Breast Cancer, Version 3.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

View More View Less
  • 1 Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University;
  • 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance;
  • 3 Case Comprehensive Cancer Center/University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute;
  • 4 Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine;
  • 5 The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute;
  • 6 Stanford Cancer Institute;
  • 7 UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center;
  • 8 Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center;
  • 9 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center;
  • 10 University of Colorado Cancer Center;
  • 11 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center;
  • 12 Mayo Clinic Cancer Center;
  • 13 Fox Chase Cancer Center;
  • 14 Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center;
  • 15 Fred & Pamela Buffet Cancer Center;
  • 16 Duke Cancer Institute;
  • 17 Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania;
  • 18 Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center;
  • 19 Yale Cancer Center/Smilow Cancer Hospital;
  • 20 City of Hope National Medical Center;
  • 21 University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center;
  • 22 University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center;
  • 23 UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center;
  • 24 The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins;
  • 25 Research Advocacy Network;
  • 26 Moffitt Cancer Center;
  • 27 O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center at UAB;
  • 28 Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah;
  • 29 Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center; and
  • 30 National Comprehensive Cancer Network
Restricted access

Several new systemic therapy options have become available for patients with metastatic breast cancer, which have led to improvements in survival. In addition to patient and clinical factors, the treatment selection primarily depends on the tumor biology (hormone-receptor status and HER2-status). The NCCN Guidelines specific to the workup and treatment of patients with recurrent/stage IV breast cancer are discussed in this article.

Individual Disclosures for the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel

TU1

  • 1.

    Hortobagyi GN. Multidisciplinary management of advanced primary and metastatic breast cancer. Cancer 1994; 74(1, Suppl)416423.

  • 2.

    Babiera GV, Rao R, Feng L, . Effect of primary tumor extirpation in breast cancer patients who present with stage IV disease and an intact primary tumor. Ann Surg Oncol 2006;13:776782.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Khan SA, Stewart AK, Morrow M. Does aggressive local therapy improve survival in metastatic breast cancer? Surgery 2002;132:620626., discussion 626–627.

  • 4.

    Rao R, Feng L, Kuerer HM, . Timing of surgical intervention for the intact primary in stage IV breast cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol 2008;15:16961702.

  • 5.

    Rapiti E, Verkooijen HM, Vlastos G, . Complete excision of primary breast tumor improves survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:27432749.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Morrow M, Goldstein L. Surgery of the primary tumor in metastatic breast cancer: closing the barn door after the horse has bolted? J Clin Oncol 2006;24:26942696.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Olson JA, Jr., Marcom PK. Benefit or bias? The role of surgery to remove the primary tumor in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Ann Surg 2008;247:739740.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Badwe R, Hawaldar R, Nair N, . Locoregional treatment versus no treatment of the primary tumour in metastatic breast cancer: an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2015;16:13801388.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    King TA, Lyman JP, Gonen M, . Prognostic impact of 21-gene recurrence score in patients with stage IV breast cancer: TBCRC 013. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:23592365.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    King TA, Lyman J, Gonen M, . A prospective analysis of surgery and survival in stage IV breast cancer (TBCRC 013). J Clin Oncol 2016;34(15_suppl):10061006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Soran A, Ozmen V, Ozbas S, . Randomized trial comparing resection of primary tumor with no surgery in stage IV breast cancer at presentation: protocol MF07-01. Ann Surg Oncol 2018;25:31413149.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Higgins MJ, Wolff AC. Therapeutic options in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Oncology (Williston Park) 2008;22:614623., discussion 623, 627–629.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Woo S-B, Hellstein JW, Kalmar JR. Narrative [corrected] review: bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:753761.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Diel IJ, Body JJ, Lichinitser MR, . Improved quality of life after long-term treatment with the bisphosphonate ibandronate in patients with metastatic bone disease due to breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:17041712.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Hortobagyi GN, Theriault RL, Lipton A, . Long-term prevention of skeletal complications of metastatic breast cancer with pamidronate. Protocol 19 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:20382044.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Hortobagyi GN, Theriault RL, Porter L, . Efficacy of pamidronate in reducing skeletal complications in patients with breast cancer and lytic bone metastases. Protocol 19 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996;335:17851791.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Lipton A, Theriault RL, Hortobagyi GN, . Pamidronate prevents skeletal complications and is effective palliative treatment in women with breast carcinoma and osteolytic bone metastases: long term follow-up of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Cancer 2000;88:10821090.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    McLachlan SA, Cameron D, Murray R, . Safety of oral ibandronate in the treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer: long-term follow-up experience. Clin Drug Investig 2006;26:4348.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Pecherstorfer M, Rivkin S, Body J-J, . Long-term safety of intravenous ibandronic acid for up to 4 years in metastatic breast cancer: an open-label trial. Clin Drug Investig 2006;26:315322.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Rosen LS, Gordon DH, Dugan W Jr, . Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate for the treatment of bone metastases in breast carcinoma patients with at least one osteolytic lesion. Cancer 2004;100:3643.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Theriault RL, Lipton A, Hortobagyi GN, . Pamidronate reduces skeletal morbidity in women with advanced breast cancer and lytic bone lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Protocol 18 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:846854.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Amadori D, Aglietta M, Alessi B, . Efficacy and safety of 12-weekly versus 4-weekly zoledronic acid for prolonged treatment of patients with bone metastases from breast cancer (ZOOM): a phase 3, open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol 2013;14:663670.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Himelstein AL, Foster JC, Khatcheressian JL, . Effect of longer-interval vs standard dosing of zoledronic acid on skeletal events in patients with bone metastases: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2017;317:4858.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Hortobagyi GN, Van Poznak C, Harker WG, . Continued treatment effect of zoledronic acid dosing every 12 vs 4 weeks in women with breast cancer metastatic to bone: the OPTIMIZE-2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncol 2017;3:906912.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hortobagyi GN, Lipton A, Chew HK, . Efficacy and safety of continued zoledronic acid every 4 weeks versus every 12 weeks in women with bone metastases from breast cancer: Results of the OPTIMIZE-2 trial. ASCO Meeting Abstracts 2014;32:LBA9500.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Rosen LS, Gordon D, Kaminski M, . Long-term efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid compared with pamidronate disodium in the treatment of skeletal complications in patients with advanced multiple myeloma or breast carcinoma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, comparative trial. Cancer 2003;98:17351744.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Stopeck AT, Lipton A, Body JJ, . Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:51325139.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Finn RS, Martin M, Rugo HS, . Palbociclib and letrozole in advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2016;375:19251936.

  • 29.

    Hortobagyi GN, Stemmer SM, Burris HA, . Updated results from MONALEESA-2, a phase III trial of first-line ribociclib plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2018;29:15411547.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Goetz MP, Toi M, Campone M, . MONARCH 3: abemaciclib as initial therapy for advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:36383646.

  • 31.

    Tripathy D, Im SA, Colleoni M, . Ribociclib plus endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive, advanced breast cancer (MONALEESA-7): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2018;19:904915.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Im SA, Lu YS, Bardia A, . Overall survival with ribociclib plus endocrine therapy in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2019;381:307316.

  • 33.

    Robertson JF, Llombart-Cussac A, Rolski J, . Activity of fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg as first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer: results from the FIRST study. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:45304535.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Robertson JF, Lindemann JP, Llombart-Cussac A, . Fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer: follow-up analysis from the randomized ‘FIRST’ study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2012;136:503511.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Ellis MJ, Llombart-Cussac A, Feltl D, . Fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer: Overall survival analysis from the phase II FIRST study. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:37813787.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Di Leo A, Jerusalem G, Petruzelka L, . Results of the CONFIRM phase III trial comparing fulvestrant 250 mg with fulvestrant 500 mg in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:45944600.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Di Leo A, Jerusalem G, Petruzelka L, . Final overall survival: fulvestrant 500 mg vs 250 mg in the randomized CONFIRM trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2014;106:djt337.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Robertson JFR, Bondarenko IM, Trishkina E, . Fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (FALCON): an international, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2016;388:29973005.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Slamon DJ, Neven P, Chia S, . Phase III randomized study of ribociclib and fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer: MONALEESA-3. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:24652472.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Slamon DJ, Neven P, Chia S, . Overall survival with ribociclib plus fulvestrant in advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2020;382:514524.

  • 41.

