Ovarian Cancer, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Restricted access

This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer focuses on the less common ovarian histopathologies (LCOHs), because new algorithms were added for LCOHs and current algorithms were revised for the 2016 update. The new LCOHs algorithms include clear cell carcinomas, mucinous carcinomas, and grade 1 (low-grade) serous carcinomas/endometrioid epithelial carcinomas. The LCOHs also include carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the ovary), borderline epithelial tumors (also known as low malignant potential tumors), malignant sex cord-stromal tumors, and malignant germ cell tumors.

  • 1.

    Kurman RJ, Carcangiu ML, Harrington CS. WHO Classification of Tumours of Female Reproductive Organs, 4th ed. WHO/IARC Classification of Tumours. Vol. 6. Lyon: IARC Publications; 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Chan JK, Cheung MK, Husain A. Patterns and progress in ovarian cancer over 14 years. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:521528.

  • 3.

    Prat J. New insights into ovarian cancer pathology. Ann Oncol 2012;23(Suppl 10):x111117.

  • 4.

    Jelovac D, Armstrong DK. Recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:183203.

  • 5.

    Morgan RJ Jr, Copeland L, Gershenson D. NCCN Ovarian Cancer Practice Guidelines. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Oncology (Williston Park) 1996;10:293310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:730.

  • 7.

    van Leeuwen FE, Klip H, Mooij TM. Risk of borderline and invasive ovarian tumours after ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization in a large Dutch cohort. Hum Reprod 2011;26:34563465.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Pearce CL, Templeman C, Rossing MA. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:385394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Nakonechny QB, Gilks CB. Ovarian cancer in hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes. Surg Pathol Clin 2016;9:189199.

  • 10.

    Chui MH, Ryan P, Radigan J. The histomorphology of Lynch syndrome-associated ovarian carcinomas: toward a subtype-specific screening strategy. Am J Surg Pathol 2014;38:11731181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Lu KH, Daniels M. Endometrial and ovarian cancer in women with Lynch syndrome: update in screening and prevention. Fam Cancer 2013;12:273277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lancaster JM, Powell CB, Chen LM. Society of Gynecologic Oncology statement on risk assessment for inherited gynecologic cancer predispositions. Gynecol Oncol 2015;136:37.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Rebbeck TR, Mitra N, Wan F. Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer. JAMA 2015;313:13471361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Daly MB, Axilbund JE, Buys S. Genetic/familial high-risk assessment: breast and ovarian. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2010;8:562594.

  • 15.

    Walsh CS, Blum A, Walts A. Lynch syndrome among gynecologic oncology patients meeting Bethesda guidelines for screening. Gynecol Oncol 2010;116:516521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Lancaster JM, Powell CB, Kauff ND. Society of Gynecologic Oncologists Education Committee statement on risk assessment for inherited gynecologic cancer predispositions. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:159162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Shulman LP. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC): clinical features and counseling for BRCA1 and BRCA2, Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2010;37:109133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bulletins ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Gynecol Oncol 2009;113:611.

  • 19.

    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins–Gynecology ACOG Committee on Genetics . ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 103: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:957966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Zhang S, Royer R, Li S. Frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among 1,342 unselected patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:353357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Liu G, Yang D, Sun Y. Differing clinical impact of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in serous ovarian cancer. Pharmacogenomics 2012;13:15231535.

  • 22.

    Marchetti C, De Felice F, Palaia I. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy: a meta-analysis on impact on ovarian cancer risk and all cause mortality in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers. BMC Womens Health 2014;14:150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Reitsma W, de Bock GH, Oosterwijk JC. Support of the ‘fallopian tube hypothesis’ in a prospective series of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy specimens. Eur J Cancer 2013;49:132141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Singer CF. Association of risk-reducing surgery in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with cancer risk and mortality. JAMA 2010;304:967975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Finch A, Beiner M, Lubinski J. Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. JAMA 2006;296:185192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Rebbeck TR, Kauff ND, Domchek SM. Meta-analysis of risk reduction estimates associated with risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101:8087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Powell CB, Chen LM, McLennan J. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA mutation carriers: experience with a consecutive series of 111 patients using a standardized surgical-pathological protocol. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2011;21:846851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Mingels MJ, van Ham MA, de Kievit IM. Mullerian precursor lesions in serous ovarian cancer patients: using the SEE-Fim and SEE-End protocol. Mod Pathol 2014;27:10021013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Callahan MJ, Crum CP, Medeiros F. Primary fallopian tube malignancies in BRCA-positive women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer risk reduction. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:39853990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Sherman ME, Piedmonte M, Mai PL. Pathologic findings at risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy: primary results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:32753283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Garber JE. Occult ovarian cancers identified at risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in a prospective cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010;124:195203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Clarke-Pearson DL. Clinical practice. Screening for ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2009;361:170177.

