Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is more common in North America and Western European countries, originating mostly in the lower third of the esophagus, which often involves the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Recent randomized trials have shown that the addition of preoperative chemoradiation or perioperative chemotherapy to surgery significantly improves survival in patients with resectable cancer. Targeted therapies with trastuzumab and ramucirumab have produced encouraging results in the treatment of advanced or metastatic EGJ adenocarcinomas. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for patients with esophageal and EGJ cancers. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Esophageal and EGJ Cancers discusses management of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EGJ.

  • 1.

    Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:6990.

  • 2.

    Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:929.

  • 3.

    Corley DA, Buffler PA. Oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas: analysis of regional variation using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database. Int J Epidemiol 2001;30:14151425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Pickens A, Orringer MB. Geographical distribution and racial disparity in esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;76:S13671369.

  • 5.

    Siewert JR, Katja O. Are squamous and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus the same disease? Semin Radiat Oncol 2007;17:3844.

  • 6.

    Brown LM, Devesa SS, Chow WH. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus among white americans by sex, stage, and age. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008;100:11841187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Siewert JR, Stein HJ, Feith M. Histologic tumor type is an independent prognostic parameter in esophageal cancer: lessons from more than 1,000 consecutive resections at a single center in the Western world. Ann Surg 2001;234:360367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th edition. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.

  • 9.

    Rice TW, Rusch VW, Apperson-Hansen C. Worldwide esophageal cancer collaboration. Dis Esophagus 2009;22:18.

  • 10.

    Kim TJ, Kim HY, Lee KW, Kim MS. Multimodality assessment of esophageal cancer: preoperative staging and monitoring of response to therapy. Radiographics 2009;29:403421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Siewert JR. Carcinoma of the cardia: carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction classification, pathology, and extent of resection. Dis Esophagus 1996;9:173182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Siewert JR, Feith M, Werner M, Stein HJ. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: results of surgical therapy based on anatomical/topographic classification in 1,002 consecutive patients. Ann Surg 2000;232:353361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hechtman JF, Polydorides AD. HER2/neu gene amplification and protein overexpression in gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma: a review of histopathology, diagnostic testing, and clinical implications. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2012;136:691697.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Dreilich M, Wanders A, Brattstrom D. HER-2 overexpression (3+) in patients with squamous cell esophageal carcinoma correlates with poorer survival. Dis Esophagus 2006;19:224231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Reichelt U, Duesedau P, Tsourlakis MC. Frequent homogeneous HER-2 amplification in primary and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Mod Pathol 2007;20:120129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Schoppmann SF, Jesch B, Friedrich J. Expression of Her-2 in carcinomas of the esophagus. Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34:18681873.

  • 17.

    Moelans CB, van Diest PJ, Milne AN, Offerhaus GJ. Her-2/neu testing and therapy in gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. Patholog Res Int 2011;2011:674182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Gravalos C, Jimeno A. HER2 in gastric cancer: a new prognostic factor and a novel therapeutic target. Ann Oncol 2008;19:15231529.

  • 19.

    Tanner M, Hollmen M, Junttila TT. Amplification of HER-2 in gastric carcinoma: association with Topoisomerase IIalpha gene amplification, intestinal type, poor prognosis and sensitivity to trastuzumab. Ann Oncol 2005;16:273278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Bang Y, Chung H, Xu J. Pathological features of advanced gastric cancer (GC): relationship to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity in the global screening programme of the ToGA trial [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2009;27(Suppl 15):Abstract 4556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hofmann M, Stoss O, Shi D. Assessment of a HER2 scoring system for gastric cancer: results from a validation study. Histopathology 2008;52:797805.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Ruschoff J, Dietel M, Baretton G. HER2 diagnostics in gastric cancer-guideline validation and development of standardized immunohistochemical testing. Virchows Arch 2010;457:299307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Bang YJ, Van Cutsem E, Feyereislova A. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (ToGA): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;376:687697.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Barros-Silva JD, Leitao D, Afonso L. Association of ERBB2 gene status with histopathological parameters and disease-specific survival in gastric carcinoma patients. Br J Cancer 2009;100:487493.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    van Hagen P, Hulshof MC, van Lanschot JJ. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for esophageal or junctional cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366:20742084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Steyerberg EW, Neville BA, Koppert LB. Surgical mortality in patients with esophageal cancer: development and validation of a simple risk score. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:42774284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Krasna MJ, Reed CE, Jaklitsch MT. Thoracoscopic staging of esophageal cancer: a prospective, multiinstitutional trial. Cancer and Leukemia Group B Thoracic Surgeons. Ann Thorac Surg 1995;60:13371340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Birkmeyer JD, Siewers AE, Finlayson EV. Hospital volume and surgical mortality in the United States. N Engl J Med 2002;346:11281137.

