The authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors.
See JNCCN.org for supplemental online content.
CooksonMSHerrHWZhangZF. The treated natural history of high risk superficial bladder cancer: 15-year outcome. J Urol1997;158:62–67.
HerrHWSoganiPC. Does early cystectomy improve the survival of patients with high risk superficial bladder tumors?J Urol2001;166:1296–1299.
BiancoFJJrJustaDGrignonDJ. Management of clinical T1 bladder transitional cell carcinoma by radical cystectomy. Urol Oncol2004;22:290–294.
RajGVHerrHSerioAM. Treatment paradigm shift may improve survival of patients with high risk superficial bladder cancer. J Urol2007;177:1283–1286; discussion 1286.
DenzingerSFritscheHMOttoW. Early versus deferred cystectomy for initial high-risk pT1G3 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: do risk factors define feasibility of bladder-sparing approach?Eur Urol2008;53:146–152.
IidaSKondoTKobayashiH. Clinical outcome of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a long-term single center experience. Int J Urol2009;16:287–292.
KimPHChaEKSfakianosJP. Genomic predictors of survival in patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eur Urol2015;67:198–201.
Martin-DoyleWLeowJJOrsolaA. Improving selection criteria for early cystectomy in high-grade t1 bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of 15,215 patients. J Clin Oncol2015;33:643–650.
OrsolaAWernerLde TorresI. Reexamining treatment of high-grade T1 bladder cancer according to depth of lamina propria invasion: a prospective trial of 200 patients. Br J Cancer2015;112:468–474.
HaasCRBarlowLJBadalatoGM. The timing of radical cystectomy for BCG failure: comparison of outcomes and risk factors for prognosis. J Urol2016;195:1704–1709.
BrausiMWitjesJALammD. A review of current guidelines and best practice recommendations for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer by the International Bladder Cancer Group. J Urol2011;186:2158–2167.
ClarkPESpiessPEAgarwalN. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Bladder Cancer Version 1.2016. Accessed June 22 2016. To view the most recent version of these guidelines visitNCCN.org.
BilimoriaKYStewartAKWinchesterDP. The National Cancer Data Base: a powerful initiative to improve cancer care in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol2008;15:683–690.
ChalasaniVKassoufWChinJL. Radical cystectomy for the treatment of T1 bladder cancer: the Canadian Bladder Cancer Network experience. Can Urol Assoc J2011;5:83–87.
KimKSungCOParkBH. Immunoprofile-based subgrouping of urothelial bladder carcinomas for survival prediction. Hum Pathol2015;46:1464–1470.
DobruchJBorowkaAHerrHW. Clinical value of transurethral second resection of bladder tumor: systematic review. Urology2014;84:881–885.
DuttaSCSmithJAJrShappellSB. Clinical under staging of high risk nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma treated with radical cystectomy. J Urol2001;166:490–493.
Van Der MeijdenASylvesterRColletteL. The role and impact of pathology review on stage and grade assessment of stages Ta and T1 bladder tumors: a combined analysis of 5 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trials. J Urol2000;164:1533–1537.
BruinsHMSkinnerECDorinRP. Incidence and location of lymph node metastases in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for clinical non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: results from a prospective lymph node mapping study. Urol Oncol2014;32:24.e13–19.
LotanYGuptaAShariatSF. Lymphovascular invasion is independently associated with overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local and distant recurrence in patients with negative lymph nodes at radical cystectomy. J Clin Oncol2005;23:6533–6539.