Multiple Approvals, Celestial Prices, Unimproved Outcomes: The Tale of Cost-Ineffective Drugs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Bishal Gyawali
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 MD, PhD
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    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin 2019;69:734.

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    Gyawali B, Kesselheim AS. US Food and Drug Administration approval of new drugs based on noninferiority trials in oncology: a dangerous precedent? JAMA Oncol 2019;5:607608.

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    Gyawali B, Prasad V. Health policy: me-too drugs with limited benefits: the tale of regorafenib for HCC. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2017;14:653654.

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    Gormley NJ, Pazdur R. Immunotherapy combinations in multiple myeloma—known unknowns. N Engl J Med 2018;379:17911795.

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    Soto-Perez-de-Celis E, Aguiar PN Jr, Cordón M, et al.. Cost-effectiveness of cabozantinib in the second-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019;17:669675.

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    Goldstein DA, Chen Q, Ayer T, et al.. Necitumumab in metastatic squamous cell lung cancer: establishing a value-based cost. JAMA Oncol 2015;1:12931300.

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    Ettinger DS, Wood DE, Aggarwal C, et al.. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Version 4.2019. Accessed May 9, 2019. To view the most recent version, visit

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