NCCN Guidelines Insights: Uveal Melanoma, Version 1.2019

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

View More View Less
  • 1 Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine;
  • 2 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center;
  • 3 Mayo Clinic Cancer Center;
  • 4 Duke Cancer Institute;
  • 5 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance;
  • 6 Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University;
  • 7 University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center;
  • 8 Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center;
  • 9 The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute;
  • 10 O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center at UAB;
  • 11 UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center;
  • 12 Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center;
  • 13 University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center;
  • 14 The University of Tennessee Health Science Center;
  • 15 Yale Cancer Center/Smilow Cancer Hospital;
  • 16 Case Comprehensive Cancer Center/University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute;
  • 17 Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah;
  • 18 AIM at Melanoma;
  • 19 Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center;
  • 20 Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania;
  • 21 The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins;
  • 22 City of Hope National Medical Center;
  • 23 University of Colorado Cancer Center;
  • 24 Fox Chase Cancer Center;
  • 25 Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center;
  • 26 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center;
  • 27 Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Institute;
  • 28 Stanford Cancer Institute;
  • 29 Moffitt Cancer Center; and
  • 30 National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Restricted access

The NCCN Guidelines for Uveal Melanoma include recommendations for staging, treatment, and follow-up of patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma of the choroid or ciliary body. In addition, because distinguishing between uveal melanoma and benign uveal nevi is in some cases difficult, these guidelines also contain recommendations for workup of patients with suspicious pigmented uveal lesions, to clarify the tests needed to distinguish between those who should have further workup and treatment for uveal melanoma versus those with uncertain diagnosis and low risk who should to be followed and later reevaluated. These NCCN Guidelines Insights describe recommendations for treatment of newly diagnosed nonmetastatic uveal melanoma in patients who have already undergone a complete workup.

  • 1.

    Freton A, Chin KJ, Raut R, . Initial PET/CT staging for choroidal melanoma: AJCC correlation and second nonocular primaries in 333 patients. Eur J Ophthalmol 2012;22:236243.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Bagger M, Andersen MT, Andersen KK, . The prognostic effect of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging and genetic status in patients with choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;56:438444.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Shields CL, Kaliki S, Furuta M, . American Joint Committee on Cancer classification of uveal melanoma (anatomic stage) predicts prognosis in 7,731 patients: the 2013 Zimmerman lecture. Ophthalmology 2015;122:11801186.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation of large choroidal melanoma I: characteristics of patients enrolled and not enrolled. COMS report no. 9. Am J Ophthalmol 1998;125:767778.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Mahendraraj K, Shrestha S, Lau CS, . Ocular melanoma-when you have seen one, you have not seen them all: a clinical outcome study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2012). Clin Ophthalmol 2017;11:153160.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Mahendraraj K, Lau CS, Lee I, . Trends in incidence, survival, and management of uveal melanoma: a population-based study of 7,516 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2012). Clin Ophthalmol 2016;10:21132119.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ophthalmic Oncology Task Force. Local recurrence significantly increases the risk of metastatic uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology 2016;123:8691.

  • 8.

    Chang MY, McCannel TA. Local treatment failure after globe-conserving therapy for choroidal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97:804811.

  • 9.

    Shields CL, Kaliki S, Furuta M, . American Joint Committee on Cancer classification of posterior uveal melanoma (tumor size category) predicts prognosis in 7731 patients. Ophthalmology 2013;120:20662071.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Shields CL, Furuta M, Thangappan A, . Metastasis of uveal melanoma millimeter-by-millimeter in 8033 consecutive eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127:989998.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    AJCC Ophthalmic Oncology Task Force. International validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer's 7th edition classification of uveal melanoma. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015;133:376383.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Singh AD, Turell ME, Topham AK. Uveal melanoma: trends in incidence, treatment, and survival. Ophthalmology 2011;118:18811885.

  • 13.

    Isager P, Ehlers N, Overgaard J. Have choroidal and ciliary body melanomas changed during the period 1955–2000? Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2004;82:509516.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Rao YJ, Sein J, Badiyan S, . Patterns of care and survival outcomes after treatment for uveal melanoma in the post-coms era (2004-2013): a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis. J Contemp Brachytherapy 2017;9:453465.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Damato BE. Local resection of uveal melanoma. Dev Ophthalmol 2012;49:6680.

