinguishing carcinoid tumor from small cell carcinoma of the lung: correlating cytologic features and performance in the College of American Pathologists Non-Gynecologic Cytology Program. Arch Pathol Lab Med2005;129:614-618.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT. National Cancer Institute Web site. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/2010/NLSTresultsRelease. Accessed September 1 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    CuffeSMouaTSummerfieldR. Characteristics and outcomes of small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed during two lung cancer computed tomographic screening programs in heavy smokers. J Thorac Oncol2011;6:818-822.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    KazarianMLaird-OffringaIA. Small-cell lung cancer-associated autoantibodies: potential applications to cancer diagnosis, early detection, and therapy. Mol Cancer2011;10:33.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    MarchioliCCGrazianoSL. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with small cell lung cancer. Chest Surg Clin N Am1997;7:65-80.

  • 25

    TitulaerMJWirtzPWWillemsLN. Screening for small-cell lung cancer: a follow-up study of patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. J Clin Oncol2008;26:4276-4281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    MerineySDHulsizerSCLennonVAGrinnellAD. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome immunoglobulins react with multiple types of calcium channels in small-cell lung carcinoma. Ann Neurol1996;40:739-749.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    GrausFKeime-GuibertFReneR. Anti-Hu-associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis: analysis of 200 patients. Brain2001;124:1138-1148.

  • 28

    DelisleLBoyerMJWarrD. Ectopic corticotropin syndrome and small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Clinical features, outcome, and complications. Arch Intern Med1993;153:746-752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    JohnsonBEChuteJPRushinJ. A prospective study of patients with lung cancer and hyponatremia of malignancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;156:1669-1678.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    MickePFaldumAMetzT. Staging small cell lung cancer: Veterans Administration Lung Study Group versus International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer--what limits limited disease?Lung Cancer2002;37:271-276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    ShepherdFACrowleyJVan HoutteP. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lung cancer staging project: proposals regarding the clinical staging of small cell lung cancer in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the tumor, node, metastasis classification for lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol2007;2:1067-1077.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Ignatius OuSHZellJA. The applicability of the proposed IASLC staging revisions to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with comparison to the current UICC 6th TNM Edition. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:300-310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    VallieresEShepherdFACrowleyJ. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals regarding the relevance of TNM in the pathologic staging of small cell lung cancer in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:1049-1059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    EdgeSBByrdDRComptonCC. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual7th ed.New York, NY: Springer; 2010.

  • 35

    GoldstrawPCrowleyJChanskyK. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals for the revision of the TNM stage groupings in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumours. J Thorac Oncol2007;2:706-714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    PodoloffDABallDWBen-JosefE. NCCN task force: clinical utility of PET in a variety of tumor types. J Natl Compr Canc Netw2009;7(Suppl 2):S1-26.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    BradleyJDDehdashtiFMintunMA. Positron emission tomography in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: a prospective study. J Clin Oncol2004;22:3248-3254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    KutVSpiesWSpiesS. Staging and monitoring of small cell lung cancer using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Am J Clin Oncol2007;30:45-50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    AzadAChionhFScottAM. High impact of 18F-FDG-PET on management and prognostic stratification of newly diagnosed small cell lung cancer. Mol Imaging Biol2010;12:443-451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    FischerBMMortensenJLangerSW. A prospective study of PET/CT in initial staging of small-cell lung cancer: comparison with CT, bone scintigraphy and bone marrow analysis. Ann Oncol2007;18:338-345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    BrinkISchumacherTMixM. Impact of [18F]FDG-PET on the primary staging of small-cell lung cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging2004;31:1614-1620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    KamelEMZwahlenDWyssMT. Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET improves the management of patients with small cell lung cancer. J Nucl Med2003;44:1911-1917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    VinjamuriMCraigMCampbell-FontaineA. Can positron emission tomography be used as a staging tool for small-cell lung cancer?Clin Lung Cancer2008;9:30-34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    RintoulRCTournoyKGEl DalyH. EBUS-TBNA for the clarification of PET positive intra-thoracic lymph nodes- an international multi-centre experience. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:44-48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    MedfordARBennettJAFreeCMAgrawalS. Mediastinal staging procedures in lung cancer: EBUS, TBNA and mediastinoscopy. Curr Opin Pulm Med2009;15:334-342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    FosterNRMandrekarSJSchildSE. Prognostic factors differ by tumor stage for small cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of North Central Cancer Treatment Group trials. Cancer2009;115:2721-2731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    AlbainKSCrowleyJJLeBlancMLivingstonRB. Determinants of improved outcome in small-cell lung cancer: an analysis of the 2,580-patient Southwest Oncology Group data base. J Clin Oncol1990;8:1563-1574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    YipDHarperPG. Predictive and prognostic factors in small cell lung cancer: current status. Lung Cancer2000;28:173-185.

