Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Clinical Practice Guidelines in OncologyNCCN Categories of Evidence and ConsensusCategory 1: The recommendation is based on high-level evidence (e.g., randomized controlled trials) and there is uniform NCCN consensus.Category 2A: The recommendation is based on lower-level evidence and there is uniform NCCN consensus.Category 2B: The recommendation is based on lower-level evidence and there is nonuniform NCCN consensus (but no major disagreement).Category 3: The recommendation is based on any level of evidence but reflects major disagreement.All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise noted.Clinical trials: The NCCN believes that the best management for any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.OverviewChronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) accounts for 15% of adult leukemias. Although the median age of disease onset is 67 years, CML occurs in all age groups (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [SEER] statistics). In 2009, an estimated 5050 cases will be diagnosed and 470 patients will die from the disease in the United States.1CML is a hematopoietic stem cell disease, which is characterized by a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph chromosome). This translocation t(9;22) results in the head-to-tail fusion of the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene on chromosome 22 at band q11 and the Abelson murine leukemia (ABL) gene located on chromosome 9 at band q34.2 The product of the fusion gene (BCR-ABL) is believed to play a central role in the...

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

References

  • 1

    JemalASiegelRWardE. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin2009;59:225249.

  • 2

    FaderlSATalpazMEstrovZ. The biology of chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med1999;341:164172.

  • 3

    RadichJPDaiHMaoM. Gene expression changes associated with progression and response in chronic myeloid leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2006;103:27942799.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    JamiesonCHAillesLEDyllaSJ. Granulocyte-macrophage progenitors as candidate leukemic stem cells in blast-crisis CML. N Engl J Med2004;351:657667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    SawyersCL. Chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med1999;340:13301340.

  • 6

    StoneRM. Optimizing treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: a rational approach. Oncologist2004;9:259270.

  • 7

    JabbourECortesJEGilesFJ. Current and emerging treatment options in chronic myeloid leukemia. Cancer2007;109:21712181.

  • 8

    KantarjianHSawyersCHochhausA. Hematologic and cytogenetic responses to imatinib mesylate in chronic myelogenous leukemia. N Engl J Med2002;346:645652.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    HochhausADrukerBSawyersC. Favorable long-term follow-up results over 6 years for response, survival, and safety with imatinib mesylate therapy in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia after failure of interferon-alpha treatment. Blood2008;111:10391043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    O’BrienSGGuilhotFLarsonRA. Imatinib compared with interferon and low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med2003;348:9941004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    DrukerBJGuilhotFO’BrienSG. Five-year follow-up of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med2006;355:24082417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    O’BrienSGGuilhotFGoldmanJM. International Randomized Study of Interferon Versus STI571 (IRIS) 7-year follow-up: sustained survival, low rate of transformation and increased rate of major molecular response (MMR) in patients (pts) with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CMLCP) treated with imatinib (IM) [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    KantarjianHMTalpazMO’BrienS. Survival benefit with imatinib mesylate versus interferon-{alpha}-based regimens in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood2006;108:18351840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    RoyLGuilhotJKrahnkeT. Survival advantage from imatinib compared with the combination interferon-{alpha} plus cytarabine in chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia: historical comparison between two phase 3 trials. Blood2006;108:14781484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    SchifferCA. BCR-ABL Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic myelogenous leukemia. N Engl J Med2007;357:258265.

  • 16

    BermanENicolaidesMMakiRG. Altered bone and mineral metabolism in patients receiving imatinib mesylate. N Engl J Med2006;354:20062013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    CortesJO’BrienSQuintasA. Erythropoietin is effective in improving the anemia induced by imatinib mesylate therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. Cancer2004;100:23962402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Quintas-CardamaAKantarjianHO’BrienS. Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) may overcome imatinib-induced neutropenia in patients with chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Cancer2004;100:25922597.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    KerkelaRGrazetteLYacobiR. Cardiotoxicity of the cancer therapeutic agent imatinib mesylate. Nat Med2006;12:908916.

