Treating Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Where Are We?

Restricted access

Unlike estrogen receptor (ER)–positive and HER2-positive breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks a repertoire of targeted therapies. Hence, chemotherapy is the only available systemic option in current clinical practice. In general, survival of patients with TNBC is worse than that for those with ER-positive and HER2-positive breast cancer, especially for advanced-stage disease. Thus, a great unmet need exists. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as platinum-salts have been examined for specific benefit in TNBC; however, no one agent has yet been shown to offer a differential incremental benefit in metastatic TNBC. The hope is that ongoing research in targetable molecular pathways will lead to new therapeutic options for TNBC. Because these patients are likely to be increasingly subcategorized using potentially targetable molecular alterations, investigators will need to be mindful of the challenges in designing and conducting clinical trials in smaller subpopulations. The successful incorporation of targeted therapies in routine clinical practice for TNBC, which mirrors the success achieved by anti-HER2 and endocrine therapies, is awaited.

Correspondence: Andrew D. Seidman, MD, Evelyn H. Lauder Breast Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065. E-mail: seidmana@mskcc.org
  • 1.

    HammondMEHayesDFDowsettM. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2010;28:27842795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    WolffACHammondMEHicksDG. Recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol2013;31:39974013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    DreyerGVandorpeTSmeetsA. Triple negative breast cancer: clinical characteristics in the different histological subtypes. Breast2013;22:761766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    DentRTrudeauMPritchardKI. Triple-negative breast cancer: clinical features and patterns of recurrence. Clin Cancer Res2007;13(15 Pt 1):44294434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    BaselgaJCortesJKimSB. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med2012;366:109119.

  • 6.

    BaselgaJCamponeMPiccartM. Everolimus in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med2012;366:520529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    VermaSMilesDGianniL. Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med2012;367:17831791.

  • 8.

    SiziopikouKPCobleighM. The basal subtype of breast carcinomas may represent the group of breast tumors that could benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. Breast2007;16:104107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    RakhaEAEl-SayedMEGreenAR. Prognostic markers in triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer2007;109:2532.

  • 10.

    RakhaEATanDSFoulkesWD. Are triple-negative tumours and basal-like breast cancer synonymous?Breast Cancer Res2007;9:404; author reply 405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    VerlindenLVanden BemptIEelenG. The E2F-regulated gene Chk1 is highly expressed in triple-negative estrogen receptor /progesterone receptor /HER-2 breast carcinomas. Cancer Res2007;67:65746581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    BrentonJDCareyLAAhmedAACaldasC. Molecular classification and molecular forecasting of breast cancer: ready for clinical application?J Clin Oncol2005;23:73507360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    TischkowitzMBrunetJSBeginLR. Use of immunohistochemical markers can refine prognosis in triple negative breast cancer. BMC Cancer2007;7:134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    PerouCMSorlieTEisenMB. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature2000;406:747752.

  • 15.

    CareyLWinerEVialeG. Triple-negative breast cancer: disease entity or title of convenience?Nat Rev Clin Oncol2010;7:683692.

  • 16.

    RakhaEEllisIReis-FilhoJ. Are triple-negative and basal-like breast cancer synonymous?Clin Cancer Res2008;14:618; author reply 619.

  • 17.

    Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature2012;490:6170.

  • 18.

    RodyAKarnTLiedtkeC. A clinically relevant gene signature in triple negative and basal-like breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res2011;13:R97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumors. Nature2012;490:6170.

  • 20.

    ShahSPRothAGoyaR. The clonal and mutational evolution spectrum of primary triple-negative breast cancers. Nature2012;486:395399.

  • 21.

    LehmannBDBauerJAChenX. Identification of human triple-negative breast cancer subtypes and preclinical models for selection of targeted therapies. J Clin Invest2011;121:27502767.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    ChenXLiJGrayWH. TNBCtype: a subtyping tool for triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Inform2012;11:147156.

  • 23.