  • 16.

    Dogrusöz M, Jager MJ, Damato B. Uveal melanoma treatment and prognostication. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2017;6:186196.

  • 17.

    Grisanti S, Tura A. Uveal melanoma. In: Scott JF, Gerstenblith MR, eds. Noncutaneous Melanoma. Brisbane, AU: Codon Publications; 2018. https://doi.org/10.15586/codon.noncutaneousmelanoma.2018.ch1

    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kaliki S, Shields CL. Uveal melanoma: relatively rare but deadly cancer. Eye (Lond) 2017;31:241257.

  • 19.

    Krantz BA, Dave N, Komatsubara KM, . Uveal melanoma: epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of primary disease. Clin Ophthalmol 2017;11:279289.

  • 20.

    Yang J, Manson DK, Marr BP, . Treatment of uveal melanoma: where are we now? Ther Adv Med Oncol 2018;10:1758834018757175.

  • 21.

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation of large choroidal melanoma III: local complications and observations following enucleation COMS report no. 11. Am J Ophthalmol 1998;126:362372.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group. Assessment of metastatic disease status at death in 435 patients with large choroidal melanoma in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS): COMS report no. 15. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:670676.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Vidoris AAC, Maia A, Lowen M, . Outcomes of primary endoresection for choroidal melanoma. Int J Retina Vitreous 2017;3:42.

  • 24.

    Konstantinidis L, Groenewald C, Coupland SE, . Long-term outcome of primary endoresection of choroidal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2014;98:8285.

  • 25.

    Caminal JM, Mejia K, Masuet-Aumatell C, . Endoresection versus iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy for the treatment of choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156:334342.e1.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    García-Arumí J, Zapata MA, Balaguer O, . Endoresection in high posterior choroidal melanomas: long-term outcome. Br J Ophthalmol 2008;92:10401045.

  • 27.

    Kertes PJ, Johnson JC, Peyman GA. Internal resection of posterior uveal melanomas. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82:11471153.

  • 28.

    Damato B, Groenewald C, McGalliard J, . Endoresection of choroidal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82:213218.

  • 29.

    Bechrakis NE, Petousis V, Willerding G, . Ten-year results of transscleral resection of large uveal melanomas: local tumour control and metastatic rate. Br J Ophthalmol 2010;94:460466.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Damato BE, Paul J, Foulds WS. Risk factors for residual and recurrent uveal melanoma after trans-scleral local resection. Br J Ophthalmol 1996;80:102108.

  • 31.

    Shields JA, Shields CL, Shah P, . Partial lamellar sclerouvectomy for ciliary body and choroidal tumors. Ophthalmology 1991;98:971983.

  • 32.

    Weis E, Salopek TG, McKinnon JG, . Management of uveal melanoma: a consensus-based provincial clinical practice guideline. Curr Oncol 2016;23:e5764.

  • 33.

    Van Acker E, De Potter P. [Porous polyethylene (Medpor) orbital implant. Prospective study of 75 primary implantations]. J Fr Ophtalmol 2001;24:10671073.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Ho VWM, Hussain RN, Czanner G, . Porous versus nonporous orbital implants after enucleation for uveal melanoma: a randomized study. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33:452458.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Hope-Stone L, Brown SL, Heimann H, . Phantom eye syndrome: patient experiences after enucleation for uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology 2015;122:15851590.

  • 36.

    Hawkins BS. The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation of large choroidal melanoma: IV. Ten-year mortality findings and prognostic factors. COMS report number 24. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;138:936951.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation of large choroidal melanoma II: initial mortality findings. COMS report no. 10. Am J Ophthalmol 1998;125:779796.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Augsburger JJ, Lauritzen K, Gamel JW, . Matched group study of preenucleation radiotherapy versus enucleation alone for primary malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Am J Clin Oncol 1990;13:382387.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Diener-West M, Earle JD, Fine SL, . The COMS randomized trial of iodine 125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma, III: initial mortality findings. COMS report no. 18. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:969982.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group. The COMS randomized trial of iodine 125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma: V. Twelve-year mortality rates and prognostic factors: COMS report no. 28. Arch Ophthalmol 2006;124:16841693.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Augsburger JJ, Gamel JW, Sardi VF, . Enucleation vs cobalt plaque radiotherapy for malignant melanomas of the choroid and ciliary body. Arch Ophthalmol 1986;104:655661.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Augsburger JJ, Corrêa ZM, Freire J, . Long-term survival in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma after enucleation versus plaque radiation therapy. Ophthalmology 1998;105:16701678.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Augsburger JJ, Gamel JW, Lauritzen K, . Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy vs enucleation for posterior uveal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1990;109:585592.

