The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is rapidly expanding to the treatment of many cancer types, both in the metastatic setting and as an adjuvant to other therapies. Clinical trials using ICIs have largely excluded patients with preexisting autoimmune diseases due to concerns for increased toxicity. However, emerging evidence shows that ICIs may be considered in some patients with autoimmunity. This review discusses the commonalities between clinical autoimmune diseases and ICI-induced immunotherapy-related adverse events, and summarizes the existing case series that describes patients with solid tumors who have a preexisting autoimmune disease. This review also discusses which patients with autoimmunity could be considered reasonable candidates for ICI therapy.
Submitted December 21, 2018; accepted for publication April 12, 2019.
Disclosures: Dr. Bhatia has disclosed that he serves on the scientific advisory board for EMD-Serono, Sanofi-Genzyme, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, and that he receives grant/research support from EMD-Serono, Merck & Co., Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, NantKwest, Novartis, and Immune Design. Dr. Grivas has disclosed that he has received consulting fees/honoraria from Bayer, Merck & Co., Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Clovis Oncology, EMD Serono, Driver Inc., QED Therapeutics, Heron Therapeutics, and Janssen, and he has received grant/research support from AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Clovis Oncology, Bavarian Nordic, and Immunomedics. The remaining authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors.