Changes in Management of Left-Sided Obstructive Colon Cancer: National Practice and Guideline Implementation

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  • a Department of Surgery, and
  • b Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam;
  • c Department of Surgery, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort;
  • d Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen;
  • e Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen;
  • f Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Deventer Hospital, Deventer; and
  • g Department of Surgery, Gelre Hospital, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands.
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Background: Previous analysis of Dutch practice in treatment of left-sided obstructive colon cancer (LSOCC) until 2012 showed that emergency resection (ER) was preferred, with high mortality in patients aged ≥70 years. Consequently, Dutch and European guidelines in 2014 recommended a bridge to surgery (BTS) with either self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) or decompressing stoma (DS) in high-risk patients. The implementation and effects of these guidelines have not yet been evaluated. Therefore, our aim was to perform an in-depth update of national practice concerning curative treatment of LSOCC, including an evaluation of guideline implementation. Patients and Methods: This multicenter cohort study was conducted in 75 of 77 hospitals in the Netherlands. We included data on patients who underwent curative resection of LSOCC in 2009 through 2016 obtained from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit. Additional data were retrospectively collected. Results: A total of 2,587 patients were included (2,013 ER, 345 DS, and 229 SEMS). A trend was observed in reversal of ER (decrease from 86.2% to 69.6%) and SEMS (increase from 1.3% to 7.8%) after 2014, with an ongoing increase in DS (from 5.2% in 2009 to 22.7% in 2016). DS after 2014 was associated with more laparoscopic resections (66.0% vs 35.5%; P<.001) and more 2-stage procedures (41.5% vs 28.6%; P=.01) with fewer permanent stomas (14.7% vs 29.5%; P=.005). Overall, more laparoscopic resections (25.4% vs 13.2%; P<.001) and shorter total hospital stays (14 vs 15 days; P<.001) were observed after 2014. However, similar rates of primary anastomosis (48.7% vs 48.6%; P=.961), 90-day complications (40.4% vs 37.9%; P=.254), and 90-day mortality (6.5% vs 7.0%; P=.635) were observed. Conclusions: Guideline revision resulted in a notable change from ER to BTS for LSOCC. This was accompanied by an increased rate of laparoscopic resections, more 2-stage procedures with a decreased permanent stoma rate in patients receiving DS as BTS, and a shorter total hospital stay. However, overall 90-day complication and mortality rates remained relatively high.

Submitted January 23, 2019; accepted for publication June 3, 2019.

Author contributions: Study concept and design: All authors. Data acquisition: Veld, Amelung, Borstlap, van Halsema. Data interpretation: All authors. Manuscript preparation: Veld. Critical revision: All authors.

Disclosures: The authors have disclosed that they have not received any financial considerations from any person or organization to support the preparation, analysis, results, or discussion of this article.

Funding: This study was supported by the KWF Kankerbestrijding (11109) (Veld) and by Citrienfonds.

Correspondence: Pieter Job Tanis, MD, PhD, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Email: p.j.tanis@amsterdamumc.nl

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