Colorectal Cancer Screening

Restricted access
  • 1.

    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al. . Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009;59:225249.

  • 2.

    Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B et al. . Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin 2008;58:130160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Warren JL, Klabunde CN, Mariotto AB et al. . Adverse events after outpatient colonoscopy in the Medicare population. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:849857, W152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Citarda F, Tomaselli G, Capocaccia R et al. . Efficacy in standard clinical practice of colonoscopic polypectomy in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Gut 2001;48:812815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Ho MN et al. . Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy. The National Polyp Study Workgroup. N Engl J Med 1993;329:19771981.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Muller AD, Sonnenberg A. Prevention of colorectal cancer by flexible endoscopy and polypectomy. A case-control study of 32,702 veterans. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:904910.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Baxter NN, Goldwasser MA, Paszat LF et al. . Association of colonoscopy and death from colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:18.

  • 8.

    Barclay RL, Vicari JJ, Doughty AS et al. . Colonoscopic withdrawal times and adenoma detection during screening colonoscopy. N Engl J Med 2006;355:25332541.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Radaelli F, Meucci G, Sgroi G, Minoli G. Technical performance of colonoscopy: the key role of sedation/analgesia and other quality indicators. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:11221130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Rex DK, Cummings OW, Helper DJ et al. . 5-year incidence of adenomas after negative colonoscopy in asymptomatic average-risk persons [see comment]. Gastroenterology 1996;111:11781181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Imperiale TF, Glowinski EA, Lin-Cooper C et al. . Five-year risk of colorectal neoplasia after negative screening colonoscopy. N Engl J Med 2008;359:12181224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Harford WV et al. . Five-year colon surveillance after screening colonoscopy. Gastroenterology 2007;133:10771085.

  • 13.

    Selby JV, Friedman GD, Quesenberry CP Jr, Weiss NS. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1992;326:653657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Singh H, Turner D, Xue L et al. . Risk of developing colorectal cancer following a negative colonoscopy examination: evidence for a 10-year interval between colonoscopies. JAMA 2006;295:23662373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Brenner H, Chang-Claude J, Seiler CM et al. . Does a negative screening colonoscopy ever need to be repeated? Gut 2006;55:11451150.

  • 16.

    Robertson DJ, Burke CA, Welch HG et al. . Using the results of a baseline and a surveillance colonoscopy to predict recurrent adenomas with high-risk characteristics. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:103109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Newcomb PA, Norfleet RG, Storer BE et al. . Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst 1992;84:15721575.

  • 18.

    Weissfeld JL, Schoen RE, Pinsky PF et al. . Flexible sigmoidoscopy in the PLCO cancer screening trial: results from the baseline screening examination of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:989997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Investigators UFSST. Single flexible sigmoidoscopy screening to prevent colorectal cancer: baseline findings of a UK multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 2002;359:12911300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Segnan N, Senore C, Andreoni B et al. . Baseline findings of the Italian multicenter randomized controlled trial of ``once-only sigmoidoscopy''--SCORE. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:17631772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Gondal G, Grotmol T, Hofstad B et al. . The Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention (NORCCAP) screening study: baseline findings and implementations for clinical work-up in age groups 50-64 years. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003;38:635642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kim DH, Pickhardt PJ, Taylor AJ, Menias CO. Imaging evaluation of complications at optical colonoscopy. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2008;37:165177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Liles E et al. . Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008;149:638658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Johnson CD, Chen MH, Toledano AY et al. . Accuracy of CT colonography for detection of large adenomas and cancers. N Engl J Med 2008;359:12071217.

  • 25.

    Johnson CD, Harmsen WS, Wilson LA et al. . Prospective blinded evaluation of computed tomographic colonography for screen detection of colorectal polyps. Gastroenterology 2003;125:311319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Rockey DC, Paulson E, Niedzwiecki D et al. . Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison. Lancet 2005;365:305311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Hwang I et al. . Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy to screen for colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults. N Engl J Med 2003;349:21912200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Halligan S, Altman DG, Taylor SA et al. . CT colonography in the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proposed minimum data set for study level reporting. Radiology 2005;237:893904.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Mulhall BP, Veerappan GR, Jackson JL. Meta-analysis: computed tomographic colonography. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:635650.