  • 44.

    Adams KS, Abramson DH, Ellsworth RM, . Cobalt plaque versus enucleation for uveal melanoma: comparison of survival rates. Br J Ophthalmol 1988;72:494497.

  • 45.

    Markoe AM, Brady LW Jr, Shields JA, . Malignant melanoma of the eye: treatment of posterior uveal lesions by Co-60 plaque radiotherapy versus enucleation. Radiology 1985;156:801803.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Brady LW, Hernandez JC. Brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas. Strahlenther Onkol 1992;168:6165.

  • 47.

    Seddon JM, Gragoudas ES, Egan KM, . Relative survival rates after alternative therapies for uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology 1990;97:769777.

  • 48.

    Mosci C, Lanza FB, Barla A, . Comparison of clinical outcomes for patients with large choroidal melanoma after primary treatment with enucleation or proton beam radiotherapy. Ophthalmologica 2012;227:190196.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Dinca EB, Yianni J, Rowe J, . Survival and complications following γ knife radiosurgery or enucleation for ocular melanoma: a 20-year experience. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2012;154:605610.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Furdova A, Slezak P, Chorvath M, . No differences in outcome between radical surgical treatment (enucleation) and stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. Neoplasma 2010;57:377381.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Cohen VM, Carter MJ, Kemeny A, . Metastasis-free survival following treatment for uveal melanoma with either stereotactic radiosurgery or enucleation. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003;81:383388.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Melia M, Moy CS, Reynolds SM, . Quality of life after iodine 125 brachytherapy vs enucleation for choroidal melanoma: 5-year results from the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study: COMS QOLS report no. 3. Arch Ophthalmol 2006;124:226238.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    van Beek JGM, Buitendijk GHS, Timman R, . Quality of life: fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy versus enucleation treatment in uveal melanoma patients. Acta Ophthalmol 2018;96:841848.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Damato B, Hope-Stone L, Cooper B, . Patient-reported outcomes and quality of life after treatment of choroidal melanoma: a comparison of enucleation versus radiotherapy in 1596 patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;193:230251.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Brandberg Y, Kock E, Oskar K, . Psychological reactions and quality of life in patients with posterior uveal melanoma treated with ruthenium plaque therapy or enucleation: a one year follow-up study. Eye (Lond) 2000;14:839846.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Klingenstein A, Fürweger C, Mühlhofer AK, . Quality of life in the follow-up of uveal melanoma patients after enucleation in comparison to CyberKnife treatment. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2016;254:10051012.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Cruickshanks KJ, Fryback DG, Nondahl DM, . Treatment choice and quality of life in patients with choroidal melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:461467.

  • 58.

    Abrams MJ, Gagne NL, Melhus CS, . Brachytherapy vs. external beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma: survival and patterns-of-care analyses. Brachytherapy 2016;15:216223.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Desjardins L, Levy-Gabriel C, Lumbroso-Lerouic L, . [Prognostic factors for malignant uveal melanoma. Retrospective study on 2,241 patients and recent contribution of monosomy-3 research]. J Fr Ophtalmol 2006;29:741749.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Jampol LM, Moy CS, Murray TG, . The COMS randomized trial of iodine 125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma: IV. Local treatment failure and enucleation in the first 5 years after brachytherapy. COMS report no. 19. Ophthalmology 2002;109:21972206.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Echegaray JJ, Bechrakis NE, Singh N, . Iodine-125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma: a systematic review of radiation dose. Ocul Oncol Pathol 2017;3:193198.

  • 62.