    Bergh J, Jönsson PE, Lidbrink EK, . FACT: an open-label randomized phase III study of fulvestrant and anastrozole in combination compared with anastrozole alone as first-line therapy for patients with receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:19191925.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Johnston SR, Kilburn LS, Ellis P, . Fulvestrant plus anastrozole or placebo versus exemestane alone after progression on non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal patients with hormone-receptor-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (SoFEA): a composite, multicentre, phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2013;14:989998.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Mehta RS, Barlow WE, Albain KS, . Combination anastrozole and fulvestrant in metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;367:435444.

  • 44.

    Mehta RS, Barlow WE, Albain KS, . Overall survival with fulvestrant plus anastrozole in metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2019;380:12261234.

  • 45.

    Buzdar A, Douma J, Davidson N, . Phase III, multicenter, double-blind, randomized study of letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, for advanced breast cancer versus megestrol acetate. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:33573366.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Buzdar AU, Jonat W, Howell A, . Anastrozole versus megestrol acetate in the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast carcinoma: results of a survival update based on a combined analysis of data from two mature phase III trials. Cancer 1998;83:11421152.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Campos SM, Guastalla JP, Subar M, . A comparative study of exemestane versus anastrozole in patients with postmenopausal breast cancer with visceral metastases. Clin Breast Cancer 2009;9:3944.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Sunderland MC, Osborne CK. Tamoxifen in premenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer: a review. J Clin Oncol 1991;9:12831297.

  • 49.

    Bonneterre J, Thürlimann B, Robertson JF, . Anastrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in 668 postmenopausal women: results of the Tamoxifen or Arimidex Randomized Group Efficacy and Tolerability study. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:37483757.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Nabholtz JM, Buzdar A, Pollak M, .Arimidex Study Group. Anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results of a North American multicenter randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:37583767.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Paridaens RJ, Dirix LY, Beex LV, . Phase III study comparing exemestane with tamoxifen as first-line hormonal treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:48834890.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Vergote I, Bonneterre J, Thürlimann B, . Randomised study of anastrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Eur J Cancer 2000;36(Suppl 4):S84S85.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Mauri D, Pavlidis N, Polyzos NP, . Survival with aromatase inhibitors and inactivators versus standard hormonal therapy in advanced breast cancer: meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:12851291.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Turner NC, Ro J, André F, . Palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2015;373:209219.

  • 55.

    Cristofanilli M, Turner NC, Bondarenko I, . Fulvestrant plus palbociclib versus fulvestrant plus placebo for treatment of hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer that progressed on previous endocrine therapy (PALOMA-3): final analysis of the multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2016;17:425439.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Sledge GW, Jr., Toi M, Neven P, . MONARCH 2: abemaciclib in combination with fulvestrant in women with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer who had progressed while receiving endocrine therapy. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:28752884.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Sledge GW, Jr., Toi M, Neven P, . The effect of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant on overall survival in hormone receptor-positive, ERBB2-negative breast cancer that progressed on endocrine therapy-MONARCH 2: a randomized clinical trial [published online September 29, 2019]. JAMA Oncol, doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.4782

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Howell A, Robertson JFR, Quaresma Albano J, . Fulvestrant, formerly ICI 182,780, is as effective as anastrozole in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer progressing after prior endocrine treatment. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:33963403.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Osborne CK, Pippen J, Jones SE, . Double-blind, randomized trial comparing the efficacy and tolerability of fulvestrant versus anastrozole in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer progressing on prior endocrine therapy: results of a North American trial. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:33863395.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Ingle JN, Suman VJ, Rowland KM, . Fulvestrant in women with advanced breast cancer after progression on prior aromatase inhibitor therapy: North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial N0032. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:10521056.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Chia S, Gradishar W, Mauriac L, . Double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial of fulvestrant compared with exemestane after prior nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, advanced breast cancer: results from EFECT. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:16641670.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    André F, Ciruelos E, Rubovszky G, .SOLAR-1 Study Group. Alpelisib for PIK3CA-mutated, hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2019;380:19291940.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Bachelot T, Bourgier C, Cropet C, . TAMRAD: a GINECO randomized phase II trial of everolimus in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone in patients (pts) with hormone-receptor positive, HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with prior exposure to aromatase inhibitors (AI) [abstract]. Cancer Res 2010;70(24 Supplement):Abstract:S1–6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Chow L, Sun Y, Jassem J, . Phase 3 study of temsirolimus with letrozole or letrozole alone in postmenopausal women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2006;100(Suppl 1):6091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Yardley DA, Noguchi S, Pritchard KI, . Everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal patients with HR(+) breast cancer: BOLERO-2 final progression-free survival analysis. Adv Ther 2013;30:870884.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Baselga J, Campone M, Piccart M, . Everolimus in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366:520529.