  • 30.

    Kim DH, Pickhardt PJ, Taylor AJ et al. . CT colonography versus colonoscopy for the detection of advanced neoplasia. N Engl J Med 2007;357:14031412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation BoRER, Division on Earth and Life Sciences, and National Research Council of the National Academies. Health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation: BEIR VII, phase 2. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11340. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Hewitson P, Glasziou P, Watson E et al. . Cochrane systematic review of colorectal cancer screening using the fecal occult blood test (hemoccult): an update. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:15411549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Allison JE, Tekawa IS, Ransom LJ, Adrain AL. A comparison of fecal occult-blood tests for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 1996;334:155159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Hundt S, Haug U, Brenner H. Comparative evaluation of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests for colorectal adenoma detection. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:162169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Hol L, Van Leerdam ME, Van Ballegooijen M et al. . Screening For colorectal cancer; randomised trial comparing guaiac-based and immunochemical fecal occult blood testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy. Gut 2009; in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Sox HC. Office-based testing for fecal occult blood: do only in case of emergency. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:146148.

  • 37.

    Collins JF, Lieberman DA, Durbin TE, Weiss DG. Accuracy of screening for fecal occult blood on a single stool sample obtained by digital rectal examination: a comparison with recommended sampling practice. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:8185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Osborn NK, Ahlquist DA. Stool screening for colorectal cancer: molecular approaches. Gastroenterology 2005;128:192206.

  • 39.

    Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH et al. . Fecal DNA versus fecal occult blood for colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population. N Engl J Med 2004;351:27042714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Ahlquist DA, Sargent DJ, Loprinzi CL et al. . Stool DNA and occult blood testing for screen detection of colorectal neoplasia. Ann Intern Med 2008;149:441450, W481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Heresbach D, Barrioz T, Lapalus MG et al. . Miss rate for colorectal neoplastic polyps: a prospective multicenter study of back-to-back video colonoscopies. Endoscopy 2008;40:284290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Chow E, Lipton L, Lynch E et al. . Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome: phenotypic presentations and the role of MBD4 and MYH. Gastroenterology 2006;131:3039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Rubio CA, Stemme S, Jaramillo E, Lindblom A. Hyperplastic polyposis coli syndrome and colorectal carcinoma. Endoscopy 2006;38:266270.

  • 44.

    Yeoman A, Young J, Arnold J et al. . Hyperplastic polyposis in the New Zealand population: a condition associated with increased colorectal cancer risk and European ancestry. N Z Med J 2007;120:U2827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Ferrandez A, Samowitz W, DiSario JA, Burt RW. Phenotypic characteristics and risk of cancer development in hyperplastic polyposis: case series and literature review. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:20122018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Leggett BA, Devereaux B, Biden K et al. . Hyperplastic polyposis: association with colorectal cancer. Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:177184.

  • 47.

    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Fletcher RH et al. . Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin 2006;56:143159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    O'Brien MJ, Winawer SJ, Zauber AG et al. . The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas. Gastroenterology 1990;98:371379.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Golembeski C, McKenna B, Appelman HD. Advanced adenomas: pathologists don't agree. Modern Pathology 2007;20:115A.

  • 50.

    Brooker JC, Saunders BP, Shah SG et al. . Total colonic dye-spray increases the detection of diminutive adenomas during routine colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;56:333338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Green RJ, Metlay JP, Propert K et al. . Surveillance for second primary colorectal cancer after adjuvant chemotherapy: an analysis of Intergroup 0089. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:261269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Rex DK, Kahi CJ, Levin B et al. . Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after cancer resection: a consensus update by the American Cancer Society and US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2006;56:160167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Rodriguez-Moranta F, Salo J, Arcusa A et al. . Postoperative surveillance in patients with colorectal cancer who have undergone curative resection: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:386393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Shureiqi I, Cooksley CD, Morris J et al. . Effect of age on risk of second primary colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:12641266.