    Rospond-Kubiak I, Kociecki J, Damato B. Clinical evaluation of a paper chart for predicting ruthenium plaque placement in relation to choroidal melanoma. Eye (Lond) 2018;32:421425.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Sánchez-Tabernero S, García-Alvarez C, Muñoz-Moreno MF, . Pattern of local recurrence after i-125 episcleral brachytherapy for uveal melanoma in a spanish referral ocular oncology unit. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;180:3945.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    McCannel TA, Kamrava M, Demanes J, . 23-mm iodine-125 plaque for uveal melanoma: benefit of vitrectomy and silicone oil on visual acuity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2016;254:24612467.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Melia BM, Abramson DH, Albert DM, . Collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS) randomized trial of I-125 brachytherapy for medium choroidal melanoma. I. Visual acuity after 3 years COMS report no. 16. Ophthalmology 2001;108:348366.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group. Incidence of cataract and outcomes after cataract surgery in the first 5 years after iodine 125 brachytherapy in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study: COMS report no. 27. Ophthalmology 2007;114:13631371.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Pilotto E, Vujosevic S, De Belvis V, . Long-term choroidal vascular changes after iodine brachytherapy versus transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Eur J Ophthalmol 2009;19:646653.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Sobrin L, Schiffman JC, Markoe AM, . Outcomes of iodine 125 plaque radiotherapy after initial observation of suspected small choroidal melanomas: a pilot study. Ophthalmology 2005;112:17771783.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Seregard S. Long-term survival after ruthenium plaque radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. A meta-analysis of studies including 1,066 patients. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1999;77:414417.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Finger PT, Berson A, Szechter A. Palladium-103 plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma: results of a 7-year study. Ophthalmology 1999;106:606613.

  • 71.

    Miguel D, de Frutos-Baraja JM, López-Lara F, . Visual outcome after posterior uveal melanoma episcleral brachytherapy including radiobiological doses. J Contemp Brachytherapy 2018;10:123131.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Heilemann G, Fetty L, Blaickner M, . Retina dose as a predictor for visual acuity loss in 106Ru eye plaque brachytherapy of uveal melanomas. Radiother Oncol 2018;127:379384.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Tsui I, Beardsley RM, McCannel TA, . Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color vision three years after iodine-125 brachytherapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Open Ophthalmol J 2015;9:131135.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Boldt HC, Melia BM, Liu JC, . I-125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma photographic and angiographic abnormalities: the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study: COMS report no. 30. Ophthalmology 2009;116:106115.e1.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Finger PT, Chin KJ, Tena LB. A five-year study of slotted eye plaque radiation therapy for choroidal melanoma: near, touching, or surrounding the optic nerve. Ophthalmology 2012;119:415422.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    American Brachytherapy Society - Ophthalmic Oncology Task Force. The American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for plaque brachytherapy of uveal melanoma and retinoblastoma. Brachytherapy 2014;13:114.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Almony A, Breit S, Zhao H, . Tilting of radioactive plaques after initial accurate placement for treatment of uveal melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126:6570.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Wang Z, Nabhan M, Schild SE, . Charged particle radiation therapy for uveal melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013;86:1826.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Mishra KK, Quivey JM, Daftari IK, . Long-term results of the UCSF-LBNL randomized trial: charged particle with helium ion versus iodine-125 plaque therapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015;92:376383.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Char DH, Quivey JM, Castro JR, . Helium ions versus iodine 125 brachytherapy in the management of uveal melanoma. A prospective, randomized, dynamically balanced trial. Ophthalmology 1993;100:15471554.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Gragoudas ES, Lane AM, Regan S, . A randomized controlled trial of varying radiation doses in the treatment of choroidal melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:773778.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Lin AJ, Rao YJ, Acharya S, . Patterns of care and outcomes of proton and eye plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma: review of the National Cancer Database. Brachytherapy 2017;16:12251231.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Castro JR, Char DH, Petti PL, . 15 years experience with helium ion radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;39:989996.

  • 84.