  • 67.

    Pritchard KI, Burris HA, 3rd, Ito Y, . Safety and efficacy of everolimus with exemestane vs exemestane alone in elderly patients with HER2-negative, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in BOLERO-2. Clin Breast Cancer 2013;13:421432 e8.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Dixon JM, Renshaw L, Langridge C, . Anastrozole and letrozole: an investigation and comparison of quality of life and tolerability. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011;125:741749.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Rose C, Vtoraya O, Pluzanska A, . An open randomised trial of second-line endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer. comparison of the aromatase inhibitors letrozole and anastrozole. Eur J Cancer 2003;39:23182327.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Thürlimann B, Robertson JF, Nabholtz JM, . Efficacy of tamoxifen following anastrozole (‘Arimidex’) compared with anastrozole following tamoxifen as first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Eur J Cancer 2003;39:23102317.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Abrams J, Aisner J, Cirrincione C, . Dose-response trial of megestrol acetate in advanced breast cancer: cancer and leukemia group B phase III study 8741. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:6473.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Willemse PH, van der Ploeg E, Sleijfer DT, . A randomized comparison of megestrol acetate (MA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in patients with advanced breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 1990;26:337343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Buzdar A, Jonat W, Howell A, . Anastrozole, a potent and selective aromatase inhibitor, versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: results of overview analysis of two phase III trials. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:20002011.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Ellis MJ, Gao F, Dehdashti F, . Lower-dose vs high-dose oral estradiol therapy of hormone receptor-positive, aromatase inhibitor-resistant advanced breast cancer: a phase 2 randomized study. JAMA 2009;302:774780.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Dickler MN, Tolaney SM, Rugo HS, . MONARCH 1, a phase II study of abemaciclib, a CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor, as a single agent, in patients with refractory HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2017;23:52185224.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Baselga J, Cortés J, Kim SB, . Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366:109119.

  • 77.

    Swain S, Kim S-B, Cortes J, . Confirmatory overall survival (OS) analysis of CLEOPATRA: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III study with pertuzumab (P), trastuzumab (T), and docetaxel (D) in patients (pts) with HER2-positive first-line (1L) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) [abstract]. Cancer Res 2012;72(Suppl):P5-18-26.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Ewer M, Baselga J, Clark E, . Cardiac tolerability of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the CLEOPATRA study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2012;30(Suppl):Abstract 533.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Cortés J, Baselga J, Im Y, . Quality of life assessment in CLEOPATRA, a phase III study combining pertuzumab with trastuzumab and docetaxel in metastatic breast cancer [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2012;30(Suppl):Abstract 598.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Bachelot T, Ciruelos E, Schneeweiss A, .PERUSE investigators. Preliminary safety and efficacy of first-line pertuzumab combined with trastuzumab and taxane therapy for HER2-positive locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (PERUSE). Ann Oncol 2019;30:766773.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Datko F, D'Andrea G, Dickler M, . Phase II study of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and weekly paclitaxel in patients with metastatic HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer [abstract]. Cancer Res 2012;72(Suppl):Abstract P5-18-20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Paclitaxel, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab in the treatment of metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer (Clinical Trial ID: NCT01276041). Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01276041. Accessed March 9, 2020.

  • 83.