  • 20

    AtallahEDurandJBKantarjianHCortesJ. Congestive heart failure is a rare event in patients receiving imatinib therapy. Blood2007;110:12331237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    ShahNPTranCLeeFY. Overriding imatinib resistance with a novel ABL kinase inhibitor. Science2004;305:399401.

  • 22

    TalpazMShahNPKantarjianH. Dasatinib in imatinib resistant Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias. N Eng J Med2006;354:25312541.

  • 23

    HochhausAKantarjianHMBaccaraniM. Dasatinib induces notable hematologic and cytogenetic responses in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia after failure of imatinib therapy. Blood2007;109:23032309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    MauroMJBaccaraniMCervantesF. Dasatinib 2-year efficacy in patients with chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-CP) with resistance or intolerance to imatinib (START-C) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2008;26(Suppl 1):Abstract 7009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    BaccaraniMRostiGSaglioG. Dasatinib time to and durability of major and complete cytogenetic response (MCyR and CCyR) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    GuilhotFApperleyJKimDW. Dasatinib induces significant hematologic and cytogenetic responses in patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia in accelerated phase. Blood2007;109:41434150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    ApperleyJFCortesJEKimDW. Dasatinib in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in accelerated phase after imatinib failure: the START A trial. J Clin Oncol2009;27:34723479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    KantarjianHCortesJKimDW. Phase 3 study of dasatinib 140 mg once daily versus 70 mg twice daily in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in accelerated phase resistant or intolerant to imatinib: 15-month median follow-up. Blood2009;113:63226329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    CortesJRousselotPKimDW. Dasatinib induces complete hematologic and cytogenetic responses in patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis. Blood2007;109:32073213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    CortesJKimDWRaffouxE. Efficacy and safety of dasatinib in imatinib-resistant or -intolerant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in blast phase. Leukemia2008;22:21762183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    SaglioGKantarjianHMHochhausA. Dasatinib 140 mg once daily (QD) demonstrates equivalent efficacy and improved safety compared with 70 mg twice daily (BID) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in blast phase (CML-BP): 2-year data from CA180-035 [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 3226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Quintas-CardamaAHanXKantarjianHCortesJ. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced platelet dysfunction in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2009;114:261263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Quintas-CardamaAKantarjianHO’BrienS. Pleural effusion in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with dasatinib after imatinib failure. J Clin Oncol2007;25:39083914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    ShahNPKantarjianHMKimDW. Intermittent target inhibition with dasatinib 100 mg once daily preserves efficacy and improves tolerability in imatinib-resistant and -intolerant chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol2008;26:32043212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    StoneRMKimDWKantarjianHM. Dasatinib dose-optimization study in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP): three-year follow-up with dasatinib 100 mg once daily and landmark analysis of cytogenetic response and progression-free survival (PFS) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl 1):Abstract 7007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    CortesJO’BrienSBorthakurG. Efficacy of dasatinib in patients (pts) with previously untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in early chronic phase (CML-CP) [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    KantarjianHGilesFWunderleL. Nilotinib in imatinib-resistant CML and Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL. N Engl J Med2006;354:25422551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    KantarjianHMGilesFGattermannN. Nilotinib (formerly AMN107), a highly selective BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective in patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase following imatinib resistance and intolerance. Blood2007;110:35403546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    KantarjianHGilesFBhallaK. Nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in chronic phase (CML-CP) with imatinib (IM) resistance or intolerance: longer follow-up results of a phase II study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl 1):Abstract 7029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    le CoutrePOttmannOGGilesF. Nilotinib (formerly AMN107), a highly selective BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is active in patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant accelerated-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood2008;111:18341839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Le CoutrePDGilesFHochhausA. Nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in accelerated phase (CML-AP) with imatinib (IM) resistance or intolerance: longer follow-up results of a phase II study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl 1):Abstract 7057.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    GilesFJLarsonRAKantarjianHM. Nilotinib in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis (CML-BC) who are resistant or intolerant to imatinib [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2008;26(Suppl 1):Abstract 7017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    MartinelliGCastagnettiFPoerioA. Molecular responses with nilotinib 800 mg daily as first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results of a phase II trial of the GIMEMA CML WP [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl 1):Abstract 7074.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    PyeSMCortesJAultP. The effects of imatinib on pregnancy outcome. Blood2008;111:55055508.

