Resistance to Imatinib: Mechanisms and Management

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Imatinib, a specific small molecule inhibitor of the Abl kinase, has become the standard drug therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia in all phases. More than 80% of newly diagnosed patients with chronic phase attain a complete cytogenetic response (CCR). Although remissions in patients with early disease are generally durable, acquired resistance after an initial response is common in advanced disease. Reactivation of Bcr-Abl signaling is almost invariably present at the time of relapse, consistent with re-establishment of the initial pathogenetic mechanism. Mutations in the kinase domain (KD) of Bcr-Abl that impair drug binding and increased expression of Bcr-Abl have been identified as major mechanism of acquired drug resistance. The fact that Bcr-Abl remains central to disease pathogenesis at the time of relapse implies that it also remains the optimal drug target. Alternative Abl kinase inhibitors with increased potency and activity against most Bcr-Abl KD mutants are currently undergoing phase I/II clinical testing, with encouraging early results. Despite the high rates of CCR, persistence of residual leukemia as assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction is the rule even in patients with chronic phase, suggesting that even these patients may remain at risk of relapse. Understanding the mechanisms underlying disease persistence will be crucial for developing strategies to eradicate residual leukemia.

Dr. Deininger is a recipient of an American Society of Hematology Clinical/Translational Research Scholar Award. Dr. Deininger is a consultant for Novartis Pharma and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Correspondence: Michael Deininger, MD, PhD, OHSU Cancer Institute, Center for Hematologic Malignancies, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, Mailcode - L592. E-mail: deininge@ohsu.edu
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