Bladder Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines in OncologyNCCN Categories of Evidence and ConsensusCategory 1: The recommendation is based on high-level evidence (e.g., randomized controlled trials) and there is uniform NCCN consensus.Category 2A: The recommendation is based on lower-level evidence and there is uniform NCCN consensus.Category 2B: The recommendation is based on lower-level evidence and there is nonuniform NCCN consensus (but no major disagreement).Category 3: The recommendation is based on any level of evidence but reflects major disagreement.All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise noted.Clinical trials: The NCCN believes that the best management for any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.OverviewAn estimated 68,810 new cases of urinary bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States (51,230 men and 17,580 women) in 2008.1 Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and is 3 times more common in men than in women in the United States. Furthermore, approximately 14,100 deaths (9950 men and 4150 women) from bladder cancer are anticipated.1 Bladder cancers are rarely diagnosed in individuals younger than 40 years. Because the median age at diagnosis is 65 years, medical comorbidities are a frequent consideration in patient management.The clinical spectrum of bladder cancer can be divided into 3 categories that differ in prognosis, management, and therapeutic aims. The first category consists of noninvasive tumors, for which treatment is directed at reducing recurrences and preventing progression to a more advanced stage. The...

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