  • 45

    AultPKantarjianHO’BrienS. Pregnancy among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib. J Clin Oncol2006;24:12041208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    HeartinEWalkinshawSClarkRE. Successful outcome of pregnancy in chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib. Leuk Lymphoma2004;45:13071308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    AlKindiSDennisonDPathareA. Imatinib in pregnancy. Eur J Haematol2005;74:535537.

  • 48

    AliROzkalemkasFOzcelikT. Pregnancy under treatment of imatinib and successful labor in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML): outcome of discontinuation of imatinib therapy after achieving a molecular remission. Leuk Res2005;29:971973.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    PrabhashKSastryPSRKBiswasG. Pregnancy outcome of two patients with imatinib. Ann Oncol2005;16:19831984.

  • 50

    ChoudharyDRMishraPKumarR. Pregnancy on imatinib: fatal outcome with meningocele. Ann Oncol2006;17:178179.

  • 51

    HensleyMLFordJM. Imatinib treatment: specific issues related to safety, fertility, and pregnancy. Semin Hematol2003;40(2 Suppl 2):2125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    SeshadriTSeymourJFMcArthurGA. Oligospermia in a patient receiving imatinib therapy for the hypereosinophilic syndrome. N Engl J Med2004;351:21342135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53

    SeymourJFGriggAReynoldsJ. Two year data from a prospective safety study analyzing the consequences of imatinib mesylate inhibition of sensitive kinases other than bcr-abl in patients with previously untreated chronic phase CML [abstract]. Blood2006;108:Abstract 2147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54

    CortesJO’BrienSAultP. Pregnancy outcomes among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with dasatinib [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 3230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    GuoJQWangJYGArlinghausRB. Detection of BCR-ABL proteins in blood cells of benign phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Cancer Res1991;51:30483051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56

    CortesJTalpazMBeranM. Philadelphia chromosome negative chronic myelogenous leukemia rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region: long-term follow-up results. Cancer1995;75:464470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57

    LiptonJHKhoroshkoNGolenkovA. Phase II, randomized, multicenter, comparative study of peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kD) (Pegasys) versus interferon alpha-2a (Roferon-A) in patients with treatment-naïve, chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma2007;48:497505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    MichalletMMaloiselFDelainM. Pegylated recombinant interferon alpha-2b vs recombinant interferon alpha-2b for the initial treatment of chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia: a phase III study. Leukemia2004;18:309315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    KantarjianHMTalpazMO’BrienS. High-dose imatinib mesylate therapy in newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2004;103:28732878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60

    CortesJBaccaraniMGuilhotF. A phase III, randomized, open-label study of 400 mg versus 800 mg of imatinib mesylate (IM) in patients (pts) with newly diagnosed, previously untreated chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) using molecular endpoints: 1-year results of TOPS (Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Optimization and Selectivity) study [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    HughesTPBranfordSWhiteDL. Impact of early dose intensity on cytogenetic and molecular responses in chronic phase CML patients receiving 600 mg/day of imatinib as initial therapy. Blood2008;112:39653973.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    AokiEKantarjianHO’BrienS. High-dose (HD) imatinib provides better responses in patients with untreated early chronic phase (CP) CML [abstract]. Blood2006;108:Abstract 2143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63