  • 49

    PignonJPArriagadaRIhdeDC. A meta-analysis of thoracic radiotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med1992;327:1618-1624.

  • 50

    WardePPayneD. Does thoracic irradiation improve survival and local control in limited-stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung? A meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol1992;10:890-895.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    PostmusPEHaaxma-ReicheHGregorA. Brain-only metastases of small cell lung cancer; efficacy of whole brain radiotherapy. An EORTC phase II study. Radiother Oncol1998;46:29-32.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    SimonMArgirisAMurrenJR. Progress in the therapy of small cell lung cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol2004;49:119-133.

  • 53

    SpiraAEttingerDS. Multidisciplinary management of lung cancer. N Engl J Med2004;350:379-392.

  • 54

    JohnsonBE. Management of small cell lung cancer. Clin Chest Med2002;23:225-239.

  • 55

    EvansWKShepherdFAFeldR. VP-16 and cisplatin as first-line therapy for small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol1985;3:1471-1477.

  • 56

    JackmanDMJohnsonBE. Small-cell lung cancer. Lancet2005;366:1385-1396.

  • 57

    SundstromSBremnesRMKaasaS. Cisplatin and etoposide regimen is superior to cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and vincristine regimen in small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized phase III trial with 5 years' follow-up. J Clin Oncol2002;20:4665-4672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    SaitoHTakadaYIchinoseY. Phase II study of etoposide and cisplatin with concurrent twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy followed by irinotecan and cisplatin in patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer: West Japan Thoracic Oncology Group 9902. J Clin Oncol2006;24:5247-5252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    TakadaMFukuokaMKawaharaM. Phase III study of concurrent versus sequential thoracic radiotherapy in combination with cisplatin and etoposide for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: results of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study 9104. J Clin Oncol2002;20:3054-3060.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60

    BunnPAJrCrowleyJKellyK. Chemoradiotherapy with or without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: a prospective phase III randomized study of the Southwest Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol1995;13:1632-1641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    BishopJFRaghavanDStuart-HarrisR. Carboplatin (CBDCA, JM-8) and VP-16-213 in previously untreated patients with small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol1987;5:1574-1578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    SkarlosDVSamantasEBriassoulisE. Randomized comparison of early versus late hyperfractionated thoracic irradiation concurrently with chemotherapy in limited disease small-cell lung cancer: a randomized phase II study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG). Ann Oncol2001;12:1231-1238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63

