Background: This study examined the prevalence of hypogonadism, its clinical and genetic risk factors, and its relationship to adverse health outcomes (AHOs) in North American testicular cancer survivors (TCS) after modern platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Eligible TCS were <55 years of age at diagnosis and treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Participants underwent physical examinations and completed questionnaires regarding 15 AHOs and health behaviors. Hypogonadism was defined as serum testosterone levels ≤3.0 ng/mL or use of testosterone replacement therapy. We investigated the role of 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs6258 and rs12150660) in the sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) locus implicated in increased hypogonadism risk in the general population. Results: Of 491 TCS (median age at assessment, 38.2 years; range, 18.7–68.4 years), 38.5% had hypogonadism. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis identified hypogonadism risk factors, including age at clinical evaluation (odds ratio [OR], 1.42 per 10-year increase; P= .006) and body mass index of 25 to <30 kg/m2 (OR, 2.08; P= .011) or ≥30 kg/m2 (OR, 2.36; P= .005) compared with <25 kg/m2. TCS with ≥2 risk alleles for the SHBG SNPs had a marginally significant increased hypogonadism risk (OR, 1.45; P= .09). Vigorous-intensity physical activity appeared protective (OR, 0.66; P= .07). Type of cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimen and socioeconomic factors did not correlate with hypogonadism. Compared with TCS without hypogonadism, those with hypogonadism were more likely to report ≥2 AHOs (65% vs 51%; P= .003), to take medications for hypercholesterolemia (20.1% vs 6.0%; P<.001) or hypertension (18.5% vs 10.6%; P= .013), and to report erectile dysfunction (19.6% vs 11.9%; P= .018) or peripheral neuropathy (30.7% vs 22.5%; P= .041). A marginally significant trend for increased use of prescription medications for either diabetes (5.8% vs 2.6%; P= .07) or anxiety/depression (14.8% vs 9.3%; P= .06) was observed. Conclusions: At a relatively young median age, more than one-third of TCS have hypogonadism, which is significantly associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk factors, and erectile dysfunction. Providers should screen TCS for hypogonadism and treat symptomatic patients.
Submitted June 29, 2018; accepted for publication November 21, 2018.
Previous presentation: This study was featured as “News of the Day” press briefing on June 2, 2017, and presented at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting; June 2–5, 2017; Chicago, Illinois.
Author contributions:Study concept and design: Sesso, Einhorn, Travis. Financial and administrative support: Travis. Provision of study materials or patients: Fung, Feldman, Hamilton, Vaughn, Beard, Einhorn, Travis. Collection and assembly of data: Abu Zaid, Feldman, Cook, Althouse, Travis. Data analysis and interpretation: All authors. Drafting and final approval of manuscript: All authors.
Disclosures: The authors have not received any financial consideration from any person or organization to support the preparation, analysis, results, or discussion of this article.
Funding: This study was funded by the National Cancer Institute (R01 CA157823, to L.B.T.) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U19 GM061390). The NCI had no role in the design of the study; the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; the writing of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Correspondence: Mohammad Abu Zaid, MD, Bone Marrow and Blood Stem Cell Transplantation, Indiana University, Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, 535 Barnhill Drive, RT 449, Indianapolis, IN 46202. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org