    CastagnettiFPalandriFAmabileM. Results of high-dose imatinib mesylate in intermediate Sokal risk chronic myeloid leukemia patients in early chronic phase: a phase 2 trial of the GIMEMA CML Working Party. Blood2009;113:34283434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    BaccaraniMRostiGCastagnettiF. Comparison of imatinib 400 mg and 800 mg daily in the front-line treatment of high-risk, Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia: a European LeukemiaNet Study. Blood2009;113:44974504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    Gambacorti-PasseriniCZucchettiMRussoD. Alpha1 acid glycoprotein binds to imatinib (STI571) and substantially alters its pharmacokinetics in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Clin Cancer Res2003;9:625632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    PicardSTitierKEtienneG. Trough imatinib plasma levels are associated with both cytogenetic and molecular responses to standard-dose imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2007;109:34963499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    LarsonRADrukerBJGuilhotF. Imatinib pharmacokinetics and its correlation with response and safety in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: a subanalysis of the IRIS study. Blood2008;111:40224028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    AultPKantarjianHMBryanJ. Clinical use of imatinib plasma levels in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 4255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    ThomasJWangLClarkREPirmohamedM. Active transport of imatinib into and out of cells: implications for drug resistance. Blood2004;104:37393745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    WhiteDLSaundersVADangP. Most CML patients who have a suboptimal response to imatinib have low OCT-1 activity: higher doses of imatinib may overcome the negative impact of low OCT-1 activity. Blood2007;110:40644072.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    WhiteDLSaundersVADangP. CML patients with low OCT-1 activity achieve better molecular responses on high dose imatinib than on standard dose. Those with high OCT-1 activity have excellent responses on either dose: a TOPS correlative study [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 3187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    GiannoudisADaviesALucasCM. Effective dasatinib uptake may occur without human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1): implications for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2008;112:33483354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    WhiteDLSaundersVADangP. OCT-1-mediated influx is a key determinant of the intracellular uptake of imatinib but not nilotinib (AMN107): reduced OCT-1 activity is the cause of low in vitro sensitivity to imatinib. Blood2006;108:697704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    NardiVAzamMDaleyGQ. Mechanisms and implications of imatinib resistance mutations in BCR-ABL. Curr Opin Hematol2004;11:3543.

  • 75

    BranfordSRudzkiZWalshS. Detection of BCR-ABL mutations in patients with CML treated with imatinib is virtually always accompanied by clinical resistant and mutation in the ATP phosphate-binding loop are associated with a poor prognosis. Blood2003;102:276283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76

    SoveriniSMartinelliGRostiG. ABL mutations in late chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with up-front cytogenetic resistance to imatinib are associated with a greater likelihood of progression to blast crisis and shorter survival: a study by the GIMEMA Working Party on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. J Clin Oncol2005;23:41004109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    WillisSGLangeTDemehriS. High-sensitivity detection of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in imatinib-naïve patients: correlation with clonal cytogenetic evolution but not response to therapy. Blood2005;106:21282137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78

    le CoutrePTassiEVarella-GarciaM. Induction of resistance to the abelson inhibitor STI571 in human leukemic cells through gene amplification. Blood2000;95:17581766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    MahonFXDeiningerMWSchultheisB. Selection and characterization of BCR-ABL positive cells lines with differential sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571: diverse mechanisms of resistance. Blood2000;96:10701079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    WeisbergEGriffinJD. Mechanism of resistance to the ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 in BCR/ABL-transformed hematopoietic cell lines. Blood2000;95:3498505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    GorreMEMohammedMEllwoodK. Clinical resistance to STI-571 cancer therapy caused by BCR-ABL gene mutation or amplification. Science2001;293:876880.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    NicoliniFEHayetteSCormS. Clinical outcome of 27 imatinib mesylate-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia patients harboring a T315I BCR-ABL mutation. Haematologica2007;92:12381241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83

    NicoliniFECormSLeQH. Mutation status and clinical outcome of 89 imatinib mesylate-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia patients: a retrospective analysis from the French intergroup of CML (Fi(phi)-LMC GROUP). Leukemia2006;20:10611106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84

    JabbourEKantarjianHJonesD. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and T315I mutation following failure of imatinib mesylate therapy. Blood2008;112:5355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    KhorashadJSde LavalladeHApperleyJF. Finding of kinase domain mutations in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia responding to imatinib may identify those at high risk of disease progression. J Clin Oncol2008;26:48064813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    JabbourEKantarjianHJonesD. Frequency and clinical significance of BCR-ABL mutations in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate. Leukemia2006;20:17671773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    HochhausAKreilSCorbinAS. Molecular and chromosomal mechanisms of resistance to imatinib (STI571) therapy. Leukemia2002;16:21902196.

  • 88

    ApperleyJF. Part I: mechanisms of resistance to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukaemia. Lancet Oncol2007;8:10181029.

  • 89

    MajlisASmithTTalpazM. Significance of cytogenetic clonal evolution in chronic myelogenous leukemia. J Clin Oncol1996;14:196203.