  • 33.

    Goff BA, Mandel LS, Drescher CW. Development of an ovarian cancer symptom index: possibilities for earlier detection. Cancer 2007;109:221227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Andersen MR, Goff BA, Lowe KA. Combining a symptoms index with CA 125 to improve detection of ovarian cancer. Cancer 2008;113:484489.

  • 35.

    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice. Committee Opinion No. 477: the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist in the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:742746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Lim AW, Mesher D, Gentry-Maharaj A. Predictive value of symptoms for ovarian cancer: comparison of symptoms reported by questionnaire, interview, and general practitioner notes. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104:114124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Rossing MA, Wicklund KG, Cushing-Haugen KL, Weiss NS. Predictive value of symptoms for early detection of ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:222229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Gilbert L, Basso O, Sampalis J. Assessment of symptomatic women for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer: results from the prospective DOvE pilot project. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:285291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Smith RA, Manassaram-Baptiste D, Brooks D. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65:3054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Nolen BM, Lokshin AE. Protein biomarkers of ovarian cancer: the forest and the trees. Future Oncol 2012;8:5571.

  • 41.

    Buys SS, Partridge E, Black A. Effect of screening on ovarian cancer mortality: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2011;305:22952303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Hartge P. Designing early detection programs for ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:34.

  • 43.

    Moyer VAU.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for ovarian cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:900904.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Gentry-Maharaj A, Menon U. Screening for ovarian cancer in the general population. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2012;26:243256.

  • 45.

    Schorge JO, Modesitt SC, Coleman RL. SGO White Paper on ovarian cancer: etiology, screening and surveillance. Gynecol Oncol 2010;119:717.

  • 46.

    Brown DL, Andreotti RF, Lee SI. ACR appropriateness criteria(c) ovarian cancer screening. Ultrasound Q 2010;26:219223.

  • 47.

    Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.

  • 48.

    Gilks B, Movahedi-Lankarani S, Baker PM. Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with carcinoma of the ovary or fallopian tube. Available at: http://www.cap.org/ShowProperty?nodePath=/UCMCon/Contribution%20Folders/WebContent/pdf/cp-ovary-fallopian-16protocol-1000.pdf. Accessed August 22, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Zeppernick F, Meinhold-Heerlein I. The new FIGO staging system for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2014;290:839842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Prat JFIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology. Staging classification for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2014;124:15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    McCluggage WG. Morphological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma: a review with emphasis on new developments and pathogenesis. Pathology 2011;43:420432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Malpica A, Deavers MT, Tornos C. Interobserver and intraobserver variability of a two-tier system for grading ovarian serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2007;31:11681174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Malpica A, Deavers MT, Lu K. Grading ovarian serous carcinoma using a two-tier system. Am J Surg Pathol 2004;28:496504.

  • 54.

    Movahedi-Lankarani S, Baker PM, Gilks B, Soslow RA. Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with carcinoma of the ovary. Available at: http://www.cap.org/ShowProperty?nodePath=/UCMCon/Contribution%20Folders/WebContent/pdf/ovary-15protocol-3201.pdf. Accessed August 22, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Mitchell DG, Javitt MC, Glanc P. ACR appropriateness criteria staging and follow-up of ovarian cancer. J Am Coll Radiol 2013;10:822827.

  • 56.

    Im SS, Gordon AN, Buttin BM. Validation of referral guidelines for women with pelvic masses. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:3541.

  • 57.

    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin. Management of adnexal masses. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:201214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Dearking AC, Aletti GD, McGree ME. How relevant are ACOG and SGO guidelines for referral of adnexal mass? Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:841848.

  • 59.

    Timmerman D, Testa AC, Bourne T. Simple ultrasound-based rules for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;31:681690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Iyer VR, Lee SI. MRI, CT, and PET/CT for ovarian cancer detection and adnexal lesion characterization. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010;194:311321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Harris RD, Javitt MC, Glanc P. ACR Appropriateness Criteria(R) clinically suspected adnexal mass. Ultrasound Q 2013;29:7986.

  • 62.

    Dodge JE, Covens AL, Lacchetti C. Management of a suspicious adnexal mass: a clinical practice guideline. Curr Oncol 2012;19:e244257.

  • 63.

    Gregory JJ Jr, Finlay JL. Alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: their clinical significance as tumour markers. Drugs 1999;57:463467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Reinhard H. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents: results of the German cooperative protocols MAKEI 83/86, 89, and 96. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:832839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Kawai M, Furuhashi Y, Kano T. Alpha-fetoprotein in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 1990;39:160166.

  • 66.