    SkarlosDVSamantasEKosmidisP. Randomized comparison of etoposide-cisplatin vs. etoposide-carboplatin and irradiation in small-cell lung cancer. A Hellenic Co-operative Oncology Group study. Ann Oncol1994;5:601-607.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    OkamotoHWatanabeKKunikaneH. Randomised phase III trial of carboplatin plus etoposide vs split doses of cisplatin plus etoposide in elderly or poor-risk patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: JCOG 9702. Br J Cancer2007;97:162-169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    NodaKNishiwakiYKawaharaM. Irinotecan plus cisplatin compared with etoposide plus cisplatin for extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med2002;346:85-91.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    LaraPNJr.NataleRCrowleyJ. Phase III trial of irinotecan/cisplatin compared with etoposide/cisplatin in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: clinical and pharmacogenomic results from SWOG S0124. J Clin Oncol2009;27:2530-2535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    HannaNBunnPAJrLangerC. Randomized phase III trial comparing irinotecan/cisplatin with etoposide/cisplatin in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage disease small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol2006;24:2038-2043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    SchmittelAFischer von WeikersthalLSebastianM. A randomized phase II trial of irinotecan plus carboplatin versus etoposide plus carboplatin treatment in patients with extended disease small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol2006;17:663-667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    HermesABergmanBBremnesR. Irinotecan plus carboplatin versus oral etoposide plus carboplatin in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol2008;26:4261-4267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    LimaJPdos SantosLVSasseEC. Camptothecins compared with etoposide in combination with platinum analog in extensive stage small cell lung cancer: systematic review with meta-analysis. J Thorac Oncol2010;5:1986-1993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    ChuteJPChenTFeigalE. Twenty years of phase III trials for patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: perceptible progress. J Clin Oncol1999;17:1794-1801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    NihoSKubotaKYohK. Clinical outcome of chemoradiation therapy in patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer with ipsilateral pleural effusion. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:723-727.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    NihoSKubotaKYohK. Chemoradiation therapy in patients (pts) with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with pericardial effusion but no distant metastasis [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl 15):Abstract 7555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    LoehrerPJSrAnsariRGoninR. Cisplatin plus etoposide with and without ifosfamide in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a Hoosier Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol1995;13:2594-2599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    PujolJLDauresJPRiviereA. Etoposide plus cisplatin with or without the combination of 4'-epidoxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide in treatment of extensive small-cell lung cancer: a French Federation of Cancer Institutes multicenter phase III randomized study. J Natl Cancer Inst2001;93:300-308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76

    MiyamotoHNakabayashiTIsobeH. A phase III comparison of etoposide/cisplatin with or without added ifosfamide in small-cell lung cancer. Oncology1992;49:431-435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    NiellHBHerndon JEIIMillerAA. Randomized phase III intergroup trial of etoposide and cisplatin with or without paclitaxel and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 9732. J Clin Oncol2005;23:3752-3759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78

    SchillerJHAdakSCellaD. Topotecan versus observation after cisplatin plus etoposide in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: E7593—a phase III trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol2001;19:2114-2122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    GoldieJHColdmanAJ. A mathematic model for relating the drug sensitivity of tumors to their spontaneous mutation rate. Cancer Treat Rep1979;63:1727-1733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    FukuokaMFuruseKSaijoN. Randomized trial of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine versus cisplatin and etoposide versus alternation of these regimens in small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst1991;83:855-861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    RothBJJohnsonDHEinhornLH. Randomized study of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine versus etoposide and cisplatin versus alternation of these two regimens in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a phase III trial of the Southeastern Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol1992;10:282-291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    MilesDWEarlHMSouhamiRL. Intensive weekly chemotherapy for good-prognosis patients with small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol1991;9:280-285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    MurrayNGelmonKShahA. Potential for long-term survival in extensive stage small-cell lung cancer (ESCLC) with CODE chemotherapy and radiotherapy [abstract]. Lung Cancer1994;11(Suppl 1):99. Abstract 377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84

