The authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors.
This study was part of Ami Vyas' doctoral dissertation at West Virginia University. It was supported by AHRQ Grant (R24HS018622-03) and some additional salary support was received by Drs. Madhavan and Sambamoorthi from a National Institute of General Medicine Sciences IDeA Clinical and Translational Research Grant (U54GM104942) obtained by West Virginia University. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of AHRQ and NIGMS.
This project was presented at the 20th Annual International Meeting of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research; May 16–20, 2015; Philadelphia, PA.
BrownMLRileyGFSchusslerNEtzioniR. Estimating health care costs related to cancer treatment from SEER-Medicare data. Med Care2002;40(8 Suppl):IV-104–117.
CampbellJDRamseySD. The costs of treating breast cancer in the US: a synthesis of published evidence. Pharmacoeconomics2009;27:199–209.
RileyGFPotoskyALLubitzJDKesslerLG. Medicare payments from diagnosis to death for elderly cancer patients by stage at diagnosis. Med Care1995;33:828–841.
WarrenJLBrownMLFayMP. Costs of treatment for elderly women with early-stage breast cancer in fee-for-service settings. J Clin Oncol2002;20:307–316.
HowladerNNooneAMKrapchoM eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2013National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD based on November 2011 SEER data submission April2012. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/. Accessed April 21 2016.
HanchateADClough-GorrKMAshAS. Longitudinal patterns in survival, comorbidity, healthcare utilization and quality of care among older women following breast cancer diagnosis. J Gen Intern Med2010;25:1045–1050.
XuXHerrinJSoulosPR. The role of patient factors, cancer characteristics, and treatment patterns in the costs of care for Medicare beneficiaries with breast cancer. Health Serv Res2016;51:167–186.
PenberthyLRetchinSMMcDonaldMK. Predictors of Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer. Health Care Manag Sci1999;2:149–160.
BehringerB. Health care services in Appalachia. In: CoutoRSimpsonNKHarrisG eds. Sowing Seeds in the Mountains: Community-Based Coalitions for Cancer Prevention and Control. NIH Publication No. 94-3779. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1994:62–80.
Kaiser State Health Facts. Overweight and obesity rates for adults by sex 2009. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation; 2009. Available at: http://www.statehealthfacts.org. Accessed April 21 2016.
Kaiser State Health Facts. Percent of adults who smoke by sex 2008. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation; 2008. Available at: http://www.statehealthfacts.org. Accessed April 21 2016.
United States Census Bureau. Persons 25 years old and over with a bachelor's degree or more 2008. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2010. Available at: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2010/ranks/rank19.html. Accessed April 21 2016.
United States Census Bureau. Persons below the poverty level 2008. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2010. Available at: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2010/ranks/rank34.html. Accessed April 21 2016.
ArcuryTAPreisserJSGeslerWMPowersJM. Access to transportation and healthcare utilization in a rural region. J Rural Health2005;21:316–338.
West Virginia Healthcare Authority. Broadband infrastructure in West Virginia healthcare. Available at: http://www.hca.wv.gov/policyandplanning/br/Documents/Broadband_Report_09_10.pdf. Accessed November 15 2016.
State Cancer Profiles. Incidence and mortality rate reports for breast cancer for West Virginia by county. Available at: http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/. Accessed April 21 2016.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States Cancer Statistics. Rankings by state: 2006 male and female all cancer sites combined. Available at: https://nccd.cdc.gov/USCS/cancersrankedbystate.aspx. Accessed April 21 2016.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States Cancer Statistics. State vs. national rates: 2006 female West Virginia. Available at: https://nccd.cdc.gov/USCS/statevsnational.aspx. Accessed April 21 2016.
LengerichEJChaseGABeilerJDarnellM. Increased risk of unknown stage cancer from residence in a rural area: health disparities with poverty and minority status. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.160.1128. Accessed April 21 2016.
West Virginia Department of Health & Human Resources. Cancer incidence in West Virginia, 1993-2009. West Virginia Cancer Registry: 2012 Annual Report 2012. Available at: http://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/cancer/Documents/WVCR%202012%20Annual%20Report_1_8_2013.pdf. Accessed April 21 2016.
NadparaPAMadhavanSS. Linking Medicare, Medicaid, and cancer registry data to study the burden of cancers in West Virginia. Medicare Medicaid Res Rev2012;2:pii: 10.5600/mmrr.002.04.a01.
WarrenJLKlabundeCNSchragD. Overview of the SEER-Medicare data: content, research applications, and generalizability to the United States elderly population. Med Care2002;40(8 Suppl):IV-3–18.
EngelsEAPfeifferRMRickerW. Use of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data to conduct case-control studies of cancer among the US elderly. Am J Epidemiol2011;174:860–870.
TaplinSHBarlowWUrbanN. Stage, age, comorbidity, and direct costs of colon, prostate, and breast cancer care. J Natl Cancer Inst1995;87:417–426.
United States Department of Labor. Consumer Price Index medical care services 1982-84. Available at: https://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet. Accessed April 21 2016.
AndersenRNewmanJF. Societal and individual determinants of medical care utilization in the United States. Milbank Mem Fund Q Health Soc1973;51:95–124.
KlabundeCNPotoskyALLeglerJMWarrenJL. Development of a comorbidity index using physician claims data. J Clin Epidemiol2000;53:1258–1267.
National Cancer Institute. SEER-Medicare: Calculation of comorbidity weights. Available at: https://healthcaredelivery.cancer.gov/seermedicare/considerations/calculation.html. Accessed April 21 2016.
YuXMcBeanAMVirnigBA. Physician visits, patient comorbidities, and mammography use among elderly colorectal cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv2007;1:275–282.
WangHQuiFBoilesenE. Rural-urban differences in costs of end-of-life care for elderly cancer patients in the United States. J Rural Health2016;32:353–362.
United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Community Living. Administration on Aging. A profile of older Americans: 2014. Available at: http://aoa.acl.gov/Aging_Statistics/Profile/2014/8.aspx. Accessed November 20 2016.
BrooksGALiLSharmaDB. Regional variation in spending and survival for older adults with advanced cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst2013;105:634–642.
FisherESWennbergDEStukelTA. The implications of regional variations in Medicare spending. Part 1: the content, quality, and accessibility of care. Ann Intern Med2003;138:273–287.
FisherESWennbergDEStukelTA. The implications of regional variations in Medicare spending. Part 2: Health outcomes and satisfaction with care. Ann Intern Med2003:138:288–298.
ZuckermanSWaidmannTBerensonRHadleyJ. Clarifying sources of geographic differences in Medicare spending. N Engl J Med2010;363:54–62.
Table 12.8. Medicare Advantage and Other Private Health Plan Penetration (Percent of Medicare Beneficiaries Enrolled) by Geographic Area: December 2006. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/MedicareMedicaidStatSupp/Downloads/2007_Section12.pdf. Accessed November 22 2016.
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Medicare Advantage. May2016. Fact Sheet. Available at: http://files.kff.org/attachment/Fact-Sheet-Medicare-Advantage. Accessed November 22 2016.
Kaiser Family Foundation. Medicare Policy. Medigap: Spotlight on Enrollment Premiums and Recent Trends. April2013. Available at: https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/8412-2.pdf. Accessed November 22 2016.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Medicare-Medicaid Enrollee State Profile: West Virginia. Available at: http://www.integratedcareresourcecenter.com/PDFs/StateProfileWV.pdf. Accessed November 22 2016.