    Yamamoto Y, Oguri H, Yamada R. Preoperative evaluation of pelvic masses with combined 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2008;102:124127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Castellucci P, Perrone AM, Picchio M. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT in characterizing ovarian lesions and staging ovarian cancer: correlation with transvaginal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and histology. Nucl Med Commun 2007;28:589595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Risum S, Hogdall C, Loft A. The diagnostic value of PET/CT for primary ovarian cancer—a prospective study. Gynecol Oncol 2007;105:145149.

  • 69.

    Cannistra SA, Gershenson DM, Recht A. Ovarian cancer, fallopian tube carcinoma, and peritoneal carcinoma. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:10751099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Vergote I, De Brabanter J, Fyles A. Prognostic importance of degree of differentiation and cyst rupture in stage I invasive epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Lancet 2001;357:176182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Young RH. From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II. Adv Anat Pathol 2007;14:149177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Lee KR, Young RH. The distinction between primary and metastatic mucinous carcinomas of the ovary: gross and histologic findings in 50 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:281292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Kim KA, Park CM, Lee JH. Benign ovarian tumors with solid and cystic components that mimic malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;182:12591265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Romagnolo C, Leon AE, Fabricio AS. HE4, CA125 and risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) as diagnostic tools for ovarian cancer in patients with a pelvic mass: an Italian multicenter study. Gynecol Oncol 2016;141:303311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Moore RG, Miller MC, Disilvestro P. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm in women with a pelvic mass. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:280288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Yoshida A, Derchain SF, Pitta DR. Comparing the Copenhagen Index (CPH-I) and Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA): two equivalent ways to differentiate malignant from benign ovarian tumors before surgery? Gynecol Oncol 2016;140:481485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Jacob F, Meier M, Caduff R. No benefit from combining HE4 and CA125 as ovarian tumor markers in a clinical setting. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:487491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Molina R, Escudero JM, Auge JM. HE4 a novel tumour marker for ovarian cancer: comparison with CA 125 and ROMA algorithm in patients with gynaecological diseases. Tumour Biol 2011;32:10871095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Van Gorp T, Cadron I, Despierre E. HE4 and CA125 as a diagnostic test in ovarian cancer: prospective validation of the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm. Br J Cancer 2011;104:863870.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Ledermann JA, Luvero D, Shafer A. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for mucinous ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014;24:S1419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Kobel M, Kalloger SE, Huntsman DG. Differences in tumor type in low-stage versus high-stage ovarian carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2010;29:203211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Seidman JD, Horkayne-Szakaly I, Haiba M. The histologic type and stage distribution of ovarian carcinomas of surface epithelial origin. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2004;23:4144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Rechsteiner M, Zimmermann AK, Wild PJ. TP53 mutations are common in all subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer and occur concomitantly with KRAS mutations in the mucinous type. Exp Mol Pathol 2013;95:235241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    Vereczkey I, Serester O, Dobos J. Molecular characterization of 103 ovarian serous and mucinous tumors. Pathol Oncol Res 2011;17:551559.

  • 85.

    Reade CJ, McVey RM, Tone AA. The fallopian tube as the origin of high grade serous ovarian cancer: review of a paradigm shift. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014;36:133140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Vang R, Shih Ie M, Kurman RJ. Ovarian low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma: pathogenesis, clinicopathologic and molecular biologic features, and diagnostic problems. Adv Anat Pathol 2009;16:267282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Meinhold-Heerlein I, Bauerschlag D, Hilpert F. Molecular and prognostic distinction between serous ovarian carcinomas of varying grade and malignant potential. Oncogene 2005;24:10531065.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Gourley C, Farley J, Provencher DM. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for ovarian and primary peritoneal low-grade serous carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014;24:S913.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Meinhold-Heerlein I, Fotopoulou C, Harter P. The new WHO classification of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer and its clinical implications. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016;293:695700.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Erickson BK, Martin JY, Shah MM. Reasons for failure to deliver National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)-adherent care in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer at an NCCN cancer center. Gynecol Oncol 2014;133:142146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Bristow RE, Chang J, Ziogas A. Impact of National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Centers on ovarian cancer treatment and survival. J Am Coll Surg 2015;220:940950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    Ledermann JA, Raja FA, Fotopoulou C. Newly diagnosed and relapsed epithelial ovarian carcinoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 2013;24(Suppl 6):vi2432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    Bristow RE, Chang J, Ziogas A, Anton-Culver H. Adherence to treatment guidelines for ovarian cancer as a measure of quality care. Obstet Gynecol 2013;121:12261234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Leary A, Cowan R, Chi D. Primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer: the debate continues. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2016;35:153162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Chi DS, Bristow RE, Armstrong DK, Karlan BY. Is the easier way ever the better way? J Clin Oncol 2011;29:40734075.

  • 96.

    Vergote I, Trope CG, Amant F. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the better treatment option in some patients with stage IIIc to IV ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:40764078.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Schorge JO, Garrett LA, Goodman A. Cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer: quo vadis? Oncology (Williston Park) 2011;25:928934.