    SculierJPPaesmansMBureauG. Multiple-drug weekly chemotherapy versus standard combination regimen in small-cell lung cancer: a phase III randomized study conducted by the European Lung Cancer Working Party. J Clin Oncol1993;11:1858-1865.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    SouhamiRLRuddRRuiz de ElviraMC. Randomized trial comparing weekly versus 3-week chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer: a Cancer Research Campaign trial. J Clin Oncol1994;12:1806-1813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    FukuokaMMasudaNNegoroS. CODE chemotherapy with and without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer1997;75:306-309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    MurrayNLivingstonRBShepherdFA. Randomized study of CODE versus alternating CAV/EP for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: an Intergroup Study of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the Southwest Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol1999;17:2300-2308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    TeicherBA. Preclinical models for high-dose therapy. In: ArmitageJOAntmanKH eds. High-Dose Cancer Therapy: Pharmacology Hematopoietins Stem Cells2nd ed.Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1995:14-42.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89

    CohenMHCreavenPJFossieckBEJr. Intensive chemotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep1977;61:349-354.

  • 90

    JohnsonDHEinhornLHBirchR. A randomized comparison of high-dose versus conventional-dose cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: a phase III trial of the Southeastern Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol1987;5:1731-1738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    IhdeDCMulshineJLKramerBS. Prospective randomized comparison of high-dose and standard-dose etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol1994;12:2022-2034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    ArriagadaRLe ChevalierTPignonJP. Initial chemotherapeutic doses and survival in patients with limited small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med1993;329:1848-1852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    ThatcherNGirlingDJHopwoodP. Improving survival without reducing quality of life in small-cell lung cancer patients by increasing the dose-intensity of chemotherapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support: results of a British Medical Research Council Multicenter Randomized Trial. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. J Clin Oncol2000;18:395-404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    KlasaRJMurrayNColdmanAJ. Dose-intensity meta-analysis of chemotherapy regimens in small-cell carcinoma of the lung. J Clin Oncol1991;9:499-508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    CrawfordJOzerHStollerR. Reduction by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor of fever and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med1991;325:164-170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    Genetech. Important drug warning regarding Avastin (bevacuizumab). Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/UCM153953.pdf. Accessed September 1 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97

    SpigelDRTownleyPMWaterhouseDM. Randomized phase II study of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: results from the SALUTE trial. J Clin Oncol2011;29:2215-2222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    SpigelDRGrecoFAZubkusJD. Phase II trial of irinotecan, carboplatin, and bevacizumab in the treatment of patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:1555-1560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    HornLDahlbergSESandlerAB. Phase II study of cisplatin plus etoposide and bevacizumab for previously untreated, extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E3501. J Clin Oncol2009;27:6006-6011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    HurriaAKrisMG. Management of lung cancer in older adults. CA Cancer J Clin2003;53:325-341.

  • 101

    GirlingDJ. Comparison of oral etoposide and standard intravenous multidrug chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer: a stopped multicentre randomised trial. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Lancet1996;348:563-566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    SouhamiRLSpiroSGRuddRM. Five-day oral etoposide treatment for advanced small-cell lung cancer: randomized comparison with intravenous chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst1997;89:577-580.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    NeubauerMSchwartzJCaracandasJ. Results of a phase II study of weekly paclitaxel plus carboplatin in patients with extensive small-cell lung cancer with eastern cooperative oncology group performance status of 2, or age >= 70 years. J Clin Oncol2004;22:1872-1877.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    WesteelVMurrayNGelmonK. New combination of the old drugs for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer: a phase II study of the PAVE regimen. J Clin Oncol1998;16:1940-1947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    OkamotoHWatanabeKNishiwakiY. Phase II study of area under the plasma-concentration-versus-time curve-based carboplatin plus standard-dose intravenous etoposide in elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol1999;17:3540-3545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    MatsuiKMasudaNYanaT. Carboplatin calculated with Chatelut's formula plus etoposide for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer. Intern Med2001;40:603-606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107

    MurrayNGraftonCShahA. Abbreviated treatment for elderly, infirm, or noncompliant patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol1998;16:3323-3328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108

    HurwitzJLMcCoyFScullinPFennellDA. New advances in the second-line treatment of small cell lung cancer. Oncologist2009;14:986-994.

  • 109

    SchneiderBJ. Management of recurrent small cell lung cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw2008;6:323-331.