  • 90

    O’DwyerMEMauroMJKurilikG. The impact of clonal evolution on response to imatinib mesylate (STI571) in accelerated phase CML. Blood2002;100:16281633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    CortesJETalpazMGilesF. Prognostic significance of cytogenetic clonal evolution in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia on imatinib mesylate therapy. Blood2003;101:37943800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    O’DwyerMEMauroMJBlasdelC. Clonal evolution and lack of cytogenetic response are adverse prognostic factors for hematologic relapse of chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib mesylate. Blood2004;103:451455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    TerreCEclacheVRousselotP. Report of 34 patients with clonal chromosomal abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells during imatinib treatment of Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia2004;18:13401346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    MedinaJKantarjianHTalpazM. Chromosomal abnormalities in Philadelphia chromosome-negative metaphases appearing during imatinib mesylate therapy in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. Cancer2003;98:19051911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    FeldmanENajfeldVSchusterM. The emergence of Ph-, trisomy-8+ cells in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate. Exp Hematol2003;31:702707.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    BummTMullerCAl-AliHK. Emergence of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities in Ph- cells in some CML patients in cytogenetic remission to imatinib but restoration of polyclonal hematopoiesis in the majority. Blood2003;101:19411949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97

    DeiningerMWCortesJPaquetteR. The prognosis for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who have clonal cytogenetic abnormalities in Philadelphia chromosome-negative cells. Cancer2007;110:15091519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    JabbourEKantarjianHMAbruzzoLV. Chromosomal abnormalities in Philadelphia chromosome negative metaphases appearing during imatinib mesylate therapy in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. Blood2007;110:29912995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    KantarjianHMTalpazMO’BrienS. Dose escalation of imatinib mesylate can overcome resistance to standard-dose therapy in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood2003;101:473475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    MarinDGoldmanJMOlavarriaEApperleyJF. Transient benefit only from increasing the imatinib dose in CML patients who do not achieve complete cytogenetic remissions on conventional doses. Blood2003;102:27022704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    ZonderJAPembertonPBrandtH. The effect of dose increase of imatinib mesylate in patients with chronic or accelerated phase chronic myelogenous leukemia with inadequate hematologic or cytogenetic response to initial treatment. Clin Cancer Res2003;9:20922097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    JabbourEKantarjianHMJonesD. Imatinib mesylate dose escalation is associated with durable responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia after cytogenetic failure on standard-dose imatinib therapy. Blood2009;113:21542160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    KantarjianHMLarsonRAGuilhotF. Efficacy of imatinib dose escalation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. Cancer2009;115:551260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    KantarjianHPasquiniRHamerschlakN. Dasatinib or high-dose imatinib for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia after failure of first-line imatinib: a randomized phase 2 trial. Blood2007;109:51435150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    RousselotPHFaconTPaquetteR. Dasatinib or high-dose imatinib for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia chronic-phase (CML-CP) resistant to standard-dose imatinib: 2-year follow-up data from START-R [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2008;26(Suppl 1):Abstract 7012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    Quintas-CardamaACortesJ. Therapeutic options against BCR-ABL1 T315I-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clin Cancer Res2008;14:43924399.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107

    MarinDKaedaJSAndreassonC. Phase I/II trial of adding semisynthetic homoharringtonine in chronic myeloid leukemia patients who have achieved partial or complete cytogenetic response on imatinib. Cancer2005;103:18501855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108

    Quintas-CardamaAKantarjianHGarcia-ManeroG. Phase I/II study of subcutaneous homoharringtonine in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who have failed prior therapy. Cancer2007;109:248255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109

    CortesJEKhouryHJCormS. Subcutaneous omacetaxine mepesuccinate in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients (Pts) with the T315I mutation: data from an ongoing phase II/III trial [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl 1):Abstract 7008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110

    KantarjianHSchifferCJonesDCortesJ. Monitoring the response and course of chronic myeloid leukemia in the modern era of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors: practical advice on the use and interpretation of monitoring methods. Blood2008;111:17741780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111