  • 98.

    Rose PG, Nerenstone S, Brady MF. Secondary surgical cytoreduction for advanced ovarian carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2004;351:24892497.

  • 99.

    van der Burg ME, van Lent M, Buyse M. The effect of debulking surgery after induction chemotherapy on the prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecological Cancer Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. N Engl J Med 1995;332:629634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Colombo PE, Mourregot A, Fabbro M. Aggressive surgical strategies in advanced ovarian cancer: a monocentric study of 203 stage IIIC and IV patients. Eur J Surg Oncol 2009;35:135143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Rauh-Hain JA, Rodriguez N, Growdon WB. Primary debulking surgery versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage IV ovarian cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2012;19:959965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Morrison J, Haldar K, Kehoe S, Lawrie TA. Chemotherapy versus surgery for initial treatment in advanced ovarian epithelial cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;8:CD005343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Vergote I, Trope CG, Amant F. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or primary surgery in stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2010;363:943953.

  • 104.

    Steed H, Oza AM, Murphy J. A retrospective analysis of neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy versus up-front surgery in advanced ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2006;16(Suppl 1):4753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Tangjitgamol S, Manusirivithaya S, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P. Interval debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD006014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    Tiersten AD, Liu PY, Smith HO. Phase II evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and debulking followed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy in women with stage III and IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer: Southwest Oncology Group Study S0009. Gynecol Oncol 2009;112:444449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Vandenput I, Van Calster B, Capoen A. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery in patients with serous endometrial cancer with transperitoneal spread (stage IV): a new preferred treatment? Br J Cancer 2009;101:244249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108.

    Chi DS, Musa F, Dao F. An analysis of patients with bulky advanced stage ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal carcinoma treated with primary debulking surgery (PDS) during an identical time period as the randomized EORTC-NCIC trial of PDS vs neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Gynecol Oncol 2012;124:1014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Fleming GF, Seidman J, Lengyel E. Epithelial ovarian cancer. In: Barakat RR, Markman M, Randall ME, eds. Principles and Practice of Gynecologic Oncology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:757847.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Schorge JO, Eisenhauer EE, Chi DS. Current surgical management of ovarian cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2012;26:93109.

  • 111.

    Whitney CW, Spirtos N. Gynecologic Oncology Group Surgical Procedures Manual. Philadelphia: Gynecologic Oncology Group; 2009.

  • 112.

    Giede KC, Kieser K, Dodge J, Rosen B. Who should operate on patients with ovarian cancer? An evidence-based review. Gynecol Oncol 2005;99:447461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Earle CC, Schrag D, Neville BA. Effect of surgeon specialty on processes of care and outcomes for ovarian cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:172180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    du Bois A, Quinn M, Thigpen T. 2004 consensus statements on the management of ovarian cancer: final document of the 3rd International Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (GCIG OCCC 2004). Ann Oncol 2005;16(Suppl 8):viii7viii12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Schlaerth AC, Chi DS, Poynor EA. Long-term survival after fertility-sparing surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009;19:11991204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116.

    Schilder JM, Thompson AM, DePriest PD. Outcome of reproductive age women with stage IA or IC invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with fertility-sparing therapy. Gynecol Oncol 2002;87:17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Fader AN, Rose PG. Role of surgery in ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:28732883.

  • 118.

    Wright JD, Shah M, Mathew L. Fertility preservation in young women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer 2009;115:41184126.

  • 119.

    Satoh T, Hatae M, Watanabe Y. Outcomes of fertility-sparing surgery for stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposal for patient selection. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:17271732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    Gershenson DM. Treatment of ovarian cancer in young women. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2012;55:6574.

  • 121.

    Bristow RE, Tomacruz RS, Armstrong DK. Survival effect of maximal cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian carcinoma during the platinum era: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:12481259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Stier EA, Barakat RR, Curtin JP. Laparotomy to complete staging of presumed early ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:737740.

  • 123.

    Eisenhauer EL, Abu-Rustum NR, Sonoda Y. The addition of extensive upper abdominal surgery to achieve optimal cytoreduction improves survival in patients with stages IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2006;103:10831090.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    du Bois A, Reuss A, Pujade-Lauraine E. Role of surgical outcome as prognostic factor in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a combined exploratory analysis of 3 prospectively randomized phase 3 multicenter trials: by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie Studiengruppe Ovarialkarzinom (AGO-OVAR) and the Groupe d'Investigateurs Nationaux Pour les Etudes des Cancers de l'Ovaire (GINECO). Cancer 2009;115:12341244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Chang SJ, Bristow RE. Evolution of surgical treatment paradigms for advanced-stage ovarian cancer: redefining ‘optimal’ residual disease. Gynecol Oncol 2012;125:483492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Elattar A, Bryant A, Winter-Roach BA. Optimal primary surgical treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011:CD007565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Chi DS, Eisenhauer EL, Zivanovic O. Improved progression-free and overall survival in advanced ovarian cancer as a result of a change in surgical paradigm. Gynecol Oncol 2009;114:2631.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128.