  • 110

    ChengSEvansWKStys-NormanDShepherdFA. Chemotherapy for relapsed small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and practice guideline. J Thorac Oncol2007;2:348-354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111

    EttingerDS. New drugs for chemotherapy-naive patients with extensive-disease small cell lung cancer. Semin Oncol2001;28:27-29.

  • 112

    KellyK. New chemotherapy agents for small cell lung cancer. Chest2000;117:156S-162S.

  • 113

    MastersGADeclerckLBlankeC. Phase II trial of gemcitabine in refractory or relapsed small-cell lung cancer: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial 1597. J Clin Oncol2003;21:1550-1555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    von PawelJSchillerJHShepherdFA. Topotecan versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine for the treatment of recurrent small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol1999;17:658-667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115

    O'BrienMECiuleanuTETsekovH. Phase III trial comparing supportive care alone with supportive care with oral topotecan in patients with relapsed small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol2006;24:5441-5447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116

    EckardtJRvon PawelJPujolJL. Phase III study of oral compared with intravenous topotecan as second-line therapy in small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol2007;25:2086-2092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117

    HuberRMReckMGosseH. Efficacy of a toxicity-adjusted topotecan therapy in recurrent small cell lung cancer. Eur Respir J2006;27:1183-1189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118

    ShahCReadyNPerryM. A multi-center phase II study of weekly topotecan as second-line therapy for small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer2007;57:84-88.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119

    ShipleyDLHainsworthJDSpigelDR. Topotecan: weekly intravenous (IV) schedule similar to standard 5-day IV schedule as second-line therapy for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC)—a Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network phase II trial [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2006;24 (Suppl 18):Abstract 7083.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120

    EttingerDSJotteRLoriganP. Phase II study of amrubicin as second-line therapy in patients with platinum-refractory small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol2010;28:2598-2603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121

    InoueASugawaraSYamazakiK. Randomized phase II trial comparing amrubicin with topotecan in patients with previously treated small-cell lung cancer: North Japan Lung Cancer Study Group Trial 0402. J Clin Oncol2008;26:5401-5406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122

    OnodaSMasudaNSetoT. Phase II trial of amrubicin for treatment of refractory or relapsed small-cell lung cancer: Thoracic Oncology Research Group Study 0301. J Clin Oncol2006;24:5448-5453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123

    ShimokawaTShibuyaMKitamuraK. Retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety of amrubicin in refractory and relapsed small-cell lung cancer. Int J Clin Oncol2009;14:63-69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124

    JotteRConklingPReynoldsC. Randomized phase II trial of single-agent amrubicin or topotecan as second-line treatment in patients with small-cell lung cancer sensitive to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2011;29:287-293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125

    SimonGGinsbergRJRuckdeschelJC. Small-cell lung cancer. Chest Surg Clin N Am2001;11:165-188ix.

  • 126

    MurrayNCoyPPaterJL. Importance of timing for thoracic irradiation in the combined modality treatment of limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol1993;11:336-344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127

    FriedDBMorrisDEPooleC. Systematic review evaluating the timing of thoracic radiation therapy in combined modality therapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol2004;22:4837-4845.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128

    Pijls-JohannesmaMDe RuysscherDVansteenkisteJ. Timing of chest radiotherapy in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cancer Treat Rev2007;33:461-473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129

    Turrisi ATIIIKimKBlumR. Twice-daily compared with once-daily thoracic radiotherapy in limited small-cell lung cancer treated concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide. N Engl J Med1999;340:265-271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130

    SchildSEBonnerJAShanahanTG. Long-term results of a phase III trial comparing once-daily radiotherapy with twice-daily radiotherapy in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2004;59:943-951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131

    MillerKLMarksLBSibleyGS. Routine use of approximately 60 Gy once-daily thoracic irradiation for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2003;56:355-359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132

    RoofKSFidiasPLynchTJ. Radiation dose escalation in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2003;57:701-708.