    Tsuji H, Ishikawa H, Yanagi T, . Carbon-ion radiotherapy for locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma: a phase I/II dose-escalation study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;67:857862.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Hrbacek J, Mishra KK, Kacperek A, . Practice patterns analysis of ocular proton therapy centers: the international OPTIC survey. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016;95:336343.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Krema H, Heydarian M, Beiki-Ardakani A, . A comparison between (1)(2)(5)iodine brachytherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy in the management of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97:327332.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Krema H, Heydarian M, Beiki-Ardakani A, . Dosimetric and late radiation toxicity comparison between iodine-125 brachytherapy and stereotactic radiation therapy for juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013;86:510515.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Georgopoulos M, Zehetmayer M, Ruhswurm I, . Tumour regression of uveal melanoma after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or stereotactic radiotherapy with gamma knife or linear accelerator. Ophthalmologica 2003;217:315319.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Siedlecki J, Reiterer V, Leicht S, . Incidence of secondary glaucoma after treatment of uveal melanoma with robotic radiosurgery versus brachytherapy. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;95:e734739.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Sikuade MJ, Salvi S, Rundle PA, . Outcomes of treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery or proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma. Eye (Lond) 2015;29:11941198.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Furdova A, Horkovicova K, Justusova P, . Is it sufficient to repeat LINEAR accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery in choroidal melanoma? Bratisl Lek Listy 2016;117:456462.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    Muller K, Naus N, Nowak PJ, . Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for uveal melanoma, late clinical results. Radiother Oncol 2012;102:219224.

  • 93.

    Modorati G, Miserocchi E, Galli L, . Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma: 12 years of experience. Br J Ophthalmol 2009;93:4044.

  • 94.

    Fakiris AJ, Lo SS, Henderson MA, . Gamma-knife-based stereotactic radiosurgery for uveal melanoma. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2007;85:106112.

  • 95.

    Simonová G, Novotný J Jr, Liscák R, . Leksell gamma knife treatment of uveal melanoma. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5, Suppl):635639.

  • 96.

    Mueller AJ, Talies S, Schaller UC, . Stereotactic radiosurgery of large uveal melanomas with the gamma-knife. Ophthalmology 2000;107:13811387, discussion 1387–1388.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Muller K, Nowak PJ, de Pan C, . Effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;63:116122.

  • 98.

    Zehetmayer M, Kitz K, Menapace R, . Local tumor control and morbidity after one to three fractions of stereotactic external beam irradiation for uveal melanoma. Radiother Oncol 2000;55:135144.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    Haji Mohd Yasin NA, Gray AR, Bevin TH, . Choroidal melanoma treated with stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy and prophylactic intravitreal bevacizumab: the Dunedin Hospital experience. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2016;60:756763.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Wackernagel W, Holl E, Tarmann L, . Local tumour control and eye preservation after gamma-knife radiosurgery of choroidal melanomas. Br J Ophthalmol 2014;98:218223.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Dunavoelgyi R, Zehetmayer M, Gleiss A, . Hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of posteriorly located choroidal melanoma with five fractions at ten Gy—clinical results after six years of experience. Radiother Oncol 2013;108:342347.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Dunavoelgyi R, Dieckmann K, Gleiss A, . Local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;81:199205.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Dieckmann K, Georg D, Zehetmayer M, . LINAC based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma: 4 years clinical experience. Radiother Oncol 2003;67:199206.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Suesskind D, Scheiderbauer J, Buchgeister M, . Retrospective evaluation of patients with uveal melanoma treated by stereotactic radiosurgery with and without tumor resection. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131:630637.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Yazici G, Kiratli H, Ozyigit G, . Stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy for the treatment of uveal melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017;98:152158.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    Furdova A, Babal P, Kobzova D, . Uveal melanoma survival rates after single dose stereotactic radiosurgery. Neoplasma 2018;65:965971.

  • 107.

    van den Bosch T, Vaarwater J, Verdijk R, . Risk factors associated with secondary enucleation after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in uveal melanoma. Acta Ophthalmol 2015;93:555560.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108.

    Sarici AM, Pazarli H. Gamma-knife-based stereotactic radiosurgery for medium- and large-sized posterior uveal melanoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013;251:285294.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Eibl-Lindner K, Fürweger C, Nentwich M, . Robotic radiosurgery for the treatment of medium and large uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res 2016;26:5157.

  • 110.