    Liu CS, Nagarsheth NP, Nezhat FR. Laparoscopy and ovarian cancer: a paradigm change in the management of ovarian cancer? J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2009;16:250262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Fagotti A, Vizzielli G, De Iaco P. A multicentric trial (Olympia-MITO 13) on the accuracy of laparoscopy to assess peritoneal spread in ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;209:462.e1462.e11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    Magrina JF, Zanagnolo V, Noble BN. Robotic approach for ovarian cancer: perioperative and survival results and comparison with laparoscopy and laparotomy. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:100105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131.

    Mori KM, Neubauer NL. Minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology. ISRN Obstet Gynecol 2013;2013:312982.

  • 132.

    Committee on Practice Bulletins–Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 126: Management of gynecologic issues in women with breast cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2012;119:666682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Barton DL, Loprinzi C, Gostout B. Current management of menopausal symptoms in cancer patients. Oncology (Williston Park) 2002;16:6772, 74; discussion 75–66, 79–80.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Jenkins MR, Sikon AL. Update on nonhormonal approaches to menopausal management. Cleve Clin J Med 2008;75(Suppl 4):S1724.

  • 135.

    Wimberger P, Lehmann N, Kimmig R. Prognostic factors for complete debulking in advanced ovarian cancer and its impact on survival. An exploratory analysis of a prospectively randomized phase III study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie Ovarian Cancer Study Group (AGO-OVAR). Gynecol Oncol 2007;106:6974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136.

    Fischerova D, Zikan M, Dundr P, Cibula D. Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of borderline ovarian tumors. Oncologist 2012;17:15151533.

  • 137.

    Ayhan A, Celik H, Taskiran C. Oncologic and reproductive outcome after fertility-saving surgery in ovarian cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2003;24:223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138.

    Zanetta G, Bonazzi C, Cantu M. Survival and reproductive function after treatment of malignant germ cell ovarian tumors. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:10151020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    Lee SJ, Schover LR, Partridge AH. American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:29172931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140.

    Lai CH, Chang TC, Hsueh S. Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies. Gynecol Oncol 2005;96:784791.

  • 141.

    McCluggage WG, Judge MJ, Clarke BA. Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR). Mod Pathol 2015;28:11011122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142.

    Okamoto A, Glasspool RM, Mabuchi S. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014;24:S2025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143.

    Magazzino F, Katsaros D, Ottaiano A. Surgical and medical treatment of clear cell ovarian cancer: results from the multicenter Italian Trials in Ovarian Cancer (MITO) 9 retrospective study. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2011;21:10631070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144.

    Massad LS, Gao F, Hagemann I, Powell M. Clinical outcomes among women with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2015.

  • 145.

    Bruls J, Simons M, Overbeek LI. A national population-based study provides insight in the origin of malignancies metastatic to the ovary. Virchows Arch 2015;467:7986.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146.

    McCluggage WG, Wilkinson N. Metastatic neoplasms involving the ovary: a review with an emphasis on morphological and immunohistochemical features. Histopathology 2005;47:231247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147.

    de Waal YR, Thomas CM, Oei AL. Secondary ovarian malignancies: frequency, origin, and characteristics. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009;19:11601165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148.

    Sato S, Itamochi H, Kigawa J. Combination chemotherapy of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil may be an effective regimen for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary: a potential treatment strategy. Cancer Sci 2009;100:546551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 149.

    Madore J, Ren F, Filali-Mouhim A. Characterization of the molecular differences between ovarian endometrioid carcinoma and ovarian serous carcinoma. J Pathol 2010;220:392400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150.

    Mackay HJ, Brady MF, Oza AM. Prognostic relevance of uncommon ovarian histology in women with stage III/IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2010;20:945952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151.

    Bodurka DC, Deavers MT, Tian C. Reclassification of serous ovarian carcinoma by a 2-tier system: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Cancer 2012;118:30873094.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152.

    Gershenson DM, Sun CC, Iyer RB. Hormonal therapy for recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum. Gynecol Oncol 2012;125:661666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153.

    Gershenson DM, Bodurka DC, Coleman RL. Hormonal maintenance therapy for women with low grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:Abstract 5502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154.

    Piccart MJ, Bertelsen K, James K. Randomized intergroup trial of cisplatin-paclitaxel versus cisplatin-cyclophosphamide in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: three-year results. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:699708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155.

    Mangili G, Sigismondi C, Gadducci A. Outcome and risk factors for recurrence in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a MITO-9 retrospective study. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2011;21:14141421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156.

    Gershenson DM. Management of ovarian germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:29382943.