  • 133

    BogartJAHerndon JEIILyssAP. 70 Gy thoracic radiotherapy is feasible concurrent with chemotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 39808. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2004;59:460-468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134

    De RuysscherDPijls-JohannesmaMBentzenSM. Time between the first day of chemotherapy and the last day of chest radiation is the most important predictor of survival in limited-disease small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol2006;24:1057-1063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135

    SocinskiMABogartJA. Limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: the current status of combined-modality therapy. J Clin Oncol2007;25:4137-4145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136

    LiengswangwongVBonnerJAShawEG. Limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: patterns of intrathoracic recurrence and the implications for thoracic radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol1994;12:496-502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137

    KimTHChoKHPyoHR. Dose-volumetric parameters for predicting severe radiation pneumonitis after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for lung cancer. Radiology2005;235:208-215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138

    RoseJRodriguesGYaremkoB. Systematic review of dose-volume parameters in the prediction of esophagitis in thoracic radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol2009;91:282-287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139

    KongFMRitterTQuintDJ. Consideration of dose limits for organs at risk of thoracic radiotherapy: atlas for lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Physin press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140

    ShirvaniSMKomakiRHeymachJV. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Physin press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141

    Prescribing recording and reporting intensity-modulated photon-beam therapy (IMRT)(ICRU report 83). International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements, Inc. Available at: http://www.icru.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=171. Accessed September 1 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142

    JeremicBShibamotoYNikolicN. Role of radiation therapy in the combined-modality treatment of patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: a randomized study. J Clin Oncol1999;17:2092-2099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143

    ArriagadaRLe ChevalierTBorieF. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. J Natl Cancer Inst1995;87:183-190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144

    AuperinAArriagadaRPignonJP. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med1999;341:476-484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145

    PatelSMacdonaldOKSuntharalingamM. Evaluation of the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. Cancer2009;115:842-850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146

    SlotmanBFaivre-FinnCKramerG. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med2007;357:664-672.

  • 147

    Le PechouxCDunantASenanS. Standard-dose versus higher-dose prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in complete remission after chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (PCI 99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212, and IFCT 99-01): a randomised clinical trial. Lancet Oncol2009;10:467-474.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148

    SlotmanBJMauerMEBottomleyA. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: short-term health-related quality of life and patient reported symptoms—results of an international phase III randomized controlled trial by the EORTC radiation oncology and lung cancer groups. J Clin Oncol2009;27:78-84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 149

    LutzSBerkLChangE. Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases: an ASTRO evidence-based guideline. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2011;79:965-976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150

    Palliative thoracic radiotherapy in lung cancer: an American Society for Radiation Onology evidence-based clinical practice guideline. Practice Radiation Oncology Web site. Available at: http://www.practicalradonc.org/article/S18798500(11)000919/abstract. Accessed September 1 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151

    LadTPiantadosiSThomasP. A prospective randomized trial to determine the benefit of surgical resection of residual disease following response of small cell lung cancer to combination chemotherapy. Chest1994;106:320S-323S.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152

    RostadHNaalsundAJacobsenR. Small cell lung cancer in Norway. Should more patients have been offered surgical therapy?Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2004;26:782-786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153

    InoueMMiyoshiSYasumitsuT. Surgical results for small cell lung cancer based on the new TNM staging system. Thoracic Surgery Study Group of Osaka UniversityOsaka, Japan. Ann Thorac Surg2000;70:1615-1619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154

    BrockMVHookerCMSyphardJE. Surgical resection of limited disease small cell lung cancer in the new era of platinum chemotherapy: its time has come. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2005;129:64-72.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155

    LimEBelcherEYapYK. The role of surgery in the treatment of limited disease small cell lung cancer: time to reevaluate. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:1267-1271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156

    ShieldsTWHigginsGAJrMatthewsMJKeehnRJ. Surgical resection in the management of small cell carcinoma of the lung. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg1982;84:481-488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 157

    SchreiberDRineerJWeedonJ. Survival outcomes with the use of surgery in limited-stage small cell lung cancer: should its role be re-evaluated?Cancer2010;116:1350-1357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158

    InoueMNakagawaKFujiwaraK. Results of preoperative mediastinoscopy for small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg2000;70:1620-1623.