  • 55.

    Burt R, Neklason DW. Genetic testing for inherited colon cancer. Gastroenterology 2005;128:16961716.

  • 56.

    Giardiello FM, Offerhaus JG. Phenotype and cancer risk of various polyposis syndromes. Eur J Cancer 1995;31A:10851087.

  • 57.

    Hamilton SR, Liu B, Parsons RE et al. . The molecular basis of Turcot's syndrome. N Engl J Med 1995;332:839847.

  • 58.

    Hampel H, Frankel WL, Martin E et al. . Feasibility of screening for Lynch syndrome among patients with colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:57835788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Lynch HT, de la Chapelle A. Hereditary colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;348:919932.

  • 60.

    Chung DC, Rustgi AK. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome: genetics and clinical implications. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:560570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Loukola A, Eklin K, Laiho P et al. . Microsatellite marker analysis in screening for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Cancer Res 2001;61:45454549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Jarvinen HJ, Mecklin JP, Sistonen P. Screening reduces colorectal cancer rate in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 1995;108:14051411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Lindor NM, Petersen GM, Hadley DW et al. . Recommendations for the care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to Lynch syndrome: a systematic review. JAMA 2006;296:15071517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Hendriks YM, de Jong AE, Morreau H et al. . Diagnostic approach and management of Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma): a guide for clinicians. CA Cancer J Clin 2006;56:213225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Caldes T, Godino J, Sanchez A et al. . Immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability testing for selecting MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutation carriers in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep 2004;12:621629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Vasen HF, Hendriks Y, de Jong AE et al. . Identification of HNPCC by molecular analysis of colorectal and endometrial tumors. Dis Markers 2004;20:207213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Lindor NM, Burgart LJ, Leontovich O et al. . Immunohistochemistry versus microsatellite instability testing in phenotyping colorectal tumors. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:10431048.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Pinol V, Castells A, Andreu M et al. . Accuracy of revised Bethesda guidelines, microsatellite instability, and immunohistochemistry for the identification of patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. JAMA 2005;293:19861994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Shia J, Klimstra DS, Nafa K et al. . Value of immunohistochemical detection of DNA mismatch repair proteins in predicting germline mutation in hereditary colorectal neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol 2005;29:96104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Hampel H, Frankel W, Panescu J et al. . Screening for Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) among endometrial cancer patients. Cancer Res 2006;66:78107817.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Reyes CM, Allen BA, Terdiman JP, Wilson LS. Comparison of selection strategies for genetic testing of patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma: effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Cancer 2002;95:18481856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Boland CR, Hamilton SR et al. . A National Cancer Institute Workshop on Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Syndrome: meeting highlights and Bethesda guidelines. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:17581762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Umar A, Boland CR, Terdiman JP et al. . Revised Bethesda guidelines for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and microsatellite instability. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:261268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Raedle J, Trojan J, Brieger A et al. . Bethesda guidelines: relation to microsatellite instability and MLH1 promoter methylation in patients with colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:566576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Vasen HF. Clinical diagnosis and management of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:81S92S.

  • 76.

    Lagerstedt Robinson K, Liu T, Vandrovcova J et al. . Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) diagnostics. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:291299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Ramsey SD, Clarke L, Etzioni R et al. . Cost-effectiveness of microsatellite instability screening as a method for detecting hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:577588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Balmana J, Stockwell DH, Steyerberg EW et al. . Prediction of MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in Lynch syndrome. JAMA 2006;296:14691478.

  • 79.