  • 157.

    Brown J, Friedlander M, Backes FJ. Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) consensus review for ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014;24:S4854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158.

    Gershenson DM, Morris M, Cangir A. Treatment of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:715720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 159.

    Zanagnolo V, Sartori E, Galleri G. Clinical review of 55 cases of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2004;25:315320.

  • 160.

    Low JJ, Perrin LC, Crandon AJ, Hacker NF. Conservative surgery to preserve ovarian function in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A review of 74 cases. Cancer 2000;89:391398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161.

    Mangili G, Scarfone G, Gadducci A. Is adjuvant chemotherapy indicated in stage I pure immature ovarian teratoma (IT)? A multicentre Italian trial in ovarian cancer (MITO-9). Gynecol Oncol 2010;119:4852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162.

    Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F. Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:424429; discussion 424–429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 163.

    Mahdi H, Swensen RE, Hanna R. Prognostic impact of lymphadenectomy in clinically early stage malignant germ cell tumour of the ovary. Br J Cancer 2011;105:493497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164.

    Vazquez I, Rustin GJ. Current controversies in the management of germ cell ovarian tumours. Curr Opin Oncol 2013;25:539545.

  • 165.

    Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Kassanos D. Germ cell tumors of the ovary. Cancer Treat Rev 2008;34:427441.

  • 166.

    Tangir J, Zelterman D, Ma W, Schwartz PE. Reproductive function after conservative surgery and chemotherapy for malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:251257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167.

    Billmire DF, Cullen JW, Rescorla FJ. Surveillance after initial surgery for pediatric and adolescent girls with stage I ovarian germ cell tumors: report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:465470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168.

    Cushing B, Giller R, Ablin A. Surgical resection alone is effective treatment for ovarian immature teratoma in children and adolescents: a report of the pediatric oncology group and the children's cancer group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:353358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 169.

    Patterson DM, Murugaesu N, Holden L. A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2008;18:4350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 170.

    Marina NM, Cushing B, Giller R. Complete surgical excision is effective treatment for children with immature teratomas with or without malignant elements: a Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group Intergroup study. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:21372143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 171.

    Billmire DF, Krailo M, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Frazier AL. Reply to G. Mangili et al and C. Lhomme et al. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:28162817.

  • 172.

    Lhomme C, Leary A, Uzan C. Adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I ovarian germ cell tumors: should indications and treatment modalities be different in young girls and adults? J Clin Oncol 2014;32:28152816.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 173.

    Mangili G, Sigismondi C, Lorusso D, Pignata S. Surveillance policy for stage IA malignant ovarian germ cell tumors in children and young adults. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:28142815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 174.

    Brown J, Shvartsman HS, Deavers MT. The activity of taxanes compared with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in the treatment of sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors. Gynecol Oncol 2005;97:489496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 175.

    Williams S, Blessing JA, Liao SY. Adjuvant therapy of ovarian germ cell tumors with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin: a trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:701706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 176.

    Kang H, Kim TJ, Kim WY. Outcome and reproductive function after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) for patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor. Gynecol Oncol 2008;111:106110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 177.

    Saxman SB, Finch D, Gonin R, Einhorn LH. Long-term follow-up of a phase III study of three versus four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in favorable-prognosis germ-cell tumors: the Indian University experience. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:702706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 178.

    Xiao H, Mazumdar M, Bajorin DF. Long-term follow-up of patients with good-risk germ cell tumors treated with etoposide and cisplatin. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:25532558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 179.

    Nichols CR, Catalano PJ, Crawford ED. Randomized comparison of cisplatin and etoposide and either bleomycin or ifosfamide in treatment of advanced disseminated germ cell tumors: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Southwest Oncology Group, and Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:12871293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 180.

    Hinton S, Catalano PJ, Einhorn LH. Cisplatin, etoposide and either bleomycin or ifosfamide in the treatment of disseminated germ cell tumors: final analysis of an intergroup trial. Cancer 2003;97:18691875.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 181.

    Horwich A, Sleijfer DT, Fossa SD. Randomized trial of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin compared with bleomycin, etoposide, and carboplatin in good-prognosis metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a Multiinstitutional Medical Research Council/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:18441852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 182.

    Toner GC, Stockler MR, Boyer MJ. Comparison of two standard chemotherapy regimens for good-prognosis germ-cell tumours: a randomised trial. Australian and New Zealand Germ Cell Trial Group. Lancet 2001;357:739745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 183.

    Bamias A, Aravantinos G, Kastriotis I. Report of the long-term efficacy of two cycles of adjuvant bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin in patients with stage I testicular nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors (NSGCT): a risk adapted protocol of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Urol Oncol 2011;29:189193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 184.