    MuhlmannJThalerJHilbeW. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on peripheral blood smears for monitoring Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during interferon treatment: a new strategy for remission assessment. Genes Chromosomes Cancer1998;21:90100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112

    LandstromATefferiA. Fluorescent in situ hybridization in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring of chronic myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma2006;47:397402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113

    Douet-GuilbertNMorelFLe CharpentierT. Interphase FISH for follow-up of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. Anticancer Res2004;24:25352539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    SeongDCKantarjianHMRoJY. Hypermetaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization for quantitative monitoring of Philadelphia chromosome-positive cells in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia during treatment. Blood1995;86:23432349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115

    DewaldGWWyattWAJuneauAL. Highly sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization method to detect double BCR/ABL fusion and monitor response to therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood1998;91:33573365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116

    de LavalladeHApperleyJFKhorashadJS. Imatinib for newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: incidence of sustained responses in an intention-to-treat analysis. J Clin Oncol2008;26:33583363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117

    Quintás-CardamaACortesJEO’BrienS. Dasatinib early intervention after cytogenetic or hematologic resistance to imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Cancer2009;115:29122921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118

    KantarjianHTalpazMCortesJ. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction monitoring of BCR-ABL during therapy with imatinib mesylate (STI571; gleevec) in chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clin Cancer Res2003;9:160166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119

    HughesTPHochhausABranfordS. Reduction of BCR-ABL transcript levels at 6, 12, and 18 months (mo) correlates with long-term outcomes on imatinib (IM) at 72 mo: an analysis from the International Randomized Study of Interferon versus STI571 (IRIS) in patients (pts) with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP) [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120

    PressRDLoveZTronnesAA. BCR-ABL mRNA levels at and after the time of a complete cytogenetic response (CCR) predict the duration of CCR in imatinib mesylate treated patients with CML. Blood2006;107:42504256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121

    PressRDGalderisiCYangR. A half-log Increase in BCR-ABL RNA predicts a higher risk of relapse in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia with an imatinib-induced complete cytogenetic response. Clin Cancer Res2007;13:61366143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122

    CortesJTalpazMO’BrienS. Molecular responses in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase treated with imatinib mesylate. Clin Cancer Res2005;11:34253432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123

    IacobucciISaglioGRostiG. Achieving a major molecular response at the time of a complete cytogenetic response predicts a better duration of CCgR in imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Clin Cancer Res2006;12:30373042.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124

    MarinDMilojkovicDOlavarriaE. European LeukemiaNet criteria for failure or suboptimal response reliably identify patients with CML in early chronic phase treated with imatinib whose eventual outcome is poor. Blood2008;112:44374444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125

    BaccaraniMSaglioGGoldmanJ. Evolving concepts in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of the European LeukemiaNet. Blood2006;108:18091820.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126

    HughesTDeiningerMHochhausA. Monitoring CML patients responding to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: review and recommendations for harmonizing current methodology for detecting BCR-ABL transcripts and kinase domain mutations and for expressing results. Blood2006;108:2837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127

    BranfordSCrossNCHochhausA. Rationale for the recommendations for harmonizing current methodology for detecting BCR-ABL transcripts in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Leukemia2006;20:19251930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128

    DarkowTHenkHJThomasSK. Treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib and associated healthcare costs: a retrospective analysis among managed care patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Pharmacoeconomics2007;25:481496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129

    NoensLvan LierdeMADe BockR. Prevalence, determinants, and outcomes of non-adherence to imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: the ADAGIO study. Blood2009;113:54015411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130

    KantarjianHMShanJJonesD. Significance of rising levels of minimal residual disease in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (Ph+ CML) in complete cytogenetic response (CGCR) [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131

    BranfordSRudzkiZParkinsonI. Real time quantitative PCR analysis can be used as a primary screen to identify patients with CML treated with imatinib who have BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. Blood2004;104:29262932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132

    HochhausA. Advances in the treatment of haematological malignancies: optimal sequence of CML treatment. Ann Oncol2007;18(Suppl 9):ix583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133

    Quintas-CardamaACortesJE. Chronic myeloid leukemia: diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc2006;81:973988.