    Barnetson RA, Tenesa A, Farrington SM et al. . Identification and survival of carriers of mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes in colon cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;354:27512763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Chen S, Wang W, Lee S et al. . Prediction of germline mutations and cancer risk in the Lynch syndrome. JAMA 2006;296:14791487.

  • 81.

    Kohlmann W, Gruber S. Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer. Available at http://www.genetests.org. Accessed 09/18/09. GeneReviews at GeneTests: Medical Genetics Information Reseource (datebase online). Seattle: University of Washington; 1997–2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Watson P, Vasen HF, Mecklin JP et al. . The risk of extra-colonic, extra-endometrial cancer in the Lynch syndrome. Int J Cancer 2008;123:444449.

  • 83.

    Schulmann K, Engel C, Propping P, Schmiegel W. Small bowel cancer risk in Lynch syndrome. Gut 2008;57:16291630.

  • 84.

    Galiatsatos P, Foulkes WD. Familial adenomatous polyposis. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:385398.

  • 85.

    Burt RW, Leppert MF, Slattery ML et al. . Genetic testing and phenotype in a large kindred with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. Gastroenterology 2004;127:444451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Abraham SC, Nobukawa B, Giardiello FM et al. . Fundic gland polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis: neoplasms with frequent somatic adenomatous polyposis coli gene alterations. Am J Pathol 2000;157:747754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Guillem JG, Wood WC, Moley JF et al. . ASCO/SSO review of current role of risk-reducing surgery in common hereditary cancer syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:46424660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Ambroze WL Jr, Dozois RR, Pemberton JH et al. . Familial adenomatous polyposis: results following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and ileorectostomy. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35:1215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Madden MV, Neale KF, Nicholls RJ et al. . Comparison of morbidity and function after colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or restorative proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis. Br J Surg 1991;78:789792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Soravia C, Klein L, Berk T et al. . Comparison of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and ileorectal anastomosis in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:10281033.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Van Duijvendijk P, Slors JF, Taat CW et al. . Quality of life after total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis. Br J Surg 2000;87:590596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    van Duijvendijk P, Slors JF, Taat CW et al. . Functional outcome after colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis compared with proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in familial adenomatous polyposis. Ann Surg 1999;230:648654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    Ziv Y, Church JM, Oakley JR et al. . Surgery for the teenager with familial adenomatous polyposis: ileo-rectal anastomosis or restorative proctocolectomy? Int J Colorectal Dis 1995;10:69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Bjork JA, Akerbrant HI, Iselius LE, Hultcrantz RW. Risk factors for rectal cancer morbidity and mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis after colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:17191725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    De Cosse JJ, Bulow S, Neale K et al. . Rectal cancer risk in patients treated for familial adenomatous polyposis. The Leeds Castle Polyposis Group. Br J Surg 1992;79:13721375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    Vasen HF, van Duijvendijk P, Buskens E et al. . Decision analysis in the surgical treatment of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: a Dutch-Scandinavian collaborative study including 659 patients. Gut 2001;49:231235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Bulow S, Bulow C, Vasen H et al. . Colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis is still an option for selected patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum 2008;51:13181323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98.

    Church J, Burke C, McGannon E et al. . Risk of rectal cancer in patients after colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis: a function of available surgical options. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46:11751181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    Nugent KP, Phillips RK. Rectal cancer risk in older patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and an ileorectal anastomosis: a cause for concern. Br J Surg 1992;79:12041206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Groen EJ, Roos A, Muntinghe FL et al. . Extra-intestinal manifestations of familial adenomatous polyposis. Ann Surg Oncol 2008;15:24392450.

  • 101.