    Zahorjanová P, Furdová A, Waczulíková I, . Radiation maculopathy after one-day session stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with ciliary body and choroidal melanoma. Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2019;75:310.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Horwath-Winter J, Schneider MR, Wackernagel W, . Influence of single-fraction gamma-knife radiosurgery on ocular surface and tear function in choroidal melanoma patients. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97:466470.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Dunavoelgyi R, Dieckmann K, Gleiss A, . Radiogenic side effects after hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma in 212 patients treated between 1997 and 2007. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;83:121128.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Gigliotti CR, Modorati G, Di Nicola M, . Predictors of radio-induced visual impairment after radiosurgery for uveal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;102:833839.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Dunavoelgyi R, Georg D, Zehetmayer M, . Dose-response of critical structures in the posterior eye segment to hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma. Radiother Oncol 2013;108:348353.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Vidal JL, Bacin F, Albuisson E, . [“Melanoma 92”. epidemiological study of uveal melanoma in France]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1995;18:520528.

  • 116.

    Shields CL, Kaliki S, Furuta M, . Clinical spectrum and prognosis of uveal melanoma based on age at presentation in 8,033 cases. Retina 2012;32:13631372.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group. Comparison of clinical, echographic, and histopathological measurements from eyes with medium-sized choroidal melanoma in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study: COMS report no. 21. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:11631171.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    Bellmann C, Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Levy C, . Uveal melanoma: management and outcome of patients with extraocular spread. Br J Ophthalmol 2010;94:569574.

  • 119.

    Kujala E, Damato B, Coupland SE, . Staging of ciliary body and choroidal melanomas based on anatomic extent. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:28252831.

  • 120.

    Shields CL, Sioufi K, Robbins JS, . Large uveal melanoma (≥10 mm thickness): clinical features and millimeter-by-millimeter risk of metastasis in 1311 cases. The 2018 Albert E. Finley Lecture. Retina 2018;38:2010–2022. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000002144

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Tóth J. [Retrospective study of uveal melanoma]. Magy Onkol 2005;49:1925.

  • 122.

    van Beek JG, Koopmans AE, Vaarwater J, . The prognostic value of extraocular extension in relation to monosomy 3 and gain of chromosome 8q in uveal melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55:12841291.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Blanco G. Diagnosis and treatment of orbital invasion in uveal melanoma. Can J Ophthalmol 2004;39:388396.

  • 124.

    Chattopadhyay C, Kim DW, Gombos DS, . Uveal melanoma: from diagnosis to treatment and the science in between. Cancer 2016;122:22992312.

  • 125.

    Pereira PR, Odashiro AN, Lim LA, . Current and emerging treatment options for uveal melanoma. Clin Ophthalmol 2013;7:16691682.

  • 126.

    Rodríguez A, Dueñas-Gonzalez A, Delgado-Pelayo S. Clinical presentation and management of uveal melanoma. Mol Clin Oncol 2016;5:675677.

  • 127.

    Shields JA, Shields CL. Current management of posterior uveal melanoma. Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:11961200.

  • 128.

    Mirkiewicz-Sieradzka B, Zygulska-Mach H, Romanowska B, . [Attempts of orbit irradiation after enucleation of the eye with malignant choroidal melanoma. Part I]. Klin Oczna 1999;101:287290.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Shammas HF, Blodi FC. Orbital extension of choroidal and ciliary body melanomas. Arch Ophthalmol 1977;95:20022005.

  • 130.

    Kersten RC, Tse DT, Anderson RL, . The role of orbital exenteration in choroidal melanoma with extrascleral extension. Ophthalmology 1985;92:436443.

  • 131.

    Pach JM, Robertson DM, Taney BS, . Prognostic factors in choroidal and ciliary body melanomas with extrascleral extension. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;101:325331.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Hykin PG, McCartney AC, Plowman PN, . Postenucleation orbital radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant melanoma of the choroid with extrascleral extension. Br J Ophthalmol 1990;74:3639.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Gündüz K, Shields CL, Shields JA, . Plaque radiotherapy for management of ciliary body and choroidal melanoma with extraocular extension. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130:97102.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Ang KK, Peters LJ, Weber RS, . Postoperative radiotherapy for cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck region. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1994;30:795798.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2225 2225 138
PDF Downloads 549 549 38
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0