    CortazarPZhangLUntchM. Pathological complete response and long-term clinical benefit in breast cancer: the CTNeoBC pooled analysis. Lancet2014;384:164172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    BerryWFriedlandDFleagleJ. A phase II study of weekly paclitaxel/estramustine/carboplatin in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer2006;5:131137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    MartinMRodriguez-LescureARuizA. Molecular predictors of efficacy of adjuvant weekly paclitaxel in early breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat2010;123:149157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    De LaurentiisMCancelloGD’AgostinoD. Taxane-based combinations as adjuvant chemotherapy of early breast cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Clin Oncol2008;26:4453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    PerezEAPatelTMoreno-AspitiaA. Efficacy of ixabepilone in ER/PR/HER2-negative (triple-negative) breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat2010;121:261271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    PivotXBLiRKThomasES. Activity of ixabepilone in oestrogen receptor-negative and oestrogen receptor-progesterone receptor-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer2009;45:29402946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    HortobagyiGNGomezHLLiRK. Analysis of overall survival from a phase III study of ixabepilone plus capecitabine versus capecitabine in patients with MBC resistant to anthracyclines and taxanes. Breast Cancer Res Treat2010;122:409418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    CortesJO’ShaughnessyJLoeschD. Eribulin monotherapy versus treatment of physician’s choice in patients with metastatic breast cancer (EMBRACE): a phase 3 open-label randomised study. Lancet2011;377:914923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    KaufmanPAAwadaATwelvesC. A phase III, open-label, randomized, multicenter study of eribulin mesylate versus capecitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes [abstract]. Cancer Res2012;72(24 Suppl):Abstract S6-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    KaufmanPAAwadaATwelvesC. Phase III open-label randomized study of eribulin mesylate versus capecitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane [published online ahead of print January 20, 2015]. J Clin Oncol.pii: JCO.2013.52.4892.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    GiordanoSBJerussJSBethkeKP. Neoadjuvant phase II trial with carboplatin and eribulin in triple negative breast cancer patients [abstract]. Cancer Res2013;73(24 Suppl):Abstract P3-14-14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    LuuTBlanchardSYiMJ. Phase I/IB trial of eribulin and everolimus in patients with triple-negative metastatic breast cancer [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2014;32(Suppl):Abstract TPS 2637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    ByrskiTDentRBlecharzP. Results of a phase II open-label, nonrandomized trial of cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with BRCA1-positive metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res2012;14:R110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    LipsEHMulderLOonkA. Triple-negative breast cancer: BRCAness and concordance of clinical features with BRCA1-mutation carriers. Br J Cancer2013;108:21722127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    IsakoffSHeLMayerE. Identification of biomarkers to predict response to single-agent platinum chemotherapy in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC): correlative studies from TBCRC009 [abstract]. J Clin Onc2014;32(Suppl):Abstract1020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    MaisanoRZavettieriMAzzarelloD. Carboplatin and gemcitabine combination in metastatic triple-negative anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated breast cancer patients: a phase II study. J Chemother2011;23:4043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    YardleyDABurrisHA3rdSimonsL. A phase II trial of gemcitabine/carboplatin with or without trastuzumab in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer2008;8:425431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    LoeschDAsmarLMcIntyreK. Phase II trial of gemcitabine/carboplatin (plus trastuzumab in HER2-positive disease) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer2008;8:178186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    O’ShaughnessyJOsborneCPippenJE. Iniparib plus chemotherapy in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med2011;364:205214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    O’ShaughnessyJSchwartzbergLSDansoMA. A randomized phase III study of iniparib (BSI-201) in combination with gemcitabine/carboplatin (G/C) in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2014;32:38403847.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    TuttAEllisPKilbumL. TNT: a randomized phase III trial of carboplatin compared with docetaxel for patients with metastatic or recurrent locally advanced triple negative or BRCA 1/2 breast cancer. Presented at the 2014 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; December 9-13, 2014; San Antonio, Texas. Abstract S3-01.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    PetrelliFCoinuABorgonovoK. The value of platinum agents as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat2014;144:223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Von MinckwitzGSchneeweissASalatC. A randomized phase II trial investigating the addition of carboplatin to neoadjuvant therapy for triple-negative and HER2-positive early breast cancer (GeparSixto) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2013;31(Suppl):Abstract 1004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    SikovWMBerryDAPerouCM. Impact of the addition of carboplatin (Cb) and/or bevacizumab (B) to neoadjuvant weekly paclitaxel followed by dose-dense AC on pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC): CALGB 40603 (Alliance). Cancer Res2013;73(24 Suppl):Abstract S5-01.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    BaselgaJBradburyIEidtmannH. Lapatinib with trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (NeoALTTO): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet2012;379:633640.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Piccart-GebhartMHolmesABaselgaJ. First results from the phase III ALTTO trial (BIG2-06; NCCTG [Alliance] N063D) comparing one year of anti-HER2 therapy with lapaitnib along (L), trastuzumab alone (T), their sequence 9T_>L), or their combination (T+L) in the adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2014;32(Suppl):Abstract LBA4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    De SummaSPintoRSambiasiD. BRCAness: a deeper insight into basal-like breast tumors. Ann Oncol2013;24(Suppl 8):viii13viii21.

  • 50.