    Church J, Lynch C, Neary P et al. . A desmoid tumor-staging system separates patients with intra-abdominal, familial adenomatous polyposis-associated desmoid disease by behavior and prognosis. Dis Colon Rectum 2008;51:897901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Aretz S, Koch A, Uhlhaas S et al. . Should children at risk for familial adenomatous polyposis be screened for hepatoblastoma and children with apparently sporadic hepatoblastoma be screened for APC germline mutations? Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006;47:811818.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Attard TM, Giglio P, Koppula S et al. . Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis. Cancer 2007;109:761766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Giardiello FM, Offerhaus GJ, Lee DH et al. . Increased risk of thyroid and pancreatic carcinoma in familial adenomatous polyposis. Gut 1993;34:13941396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Spigelman AD, Williams CB, Talbot IC et al. . Upper gastrointestinal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Lancet 1989;2:783785.

  • 106.

    Saurin JC, Gutknecht C, Napoleon B et al. . Surveillance of duodenal adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis reveals high cumulative risk of advanced disease. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:493498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Baron JA, Cole BF, Sandler RS et al. . A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med 2003;348:891899.

  • 108.

    Chan AT, Giovannucci EL, Meyerhardt JA et al. . Long-term use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of colorectal cancer. JAMA 2005;294:914923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Sandler RS, Halabi S, Baron JA et al. . A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas in patients with previous colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;348:883890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Cruz-Correa M, Hylind LM, Romans KE et al. . Long-term treatment with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis: a prospective cohort study. Gastroenterology 2002;122:641645.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Giardiello FM, Yang VW, Hylind LM et al. . Primary chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis with sulindac. N Engl J Med 2002;346:10541059.

  • 112.

    Arber N, Eagle CJ, Spicak J et al. . Celecoxib for the prevention of colorectal adenomatous polyps. N Engl J Med 2006;355:885895.

  • 113.

    Baron JA, Sandler RS, Bresalier RS et al. . A randomized trial of rofecoxib for the chemoprevention of colorectal adenomas. Gastroenterology 2006;131:16741682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Bertagnolli MM, Eagle CJ, Zauber AG et al. . Celecoxib for the prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med 2006;355:873884.

  • 115.

    Steinbach G, Lynch PM, Phillips RK et al. . The effect of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in familial adenomatous polyposis. N Engl J Med 2000;342:19461952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116.

    Bertagnolli MM, Eagle CJ, Zauber AG et al. . Five-year efficacy and safety analysis of the Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib Trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) 2009;2:310321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Bresalier RS, Sandler RS, Quan H et al. . Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. N Engl J Med 2005;352:10921102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    Solomon SD, McMurray JJ, Pfeffer MA et al. . Cardiovascular risk associated with celecoxib in a clinical trial for colorectal adenoma prevention. N Engl J Med 2005;352:10711080.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    Ballhausen WG. Genetic testing for familial adenomatous polyposis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;910:3647.

  • 120.

    Mihalatos M, Apessos A, Papadopoulou E et al. . Genetic alterations of the APC gene in familial adenomatous polyposis patients of the hellenic group for the study of colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res 2003;23:21912193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Giardiello FM, Brensinger JD, Petersen GM et al. . The use and interpretation of commercial APC gene testing for familial adenomatous polyposis. N Engl J Med 1997;336:823827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Al-Tassan N, Chmiel NH, Maynard J et al. . Inherited variants of MYH associated with somatic G:C-->T:A mutations in colorectal tumors. Nat Genet 2002;30:227232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Jones S, Emmerson P, Maynard J et al. . Biallelic germline mutations in MYH predispose to multiple colorectal adenoma and somatic G:C-->T:A mutations. Hum Mol Genet 2002;11:29612967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Jo WS, Bandipalliam P, Shannon KM et al. . Correlation of polyp number and family history of colon cancer with germline MYH mutations. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;3:10221028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Wang L, Baudhuin LM, Boardman LA et al. . MYH mutations in patients with attenuated and classic polyposis and with young-onset colorectal cancer without polyps. Gastroenterology 2004;127:916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Balaguer F, Castellvi-Bel S, Castells A et al. . Identification of MYH mutation carriers in colorectal cancer: a multicenter, case-control, population-based study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5:379387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2025 635 35
PDF Downloads 206 94 20
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0