  • 159

    ShepherdFAEvansWKFeldR. Adjuvant chemotherapy following surgical resection for small-cell carcinoma of the lung. J Clin Oncol1988;6:832-838.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160

    TsuchiyaRSuzukiKIchinoseY. Phase II trial of postoperative adjuvant cisplatin and etoposide in patients with completely resected stage I-IIIa small cell lung cancer: the Japan Clinical Oncology Lung Cancer Study Group Trial (JCOG9101). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2005;129:977-983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161

    JohnsonBELinnoilaRIWilliamsJP. Risk of second aerodigestive cancers increases in patients who survive free of small-cell lung cancer for more than 2 years. J Clin Oncol1995;13:101-111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162

    JohnsonBE. Second lung cancers in patients after treatment for an initial lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst1998;90:1335-1345.

  • 163

    RichardsonGETuckerMAVenzonDJ. Smoking cessation after successful treatment of small-cell lung cancer is associated with fewer smoking-related second primary cancers. Ann Intern Med1993;119:383-390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164

    KawaharaMUshijimaSKamimoriT. Second primary tumours in more than 2-year disease-free survivors of small-cell lung cancer in Japan: the role of smoking cessation. Br J Cancer1998;78:409-412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165

    ParsonsADaleyABeghRAveyardP. Influence of smoking cessation after diagnosis of early stage lung cancer on prognosis: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis. BMJ2010;340:b5569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 166

    TravisWDBrambillaEMuller-HermelinkHKHarrisCC eds. World Health Organization classification of tumors: pathology & genetics of tumors of the lung pleura thymus and heart. World Health Organization Web site. Available at: http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/pat-gen/bb10/index.php. Accessed September 1 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167

    BajettaECatenaLProcopioG. Is the new WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumours useful for selecting an appropriate treatment?Ann Oncol2005;16:1374-1380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168

    VarlottoJMMedford-DavisLNRechtA. Should large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinoma be classified and treated as a small cell lung cancer or with other large cell carcinomas?J Thorac Oncol2011;6:1050-1058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 169

    TravisWDGirouxDJChanskyK. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals for the inclusion of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:1213-1223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 170

    DetterbeckFC. Management of carcinoid tumors. Ann Thorac Surg2010;89:998-1005.

  • 171

    ReaFRizzardiGZuinA. Outcome and surgical strategy in bronchial carcinoid tumors: single institution experience with 252 patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2007;31:186-191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 172

    CardilloGSeraFDi MartinoM. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: nodal status and long-term survival after resection. Ann Thorac Surg2004;77:1781-1785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 173

    MoertelCGKvolsLKO'ConnellMJRubinJ. Treatment of neuroendocrine carcinomas with combined etoposide and cisplatin. Evidence of major therapeutic activity in the anaplastic variants of these neoplasms. Cancer1991;68:227-232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 174

    EkebladSSundinAJansonET. Temozolomide as monotherapy is effective in treatment of advanced malignant neuroendocrine tumors. Clin Cancer Res2007;13:2986-2991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 175

    KulkeMHHornickJLFrauenhofferC. O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase deficiency and response to temozolomide-based therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Clin Cancer Res2009;15:338-345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 176

    KulkeMHLenzHJMeropolNJ. Activity of sunitinib in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol2008;26:3403-3410.

  • 177

    YaoJCPhanATChangDZ. Efficacy of RAD001 (everolimus) and octreotide LAR in advanced low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors: results of a phase II study. J Clin Oncol2008;26:4311-4318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 227 227 5
PDF Downloads 32 32 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0