    Perez E, Lopez-Vega J, Mastro L, . A combination of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and vinorelbine for first-line treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: An open-label, two-cohort, phase II study (VELVET) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2012;30(Suppl):Asbtract TPS653.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    Ellis PA, Barrios CH, Eiermann W, . Phase III, randomized study of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) ± pertuzumab (P) vs trastuzumab + taxane (HT) for first-line treatment of HER2-positive MBC: primary results from the MARIANNE study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2015;33(Suppl):507.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, . Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med 2001;344:783792.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Burstein HJ, Keshaviah A, Baron AD, . Trastuzumab plus vinorelbine or taxane chemotherapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: the trastuzumab and vinorelbine or taxane study. Cancer 2007;110:965972.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Robert N, Leyland-Jones B, Asmar L, . Randomized phase III study of trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and carboplatin compared with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in women with HER-2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:27862792.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Seidman AD, Berry D, Cirrincione C, . Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:16421649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Schaller G, Bangemann N, Weber J, . Efficacy and safety of trastuzumab plus capecitabine in a German multicentre phase II study of pre-treated metastatic breast cancer [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(Suppl):Abstract 717.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Yamamoto D, Iwase S, Kitamura K, . A phase II study of trastuzumab and capecitabine for patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: Japan Breast Cancer Research Network (JBCRN) 00 Trial. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008;61:509514.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Seidman A, Hudis C, Pierri MK, . Cardiac dysfunction in the trastuzumab clinical trials experience. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:12151221.

  • 92.

    Bartsch R, Wenzel C, Altorjai G, . Capecitabine and trastuzumab in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:38533858.

  • 93.

    von Minckwitz G, du Bois A, Schmidt M, . Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:19992006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Von Minckwitz G, Zielinski C, Maarteense E, . Capecitabine vs capecitabine + trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer progressing during trastuzumab treatment: the TBP phase III study (GBG 26/BIG 3-05) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(Suppl):Abstract 1025.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Baselga J, Gelmon KA, Verma S, . Phase II trial of pertuzumab and trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer that progressed during prior trastuzumab therapy. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:11381144.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    Cortés J, Fumoleau P, Bianchi GV, . Pertuzumab monotherapy after trastuzumab-based treatment and subsequent reintroduction of trastuzumab: activity and tolerability in patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:15941600.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Verma S, Miles D, Gianni L, . Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;367:17831791.

  • 98.

    Modi S, Saura C, Yamashita T, . Trastuzumab deruxtecan in previously treated HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2020;382:610621.

  • 99.

    Geyer CE, Forster J, Lindquist D, . Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;355:27332743.

  • 100.

    Cameron D, Casey M, Oliva C, . Lapatinib plus capecitabine in women with HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer: final survival analysis of a phase III randomized trial. Oncologist 2010;15:924934.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Blackwell KL, Burstein HJ, Storniolo AM, . Randomized study of Lapatinib alone or in combination with trastuzumab in women with ErbB2-positive, trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:11241130.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Blackwell KL, Burstein HJ, Storniolo AM, . Overall survival benefit with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer: final results from the EGF104900 Study. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:25852592.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Freedman RA, Gelman RS, Anders CK, . TBCRC 022: A phase II trial of neratinib and capecitabine for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases. J Clin Oncol 2019;37:10811089.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Saura C, Oliveira M, Feng Y-H, . Neratinib + capecitabine versus lapatinib + capecitabine in patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer previously treated with ≥ 2 HER2-directed regimens: Findings from the multinational, randomized, phase III NALA trial. J Clin Oncol 2019;37(suppl):10021002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Kaufman B, Mackey JR, Clemens MR, . Trastuzumab plus anastrozole versus anastrozole alone for the treatment of postmenopausal women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III TAnDEM study. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:55295537.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    Huober J, Fasching PA, Barsoum M, . Higher efficacy of letrozole in combination with trastuzumab compared to letrozole monotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with HER2-positive, hormone-receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer - results of the eLEcTRA trial. Breast 2012;21:2733.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Johnston S, Pippen J Jr, Pivot X, . Lapatinib combined with letrozole versus letrozole and placebo as first-line therapy for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:55385546.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108.

    Rimawi M, Ferrero JM, de la Haba-Rodriguez J, . First-line trastuzumab plus an aromatase inhibitor, with or without pertuzumab, in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and hormone receptor-positive metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer (PERTAIN): A randomized, open-label phase II trial. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:28262835.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Gradishar WJ, Hegg R. Phase III study of lapatinib (L) plus trastuzumab (T) and aromatase inhibitor (AI) vs T+AI vs L+AI in postmenopausal women (PMW) with HER2+, HR+ metastatic breast cancer (MBC): ALTERNATIVE. J Clin Oncol 2017;35(suppl):10041004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Malone KE, Daling JR, Doody DR, . Prevalence and predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based study of breast cancer in white and black American women ages 35 to 64 years. Cancer Res 2006;66:82978308.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Kurian AW, Gong GD, John EM, . Performance of prediction models for BRCA mutation carriage in three racial/ethnic groups: findings from the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18:10841091.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, . Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med 2017;377:523533.

