NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Central Nervous System Cancers, Version 2.2022

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Authors:
Craig HorbinskiRobert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University

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Louis Burt NaborsO’Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center at UAB

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Jana PortnowCity of Hope National Medical Center

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Joachim BaehringYale Cancer Center/Smilow Cancer Hospital

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Ankush BhatiaUniversity of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center

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Orin BlochUC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center

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Steven BremAbramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania

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Nicholas ButowskiUCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center

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Donald M. CannonHuntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah

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Samuel ChaoCase Comprehensive Cancer Center/University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute

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Milan G. ChhedaSiteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine

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Andrew J. FabianoRoswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center

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Peter ForsythMoffitt Cancer Center

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Pierre GigilioThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute

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Jona Hattangadi-GluthUC San Diego Moores Cancer Center

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Matthias HoldhoffThe Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins

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Larry JunckUniversity of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center

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Thomas KaleyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

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Ryan MerrellVanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center

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Maciej M. MrugalaMayo Clinic Cancer Center

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Seema NagpalStanford Cancer Institute

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Lucien A. NedziSt. Jude Children’s Research Hospital/The University of Tennessee Health Science Center

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Kathryn NevelIndiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center

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Phioanh L. NghiemphuUCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center

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Ian ParneyMayo Clinic Cancer Center

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Toral R. PatelUT Southwestern Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center

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Katherine PetersDuke Cancer Institute

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Vinay K. PuduvalliThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute

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Jason RockhillFred Hutchinson Cancer Center

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Chad RusthovenUniversity of Colorado Cancer Center

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Nicole ShonkaFred and Pamela Buffet Cancer Center

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Lode J. SwinnenThe Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins

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Stephanie WeissFox Chase Cancer Center

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Patrick Yung WenDana-Farber Cancer Institute

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Nicole E. WillmarthAmerican Brain Tumor Association

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Mary Anne BergmanNational Comprehensive Cancer Network

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Susan DarlowNational Comprehensive Cancer Network

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The NCCN Guidelines for Central Nervous System (CNS) Cancers focus on management of the following adult CNS cancers: glioma (WHO grade 1, WHO grade 2–3 oligodendroglioma [1p19q codeleted, IDH-mutant], WHO grade 2–4 IDH-mutant astrocytoma, WHO grade 4 glioblastoma), intracranial and spinal ependymomas, medulloblastoma, limited and extensive brain metastases, leptomeningeal metastases, non–AIDS-related primary CNS lymphomas, metastatic spine tumors, meningiomas, and primary spinal cord tumors. The information contained in the algorithms and principles of management sections in the NCCN Guidelines for CNS Cancers are designed to help clinicians navigate through the complex management of patients with CNS tumors. Several important principles guide surgical management and treatment with radiotherapy and systemic therapy for adults with brain tumors. The NCCN CNS Cancers Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel’s most recent recommendations regarding molecular profiling of gliomas.

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    Weller M, Weber RG, Willscher E, et al. Molecular classification of diffuse cerebral WHO grade II/III gliomas using genome- and transcriptome-wide profiling improves stratification of prognostically distinct patient groups. Acta Neuropathol 2015;129:679693.

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    Jiao Y, Killela PJ, Reitman ZJ, et al. Frequent ATRX, CIC, FUBP1 and IDH1 mutations refine the classification of malignant gliomas. Oncotarget 2012;3:709722.

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    Leeper HE, Caron AA, Decker PA, et al. IDH mutation, 1p19q codeletion and ATRX loss in WHO grade II gliomas. Oncotarget 2015;6:3029530305.

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    Reuss DE, Sahm F, Schrimpf D, et al. ATRX and IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry with subsequent copy number analysis and IDH sequencing as a basis for an “integrated” diagnostic approach for adult astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma. Acta Neuropathol 2015;129:133146.

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  • 24.

    Arita H, Narita Y, Fukushima S, et al. Upregulating mutations in the TERT promoter commonly occur in adult malignant gliomas and are strongly associated with total 1p19q loss. Acta Neuropathol 2013;126:267276.

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    Killela PJ, Reitman ZJ, Jiao Y, et al. TERT promoter mutations occur frequently in gliomas and a subset of tumors derived from cells with low rates of self-renewal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013;110:60216026.

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  • 26.

    Appay R, Dehais C, Maurage CA, et al. CDKN2A homozygous deletion is a strong adverse prognosis factor in diffuse malignant IDH-mutant gliomas. Neuro Oncol 2019;21:15191528.

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    Cimino PJ, Holland EC. Targeted copy number analysis outperforms histologic grading in predicting patient survival for WHO grades II/III IDH-mutant astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol 2019;21:819821.

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    Reis GF, Pekmezci M, Hansen HM, et al. CDKN2A loss is associated with shortened overall survival in lower-grade (World Health Organization grades II-III) astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2015;74:442452.

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  • 29.

    Yang RR, Shi ZF, Zhang ZY, et al. IDH mutant lower grade (WHO grades II/III) astrocytomas can be stratified for risk by CDKN2A, CDK4 and PDGFRA copy number alterations. Brain Pathol 2020;30:541553.

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    Clark KH, Villano JL, Nikiforova MN, et al. 1p/19q testing has no significance in the workup of glioblastomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2013;39:706717.

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    Olar A, Wani KM, Alfaro-Munoz KD, et al. IDH mutation status and role of WHO grade and mitotic index in overall survival in grade II-III diffuse gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 2015;129:585596.

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    Hegi ME, Genbrugge E, Gorlia T, et al. MGMT promoter methylation cutoff with safety margin for selecting glioblastoma patients into trials omitting temozolomide: a pooled analysis of four clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res 2019;25:18091816.

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