    Dimopoulos MA, Papadimitriou C, Hamilos G. Treatment of ovarian germ cell tumors with a 3-day bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen: a prospective multicenter study. Gynecol Oncol 2004;95:695700.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 185.

    Williams SD, Kauderer J, Burnett AF. Adjuvant therapy of completely resected dysgerminoma with carboplatin and etoposide: a trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol 2004;95:496499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 186.

    Salani R, Backes FJ, Fung MF. Posttreatment surveillance and diagnosis of recurrence in women with gynecologic malignancies: Society of Gynecologic Oncologists recommendations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:466478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 187.

    Reddy Ammakkanavar N, Matei D, Abonour R, Einhorn LH. High-dose chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:226227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 188.

    Shibata K, Kajiyama H, Kikkawa F. Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary showing three patterns of metastasis: a case report. Case Rep Oncol 2013;6:544549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 189.

    Matsushita H, Arai K, Fukase M. Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2010;69:221223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 190.

    Amsalem H, Nadjari M, Prus D. Growing teratoma syndrome vs chemotherapeutic retroconversion: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 2004;92:357360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 191.

    Djordjevic B, Euscher ED, Malpica A. Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary: review of literature and first report of a carcinoid tumor arising in a growing teratoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol 2007;31:19131918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 192.

    Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography: an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:22772284.

  • 193.

    Kondagunta GV, Bacik J, Donadio A. Combination of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin is an effective second-line therapy for patients with relapsed testicular germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:65496555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 194.

    Einhorn LH, Williams SD, Chamness A. High-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue for metastatic germ-cell tumors. N Engl J Med 2007;357:340348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 195.

    Loehrer PJ Sr., Gonin R, Nichols CR. Vinblastine plus ifosfamide plus cisplatin as initial salvage therapy in recurrent germ cell tumor. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:25002504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 196.

    Hinton S, Catalano P, Einhorn LH. Phase II study of paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in refractory germ cell tumors (E9897): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:18591863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 197.

    Nichols CR, Roth BJ, Loehrer PJ. Salvage chemotherapy for recurrent germ cell cancer. Semin Oncol 1994;21:102108.

  • 198.

    Slayton RE, Park RC, Silverberg SG. Vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study (a final report). Cancer 1985;56:243248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 199.

    Mangili G, Ottolina J, Gadducci A. Long-term follow-up is crucial after treatment for granulosa cell tumours of the ovary. Br J Cancer 2013;109:2934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 200.

    Colombo N, Parma G, Zanagnolo V, Insinga A. Management of ovarian stromal cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:29442951.

  • 201.

    Lee IH, Choi CH, Hong DG. Clinicopathologic characteristics of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: a multicenter retrospective study. J Gynecol Oncol 2011;22:188195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 202.

    Ray-Coquard I, Brown J, Harter P. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for ovarian sex cord stromal tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014;24:S4247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 203.

    Zhang M, Cheung MK, Shin JY. Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary: an analysis of 376 women. Gynecol Oncol 2007;104:396400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 204.

    Wolf J, Brown J. Management of stromal tumors of the ovary: ASCO; 2008.

  • 205.

    Brown J, Sood AK, Deavers MT. Patterns of metastasis in sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary: can routine staging lymphadenectomy be omitted? Gynecol Oncol 2009;113:8690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 206.

    Schumer ST, Cannistra SA. Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:11801189.

  • 207.

    Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R. Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:23572363.

  • 208.

    Park JY, Jin KL, Kim DY. Surgical staging and adjuvant chemotherapy in the management of patients with adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 2012;125:8086.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 209.

    Gurumurthy M, Bryant A, Shanbhag S. Effectiveness of different treatment modalities for the management of adult-onset granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (primary and recurrent). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;4:CD006912.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 210.

    Homesley HD, Bundy BN, Hurteau JA, Roth LM. Bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin combination therapy of ovarian granulosa cell tumors and other stromal malignancies: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1999;72:131137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 211.

    Pautier P, Gutierrez-Bonnaire M, Rey A. Combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin for the treatment of advanced ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2008;18:446452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 212.

    Teoh D, Freedman R, Soliman PT. Nearly 30 years of treatment for recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Oncol 2010;3:1418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 213.

    Alhilli MM, Long HJ, Podratz KC, Bakkum-Gamez JN. Aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumors: brief report and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2012;38:340344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 214.

    Korach J, Perri T, Beiner M. Promising effect of aromatase inhibitors on recurrent granulosa cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009;19:830833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 215.

    Fishman A, Kudelka AP, Tresukosol D. Leuprolide acetate for treating refractory or persistent ovarian granulosa cell tumor. J Reprod Med 1996;41:393396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 216.

    Tao X, Sood AK, Deavers MT. Anti-angiogenesis therapy with bevacizumab for patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Gynecol Oncol 2009;114:431436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 217.