  • 113.

    Robson ME, Tung N, Conte P, . OlympiAD final overall survival and tolerability results: olaparib versus chemotherapy treatment of physician’s choice in patients with a germline BRCA mutation and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2019;30:558566.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Litton JK, Rugo HS, Ettl J, . Talazoparib in patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med 2018;379:753763.

  • 115.

    Tutt A, Tovey H, Cheang MCU, . Carboplatin in BRCA1/2-mutated and triple-negative breast cancer BRCAness subgroups: the TNT Trial. Nat Med 2018;24:628637.

  • 116.

    Schmid P, Adams S, Rugo HS, . Atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel in advanced triple-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2018;379:21082121.

  • 117.

    Emens LA, Cruz C, Eder JP, . Long-term clinical outcomes and biomarker analyses of atezolizumab therapy for patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: a phase 1 study. JAMA Oncol 2019;5:7482.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    Schmid P, Adams S, Rugo HS, . IMpassion130: updated overall survival (OS) from a global, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III study of atezolizumab (atezo) + nab-paclitaxel (nP) in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). J Clin Oncol 2019;37(Suppl):10031003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    Albain KS, Nag S, Calderillo-Ruiz G, . Global phase III study of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel (GT) vs paclitaxel (T) as frontline therapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC): first report of overall survival [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(Suppl):510.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    Carrick S, Parker S, Wilcken N, . Single agent versus combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;2:CD003372.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    O’Shaughnessy J, Miles D, Vukelja S, . Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:28122823.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Sledge GW, Neuberg D, Bernardo P, . Phase III trial of doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and the combination of doxorubicin and paclitaxel as front-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: an intergroup trial (E1193). J Clin Oncol 2003;21:588592.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Gennari A, Stockler M, Puntoni M, . Duration of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:21442149.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Giarratano T, Frezzini S, Zanocco M, . Use of scalp cooling device to prevent alopecia for early breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A prospective study [published online December 14, 2019]. Breast J, doi: 10.1111/tpj.13711

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Kruse M, Abraham J. Management of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with scalp cooling. J Oncol Pract 2018;14:149154.

  • 126.

    Nangia J, Wang T, Osborne C, . Effect of a scalp cooling device on alopecia in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer: the SCALP randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2017;317:596605.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Rugo HS, Klein P, Melin SA, . Association between use of a scalp cooling device and alopecia after chemotherapy for breast cancer. JAMA 2017;317:606614.

  • 128.

    Rugo HS, Melin SA, Voigt J. Scalp cooling with adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and the risk of scalp metastases: systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017;163:199205.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Stockler MR, Wilcken NJC, Coates AS. Chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer – how long should it continue? Breast Cancer Res Treat 2003;81(Suppl 1):4952.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    Claessens AKM, Bos MEMM, Lopez-Yurda M, . Intermittent versus continuous first-line treatment for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: the Stop & Go study of the Dutch Breast Cancer Research Group (BOOG). Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018;172:413423.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131.

    Perez EA, Vogel CL, Irwin DH, . Multicenter phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:42164223.

  • 132.

    Mauri D, Kamposioras K, Tsali L, . Overall survival benefit for weekly vs. three-weekly taxanes regimens in advanced breast cancer: A meta-analysis. Cancer Treat Rev 2010;36:6974.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Chan S, Friedrichs K, Noel D, . Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus doxorubicin in patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:23412354.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Gasparini G, Dal Fior S, Panizzoni GA, . Weekly epirubicin versus doxorubicin as second line therapy in advanced breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Oncol 1991;14:3844.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135.

    Norris B, Pritchard KI, James K, . Phase III comparative study of vinorelbine combined with doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone in disseminated metastatic/recurrent breast cancer: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Study MA8. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:23852394.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136.