    PlummerR. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition: a new direction for BRCA and triple-negative breast cancer?Breast Cancer Res2011;13:218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    GelmonKATischkowitzMMackayH. Olaparinib in patients with recurrent high-grade serous or poorly differentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer: a phase 2, multicentre, open-label, nonrandomizsed study. Lancet Oncol2011;12:852861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    TuttARobsonMGarberJE. Oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and advanced breast cancer: a proof-of-concept trial. Lancet2010;376:235244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    DentRALindemanGJClemonsM. Phase I trial of the oral PARP inhibitor olaparib in combination with paclitaxel for first- or second-line treatment of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res2013;15:R88.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    LiuJFlemingGTolaneyM. A phase I trial of the PARP inhibitor olaparib (AZD2281) in combination with the antiangiogenic cediranib (AZD2171) in recurrent ovarian or triple-negative breast cancer [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2011;29(Suppl):Abstract 5028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    RugoHSOlopadeODeMicheleA. Veliparib/carboplatin plus standard neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk breast cancer: first efficacy results from the I-SPY2 TRIAL [abstract]. Cancer Res2013;73(24 Suppl):Abstract S5-02.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    JohnsonNLiYCWaltonZE. Compromised CDK1 activity sensitizes BRCA-proficient cancers to PARP inhibition. Nat Med2011;17:875882.

  • 57.

    MaCXEllisMJPetroniGR. A phase II study of UCN-01 in combination with irinotecan in patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat2013;137:483492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    BhallaKRaoRSharmaP. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors creates BRCAness and sensitizes human triple negative breast cancer cells to PARP inhibitors and cisplatin. Cancer Res2012;72(24 Suppl):Abstract S3-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    RossariJRMetzger-FilhoOPaesmansM. Bevacizumab and breast cancer: a meta-analysis of first-line phase III studies and a critical reappraisal of available evidence. J Oncol2012;2012:417673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    CameronDBrownJDentR. Adjuvant bevacizumab-containing therapy in triple-negative breast cancer (BEATRICE): primary results of a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol2013;14:933942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    GerberBLoiblSEidtmannH. Neoadjuvant bevacizumab and anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy in 678 triple-negative primary breast cancers; results from the geparquinto study (GBG 44). Ann Oncol2013;24:29782984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    MilesDWde HaasSLDirixLY. Biomarker results from the AVADO phase 3 trial of first-line bevacizumab plus docetaxel for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer2013;108:10521060.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    CrownJPDierasVStaroslawskaE. Phase III trial of sunitinib in combination with capecitabine versus capecitabine monotherapy for the treatment of patients with pretreated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2013;31:28702878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    BarriosCHLiuMCLeeSC. Phase III randomized trial of sunitinib versus capecitabine in patients with previously treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat2010;121:121131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    BaselgaJSegallaJGRocheH. Sorafenib in combination with capecitabine: an oral regimen for patients with HER2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2012;30:14841491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    SchwartzbergLSTauerKWHermannRC. Sorafenib or placebo with either gemcitabine or capecitabine in patients with HER-2-negative advanced breast cancer that progressed during or after bevacizumab. Clin Cancer Res2013;19:27452754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    GradisharWJKaklamaniVSahooTP. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2b study evaluating sorafenib in combination with paclitaxel as a first-line therapy in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Eur J Cancer2013;49:312322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    BaselgaJCostaFGomezH. A phase 3 trial comparing capecitabine in combination with sorafenIb or placebo for treatment of locally advanced or metastatIc HER2-negative breast cancer (the RESILIENCE study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials2013;14:228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    CareyLARugoHSMarcomPK. TBCRC 001: randomized phase II study of cetuximab in combination with carboplatin in stage IV triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2012;30:26152623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    BaselgaJGomezPGreilR. Randomized phase II study of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab with cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2013;31:25862592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    O’ShaughnessyJWecksteinDVukeljaS. Preliminary results of a randomized phase II study of weekly irinotecan/carboplatin with or without cetuximab in patients with metastatic breast cancer [abstract]. Breast Canc Res Treat2007;106:S3233. Abstract 308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    AndreFBachelotTCamponeM. Targeting FGFR with dovitinib (TKI258): preclinical and clinical data in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res2013;19:36933702.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    BalkoJMCookRSVaughtDB. Profiling of residual breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy identifies DUSP4 deficiency as a mechanism of drug resistance. Nat Med2012;18:10521059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    FinnRSBengalaCIbrahimN. Dasatinib as a single agent in triple-negative breast cancer: results of an open-label phase 2 study. Clin Cancer Res2011;17:69056913.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    CochraneDRBernalesSJacobsenBM. Role of the androgen receptor in breast cancer and preclinical analysis of enzalutamide. Breast Cancer Res2014;16:R7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    GucalpATolaneySIsakoffSJ. Phase II trial of bicalutamide in patients with androgen receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res2013;19:55055512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    YunokawaMKoizumiFKitamuraY. Efficacy of everolimus, a novel mTOR inhibitor, against basal-like triple-negative breast cancer cells. Cancer Sci2012;103:16651671.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    IbrahimYHGarcia-GarciaCSerraV. PI3K inhibition impairs BRCA1/2 expression and sensitizes BRCA-proficient triple-negative breast cancer to PARP inhibition. Cancer Discov2012;2:10361047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    DenkertC. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2013;31:836837.