    Pacaut C, Bourmaud A, Rivoirard R. Uterine and ovary carcinosarcomas: outcome, prognosis factors, and adjuvant therapy. Am J Clin Oncol 2015;38:272277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 218.

    George EM, Herzog TJ, Neugut AI. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: natural history, patterns of treatment, and outcome. Gynecol Oncol 2013;131:4245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 219.

    del Carmen MG, Birrer M, Schorge JO. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: a review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 2012;125:271277.

  • 220.

    Mano MS, Rosa DD, Azambuja E. Current management of ovarian carcinosarcoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2007;17:316324.

  • 221.

    Berton-Rigaud D, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Ledermann JA. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for uterine and ovarian carcinosarcoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014;24:S5560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 222.

    Jernigan AM, Fader AN, Nutter B. Ovarian carcinosarcoma: effects of cytoreductive status and platinum-based chemotherapy on survival. Obstet Gynecol Int 2013;2013:490508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 223.

    Chun KC, Kim JJ, Kim DY. Optimal debulking surgery followed by paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy is very effective in treating ovarian carcinosarcomas: a single center experience. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2011;72:208214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 224.

    Brown E, Stewart M, Rye T. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: 19 years of prospective data from a single center. Cancer 2004;100:21482153.

  • 225.

    Silasi DA, Illuzzi JL, Kelly MG. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2008;18:2229.

  • 226.

    Duska LR, Garrett A, Eltabbakh GH. Paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy for malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 2002;85:459463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 227.

    Inthasorn P, Beale P, Dalrymple C, Carter J. Malignant mixed mullerian tumour of the ovary: prognostic factor and response of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2003;43:6164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 228.

    Rauh-Hain JA, Growdon WB, Rodriguez N. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: a case-control study. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:477481.

  • 229.

    Leiser AL, Chi DS, Ishill NM, Tew WP. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary treated with platinum and taxane: the memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. Gynecol Oncol 2007;105:657661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 230.

    Loizzi V, Cormio G, Camporeale A. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: analysis of 13 cases and review of the literature. Oncology 2011;80:102106.

  • 231.

    Rutledge TL, Gold MA, McMeekin DS. Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: a case series. Gynecol Oncol 2006;100:128132.

  • 232.

    Prat J, De Nictolis M. Serous borderline tumors of the ovary: a long-term follow-up study of 137 cases, including 18 with a micropapillary pattern and 20 with microinvasion. Am J Surg Pathol 2002;26:11111128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 233.

    Cadron I, Leunen K, Van Gorp T. Management of borderline ovarian neoplasms. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:29282937.

  • 234.

    Barakat RR, Benjamin I, Lewis JL Jr.. Platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced-stage serous ovarian carcinoma of low malignant potential. Gynecol Oncol 1995;59:390393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 235.

    Leake JF, Currie JL, Rosenshein NB, Woodruff JD. Long-term follow-up of serous ovarian tumors of low malignant potential. Gynecol Oncol 1992;47:150158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 236.

    Barnhill DR, Kurman RJ, Brady MF. Preliminary analysis of the behavior of stage I ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:27522756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 237.

    Prat J. Ovarian carcinomas: five distinct diseases with different origins, genetic alterations, and clinicopathological features. Virchows Arch 2012;460:237249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 238.

    Harter P, Gershenson D, Lhomme C. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (borderline ovarian tumors). Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014;24:S58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 239.

    Burger CW, Prinssen HM, Baak JP. The management of borderline epithelial tumors of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2000;10:181197.

  • 240.

    Morice P, Denschlag D, Rodolakis A. Recommendations of the Fertility Task Force of the European Society of Gynecologic Oncology about the conservative management of ovarian malignant tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2011;21:951963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 241.

    Wingo SN, Knowles LM, Carrick KS. Retrospective cohort study of surgical staging for ovarian low malignant potential tumors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:e2022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 242.

    Winter WE 3rd, Kucera PR, Rodgers W. Surgical staging in patients with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:671676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 243.

    Gershenson DM, Silva EG. Serous ovarian tumors of low malignant potential with peritoneal implants. Cancer 1990;65:578585.

  • 244.

    Shih KK, Zhou QC, Aghajanian C. Patterns of recurrence and role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II-IV serous ovarian borderline tumors. Gynecol Oncol 2010;119:270273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 245.

    Sutton GP, Bundy BN, Omura GA. Stage III ovarian tumors of low malignant potential treated with cisplatin combination therapy (a Gynecologic Oncology Group study). Gynecol Oncol 1991;41:230233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 246.

    Kennedy AW, Hart WR. Ovarian papillary serous tumors of low malignant potential (serous borderline tumors). A long-term follow-up study, including patients with microinvasion, lymph node metastasis, and transformation to invasive serous carcinoma. Cancer 1996;78:278286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 4889 3081 173
PDF Downloads 1161 794 72
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0