    Andersson M, Daugaard S, von der Maase H, . Doxorubicin versus mitomycin versus doxorubicin plus mitomycin in advanced breast cancer: a randomized study. Cancer Treat Rep 1986;70:11811186.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137.

    O’Brien ME, Wigler N, Inbar M, . Reduced cardiotoxicity and comparable efficacy in a phase III trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin HCl (CAELYX/Doxil) versus conventional doxorubicin for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2004;15:440449.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138.

    Fumoleau P, Largillier R, Clippe C, . Multicentre, phase II study evaluating capecitabine monotherapy in patients with anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:536542.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    O’Shaughnessy JA, Blum J, Moiseyenko V, . Randomized, open-label, phase II trial of oral capecitabine (Xeloda) vs. a reference arm of intravenous CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) as first-line therapy for advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2001;12:12471254.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140.

    Cortes J, O’Shaughnessy J, Loesch D, . Eribulin monotherapy versus treatment of physician’s choice in patients with metastatic breast cancer (EMBRACE): a phase 3 open-label randomised study. Lancet 2011;377:914923.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141.

    Kaufman PA, Awada A, Twelves C, . Phase III open-label randomized study of eribulin mesylate versus capecitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:594601.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142.

    Vernieri C, Prisciandaro M, Milano M, . Single-agent gemcitabine vs. carboplatin-gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer: a retrospective comparison of efficacy and safety profiles. Clin Breast Cancer 2019;19:e306e318.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143.

    Jones S, Winer E, Vogel C, . Randomized comparison of vinorelbine and melphalan in anthracycline-refractory advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:25672574.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144.

    Fumoleau P, Delgado FM, Delozier T, . Phase II trial of weekly intravenous vinorelbine in first-line advanced breast cancer chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:12451252.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145.

    Martín M, Ruiz A, Muñoz M, . Gemcitabine plus vinorelbine versus vinorelbine monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes: final results of the phase III Spanish Breast Cancer Research Group (GEICAM) trial. Lancet Oncol 2007;8:219225.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146.

    Jones SE, Erban J, Overmoyer B, . Randomized phase III study of docetaxel compared with paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:55425551.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147.

    Ibrahim NK, Samuels B, Page R, . Multicenter phase II trial of ABI-007, an albumin-bound paclitaxel, in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:60196026.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148.

    Gradishar WJ, Tjulandin S, Davidson N, . Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:77947803.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 149.

    Gradishar WJ, Krasnojon D, Cheporov S, . Significantly longer progression-free survival with nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:36113619.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150.

    Bastholt L, Dalmark M, Gjedde SB, . Dose-response relationship of epirubicin in the treatment of postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer: a randomized study of epirubicin at four different dose levels performed by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:11461155.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151.

    Roché H, Yelle L, Cognetti F, . Phase II clinical trial of ixabepilone (BMS-247550), an epothilone B analog, as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:34153420.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152.

    Thomas E, Tabernero J, Fornier M, . Phase II clinical trial of ixabepilone (BMS-247550), an epothilone B analog, in patients with taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:33993406.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153.

    Perez EA, Lerzo G, Pivot X, . Efficacy and safety of ixabepilone (BMS-247550) in a phase II study of patients with advanced breast cancer resistant to an anthracycline, a taxane, and capecitabine. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:34073414.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154.

    Nabholtz JM, Falkson C, Campos D, . Docetaxel and doxorubicin compared with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: results of a randomized, multicenter, phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:968975.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155.

    Biganzoli L, Cufer T, Bruning P, . Doxorubicin and paclitaxel versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 10961 Multicenter Phase III Trial. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:31143121.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156.

    Langley RE, Carmichael J, Jones AL, . Phase III trial of epirubicin plus paclitaxel compared with epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: United Kingdom National Cancer Research Institute trial AB01. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:83228330.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 157.

    Albain KS, Nag SM, Calderillo-Ruiz G, . Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and prior anthracycline treatment. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:39503957.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158.

    Stockler MR, Harvey VJ, Francis PA, . Capecitabine versus classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:44984504.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 159.

    O’Shaughnessy J, Schwartzberg L, Danso MA, . Phase III study of iniparib plus gemcitabine and carboplatin versus gemcitabine and carboplatin in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:38403847.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160.