  • 134

    CortesJO’BrienSKantarjianH. Discontinuation of imatinib therapy after achieving a molecular response. Blood2004;104:22042205.

  • 135

    RousselotPHuguetFReaD. Imatinib mesylate discontinuation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in complete molecular remission for more than 2 years. Blood2007;109:5860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136

    MahonFXHuguetFGuilhotF. Is it possible to stop imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia? An update from a French pilot study and first results from the multicentre << stop imatinib >> (STIM) study [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137

    RossDDMGriggASchwarerA. The majority of chronic myeloid leukaemia patients who cease imatinib after achieving a sustained complete molecular response (CMR) remain in CMR, and any relapses occur early [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 1102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138

    TamCSKantarjianHGarcia-ManeroG. Failure to achieve a major cytogenetic response by 12 months defines inadequate response in patients receiving nilotinib or dasatinib as second or subsequent line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2008;112:516518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139

    BranfordSLawrenceRFletcherL. The initial molecular response of chronic phase CML patients treated with second generation ABL inhibitor therapy after imatinib failure can predict inadequate response and provide indications for rational mutation screening [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140

    MilojkovicDBuaMApperleyJF. Prediction of cytogenetic response to second generation TKI therapy in CML chronic phase patients who have failed imatinib therapy and early identification of factors that influence survival [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141

    KantarjianHMDeisserothAKurzrockR. Chronic myelogenous leukemia: a concise update. Blood1993;82:691703.

  • 142

    SavageDGSzydloRMChaseA. Bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: the effects of differing criteria for defining chronic phase on probabilities of survival and relapse. Br J Haematol1997;99:3035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143

    SokalJEBaccaraniMRussoD. Staging and prognosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Semin Hematol1988;25:4961.

  • 144

    SwerdlowSHCampoEHarrisNL eds. WHO classification of tumours of the haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. IARC press: Lyon; 2008.

  • 145

    DeVitaVTHellmanSRosenburgSA eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146

    YanadaMNaoeT. Imatinib combined chemotherapy for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: major challenges in current practice. Leuk Lymphoma2006;47:17471753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147

    de LabartheARousselotPHuguet-RigalF. Imatinib combined with induction or consolidation chemotherapy in patients with de novo Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of the GRAAPH-2003 study. Blood2007;109:14081413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148

    ThomasDAFaderlSCortesJ. Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia with hyper-CVAD and imatinib mesylate. Blood2004;103:43964407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 149

    ThomasDAKantarjianHMCortesJE. Outcome after frontline therapy with the hyper-CVAD and imatinib mesylate regimen for adults with de novo or minimally treated Philadelphia (Ph) positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2008;26(Suppl 1):Abstract 7019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150

    RavandiFFaderlSThomasDA. Phase II study of combination of the hyperCVAD regimen with dasatinib in patients (pts) with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2008;26(Suppl 1):Abstract 7020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151

    DaviesSMDeForTEMcGlavePB. Equivalent outcomes in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia after early transplantation of phenotypically matched bone marrow from related or unrelated donors. Am J Med2001;110:339346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152

    HansenJAGooleyTAMartinPJ. Bone marrow transplants from unrelated donors for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med1998;338:962968.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153

    HorowitzMMRowlingsPAPasswegJR. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for CML: a report from the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. Bone Marrow Transplant1996;17(Suppl 1):S56.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154

    McSweeneyPANiederwieserDShizuruJA. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in older patients with hematologic malignancies: replacing high-dose cytotoxic therapy with graft-versus-tumor effects. Blood2001;97:33903400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155

    GiraltSEsteyEAlbitarM. Engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cells with purine analog-containing chemotherapy: harnessing graft-versus-leukemia without myeloablative therapy. Blood1997;89:45314536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156

    GiraltSThallPKhouriI. Melphalan and purine analog-containing preparative regimens: reduced-intensity conditioning for patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation. Blood2001;97:631637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 157

    OrRShapiraMResnickI. Nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase. Blood2003;101:441445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158

    CrawleyCSzyldoRLalancetteM. Outcomes of reduced intensity transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis of prognostic factors from the Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT. Blood2005;106:29692976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 159