  • 80.

    AdamsSGrayRDemariaS. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in two phase III randomized adjuvant breast cancer trials: ECOG 2197 and ECOG 1199 [abstract]. Cancer Res2013;73(24 Suppl):Abstract S1-07.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    MittendorfEAPhilipsAVMeric-BernstamF. PD-L1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Res2014;2:361370.

  • 82.

    NandaRChowLQDeesEC. A phase Ib study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer. Presented at the 2014 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; December 9-13, 2014; San Antonio, Texas. Abstract S1-09

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    SiroyAAbdul-KarimFWMiedlerJ. MUC1 is expressed at high frequency in early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer. Hum Pathol2013;44:21592166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    AndreFBachelotTCommoF. Comparative genomic hybridisation array and DNA sequencing to direct treatment of metastatic breast cancer: a multicentre, prospective trial (SAFIR01/UNICANCER). Lancet Oncol2014;15:267274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    LundMJTriversKFPorterPL. Race and triple negative threats to breast cancer survival: a population-based study in Atlanta, GA. Breast Cancer Res Treat2009;113:357370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    SweeneyCBernardPSFactorRE. Intrinsic subtypes from PAM50 gene expression assay in a population-based breast cancer cohort: differences by age, race, and tumor characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2014;23:714724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    MillikanRCNewmanBTseCK. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat2008;109:123139.

  • 88.

    MayerIAAbramsonVGLehmannBDPietenpolJA. New strategies for triple-negative breast cancer—deciphering the heterogeneity. Clin Cancer Res2014;20:782790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    KohailHShehataSMansourO. A phase 2 study of the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines with/without taxanes. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther2012;5:4248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    WangTZhangSZengM. Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination regimen in patients with anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Med Oncol2012;29:5661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    OzkanMBerkVKaplanMA. Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy in triple negative metastatic breast cancer previously treated with a taxane/anthracycline chemotherapy; multicenter experience. Neoplasma2012;59:3842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    KoshyNQuispeDShiR. Cisplatin-gemcitabine therapy in metastatic breast cancer: Improved outcome in triple negative breast cancer patients compared to non-triple negative patients. Breast2010;19:246248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    AogiKYoshidaMSagaraY. The efficacy and safety of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel combination first-line therapy for Japanese patients with metastatic breast cancer including triple-negative phenotype. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol2011;67:10071015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    FanYXuBHYuanP. Docetaxel-cisplatin might be superior to docetaxel-capecitabine in the first-line treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Ann Oncol2013;24:12191225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    GoncalvesADeblockMEsterniB. Docetaxel first-line therapy in HER2-negative advanced breast cancer: a cohort study in patients with prospectively determined HER2 status. Anticancer Drugs2009;20:946952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    GilabertMBertucciFEsterniB. Capecitabine after anthracycline and taxane exposure in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients: response, survival and prognostic factors. Anticancer Res2011;31:10791086.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    AogiKRaiYItoY. Efficacy and safety of ixabepilone in taxane-resistant patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines: results of a phase II study in Japan. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol2013;71:14271433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98.

    Tubiana-MathieuNBougnouxPBecquartD. All-oral combination of oral vinorelbine and capecitabine as first-line chemotherapy in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: an international phase II trial. Br J Cancer2009;101:232237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    YoshimotoMTakaoSHirataM. Metronomic oral combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide: a phase II study in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol2012;70:331338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    TanakaMTakamatsuYAnanK. Oral combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a phase II study. Anticancer Drugs2010;21:453458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    McIntyreKO’ShaughnessyJSchwartzbergL. Phase 2 study of eribulin mesylate as first-line therapy for locally recurrent or metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat2014;146:321328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    YiSYAhnJSUhmJE. Favorable response to doxorubicin combination chemotherapy does not yield good clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer with triple-negative phenotype. BMC Cancer2010;10:527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    MillerKWangMGralowJ. Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med2007;357:26662676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    KwanMLAmbrosoneCBLeeMM. The Pathways Study: a prospective study of breast cancer survivorship within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Cancer Causes Control2008;19:10651076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    CaanBSternfeldBGundersonE. Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) study: a cohort of early stage breast cancer survivors (United States). Cancer Causes Control2005;16:545556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2 2 0
Full Text Views 172 172 12
PDF Downloads 31 31 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0