    Yardley DA, Brufsky A, Coleman RE, . Phase II/III weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or carboplatin versus gemcitabine/carboplatin as first-line treatment of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (the tnAcity study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2015;16:575.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161.

    Nelli F, Moscetti L, Natoli G, . Gemcitabine and carboplatin for pretreated metastatic breast cancer: the predictive value of immunohistochemically defined subtypes. Int J Clin Oncol 2013;18:343349.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162.

    Yardley DA, Coleman R, Conte P, . nab-Paclitaxel plus carboplatin or gemcitabine versus gemcitabine plus carboplatin as first-line treatment of patients with triple-negative metastatic breast cancer: results from the tnAcity trial. Ann Oncol 2018;29:17631770.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 163.

    Perez EA, Hillman DW, Stella PJ, . A phase II study of paclitaxel plus carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy for women with metastatic breast carcinoma. Cancer 2000;88:124131.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164.

    Fountzilas G, Kalofonos HP, Dafni U, . Paclitaxel and epirubicin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer: a phase III study conducted by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Oncol 2004;15:15171526.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165.

    Miller K, Wang M, Gralow J, . Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2007;357:26662676.

  • 166.

    Robert NJ, Dieras V, Glaspy J, . RIBBON-1: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab (B) for first-line treatment of HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2009;27(Suppl):1005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167.

    Robert NJ, Diéras V, Glaspy J, . RIBBON-1: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:12521260.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168.

    Mavroudis D, Papakotoulas P, Ardavanis A, . Randomized phase III trial comparing docetaxel plus epirubicin versus docetaxel plus capecitabine as first-line treatment in women with advanced breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2010;21:4854.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 169.

    Miles DW, Chan A, Dirix LY, . Phase III study of bevacizumab plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel for the first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:32393247.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 170.

    Rugo HS, Barry WT, Moreno-Aspitia A, . Randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel once per week compared with nanoparticle albumin-bound nab-paclitaxel once per week or ixabepilone with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H (Alliance). J Clin Oncol 2015;33:23612369.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 171.

    O'Shaughnessy J, Miles D, Gray RJ, . A meta-analysis of overall survival data from three randomized trials of bevacizumab (BV) and first-line chemotherapy as treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2010;28(Suppl):1005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 172.

    Stransky N, Cerami E, Schalm S, . The landscape of kinase fusions in cancer. Nat Commun 2014;5:4846.

  • 173.

    Drilon A, Laetsch TW, Kummar S, . Efficacy of larotrectinib in TRK fusion-positive cancers in adults and children. N Engl J Med 2018;378:731739.

  • 174.

    Meric-Bernstam F, Shukla N, Peled N, . Abstract P6-20-02: Activity of larotrectinib, a highly selective inhibitor of tropomyosin receptor kinase, in TRK fusion breast cancers. Cancer Res 2019;79(Suppl):P6-20-02.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 175.

    Drilon A. TRK inhibitors in TRK fusion-positive cancers. Ann Oncol 2019;30(Suppl 8):viii23viii30.

  • 176.

    Demetri GD, Paz-Ares L, Farago AF, . Efficacy and safety of entrectinib in patients with NTRK fusion-positive tumors: pooled analysis of STARTRK-2, STARTRK-1, and ALKA-372-001. Ann Oncol 2018;29(Suppl 8):viii713.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 177.

    Adams S, Loi S, Toppmeyer D, . Pembrolizumab monotherapy for previously untreated, PD-L1-positive, metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: cohort B of the phase II KEYNOTE-086 study. Ann Oncol 2019;30:405411.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 178.

    Phan K, Charif M. Pembrolizumab for PD-L1-positive breast cancer refractory to chemotherapy [published online. Am J Ther, doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000001015

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 179.

    Nanda R, Chow LQ, Dees EC, . Pembrolizumab in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer: phase Ib KEYNOTE-012 study. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:24602467.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 180.

    Alva AS, Mangat PK, Garrett-Mayer E, . Pembrolizumab (P) in patients (pts) with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with high tumor mutational burden (HTMB): Results from the Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry (TAPUR) Study. J Clin Oncol 2019;37(suppl):10141014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 17205 17205 1469
PDF Downloads 5515 5515 467
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0