    GoldmanJSzydloRHorowitzMM. Choice of pretransplant treatment and timing of transplants for chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. Blood1993;82:22352238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160

    BeelenDWGraevenUElmaagacliAH. Prolonged administration of interferon-alpha in patients with chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may adversely affect transplant outcome. Blood1995;85:29812990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161

    MortonAJGooleyTHansenJA. Association between pretransplant interferon-alpha and outcome after unrelated donor marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. Blood1998;92:394401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162

    AnderliniPShethSHicksK. Re: imatinib mesylate administration in the first 100 days after stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant2004;10:883884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 163

    DeiningerMSchleuningMGreinixH. The effect of prior exposure to imatinib on transplant-related mortality. Haematologica2006;91:452459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164

    OehlerVGGooleyTSnyderDS. The effects of imatinib mesylate treatment before allogeneic transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2007;109:17821789.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165

    LeeSJKukrejaMWangT. Impact of prior imatinib mesylate on the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2008;112:35003507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 166

    JabbourECortesJKantarjianH. Novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy before allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: no evidence for increased transplant-related toxicity. Cancer2007;110:340344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167

    le CoutrePDHemmatiPNeuburgerS. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in advanced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients after tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy [abstract]. Blood2008;112:Abstract 4419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168

    BrecciaMPalandriFIoriAP. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors before allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia resistant to imatinib. Leuk Res2009; in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 169

    KolbHJSchattenbergAGoldmanJM. Graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor lymphocyte transfusions in marrow grafted patients. European group for blood and marrow transplantation working party chronic leukemia. Blood1995;86:20412050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 170

    LuznikLFuchsEJ. Donor lymphocyte infusions to treat hematologic malignancies in relapse after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation. Cancer Control2002;9:123137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 171

    GilleeceMHDazziF. Donor lymphocyte infusions for patients who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma2003;44:2328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 172

    SimulaMPMarktelSFozzaC. Response to donor lymphocyte infusions for chronic myeloid leukemia is dose-dependent: the importance of escalating the cell dose to maximize therapeutic efficacy. Leukemia2007;21:943948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 173

    KantarjianHMO’BrienSCortesJE. Imatinib mesylate therapy for relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood2002;100:15901595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 174

    OlavarriaEOttmannOGDeiningerM. Response to imatinib in patients who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia2003;17:17071712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 175

    HessGBunjesDSiegertW. Sustained complete molecular remissions after treatment with imatinib-mesylate in patients with failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: results of a prospective phase II open-label multicenter study. J Clin Oncol2005;23:75837593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 176

    CarpenterPASnyderDSFlowersMED. Prophylactic administration of imatinib after hematopoietic cell transplantation for high-risk Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Blood2007;109:27912793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 177

    DeAngeloDJHochbergEPAlyeaEP. Extended follow-up of patients treated with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) for chronic myelogenous leukemia relapse after allogeneic transplantation: durable cytogenetic remission and conversion to complete donor chimerism without graft-versus-host disease. Clin Cancer Res2004;10:50655071.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 178

    WeisserMTischerJSchnittgerS. A comparison of donor lymphocyte infusions or imatinib mesylate for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia who have relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica2006;91:663666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 179

    PorkkaKKoskenvesaPLundanT. Dasatinib crosses the blood-brain barrier and is an efficient therapy for central nervous system Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Blood2008;112:10051012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 180

    RadichJPGehlyGGooleyT. Polymerase chain reaction detection of the BCR-ABL fusion transcript after allogeneic marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: results and implications in 346 patients. Blood1995;85:26322638.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 181

    RadichJPGooleyTBryantE. The significance of bcr-abl molecular detection in chronic myeloid leukemia patients “late,” 18 months or more after transplantation. Blood2001;98:17011707.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 182

    OlavarriaEKanferESzydloR. Early detection of BCR-ABL transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction predicts outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood2001;97:15601565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 183

    MackinnonSBarnettLHellerG. Polymerase chain reaction is highly predictive of relapse in patients following T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant1996;17:643647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Information

PubMed

Google Scholar

Related Articles

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 79 79 14
PDF Downloads 18 18 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0