  • 30.

    Swisher SG, Wynn P, Putnam JB. Salvage esophagectomy for recurrent tumors after definitive chemotherapy and radiotherapy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002;123:175183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Rusch VW. Are cancers of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and cardia one disease, two, or several? Semin Oncol 2004;31:444449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Siewert JR, Stein HJ, Feith M. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Scand J Surg 2006;95:260269.

  • 33.

    de Graaf GW, Ayantunde AA, Parsons SL. The role of staging laparoscopy in oesophagogastric cancers. Eur J Surg Oncol 2007;33:988992.

  • 34.

    Nath J, Moorthy K, Taniere P. Peritoneal lavage cytology in patients with oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Br J Surg 2008;95:721726.

  • 35.

    Groth SS, Virnig BA, Whitson BA. Determination of the minimum number of lymph nodes to examine to maximize survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma: data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;139:612620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Peyre CG, Hagen JA, DeMeester SR. Predicting systemic disease in patients with esophageal cancer after esophagectomy: a multinational study on the significance of the number of involved lymph nodes. Ann Surg 2008;248:979985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Rizk NP, Ishwaran H, Rice TW. Optimum lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer. Ann Surg 2010;251:4650.

  • 38.

    Kleinberg L, Forastiere AA. Chemoradiation in the management of esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:41104117.

  • 39.

    Herskovic A, Martz K, al-Sarraf M. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with cancer of the esophagus. N Engl J Med 1992;326:15931598.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Cooper JS, Guo MD, Herskovic A. Chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced esophageal cancer: long-term follow-up of a prospective randomized trial (RTOG 85-01). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. JAMA 1999;281:16231627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Minsky BD, Pajak TF, Ginsberg RJ. INT 0123 (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-05) phase III trial of combined-modality therapy for esophageal cancer: high-dose versus standard-dose radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:11671174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Li QQ, Liu MZ, Hu YH. Definitive concomitant chemoradiotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin in squamous esophageal carcinoma. Dis Esophagus 2010;23:253259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Ruppert BN, Watkins JM, Shirai K. Cisplatin/Irinotecan versus carboplatin/paclitaxel as definitive chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 2010;33:346352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Meerten EV, van Rij C, Tesselaar ME. Definitive concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin for patients (pts) with irresectable esophageal cancer: a phase II study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2010;28(Suppl 15):Abstract e14508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Conroy T, Galais MP, Raoul JL. Definitive chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX versus fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with oesophageal cancer (PRODIGE5/ACCORD17): final results of a randomised, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15:305314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Iyer R, Wilkinson N, Demmy T, Javle M. Controversies in the multimodality management of locally advanced esophageal cancer: evidence-based review of surgery alone and combined-modality therapy. Ann Surg Oncol 2004;11:665673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Urschel JD, Vasan H. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgery to surgery alone for resectable esophageal cancer. Am J Surg 2003;185:538543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Fiorica F, Di Bona D, Schepis F. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut 2004;53:925930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Sjoquist KM, Burmeister BH, Smithers BM. Survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for resectable oesophageal carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2011;12:681692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Swisher SG, Hofstetter W, Komaki R. Improved long-term outcome with chemoradiotherapy strategies in esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 2010;90:892898; discussion 898-899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Cen P, Correa AM, Le JH. Adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus with Barrett’s esophagus or without Barrett’s esophagus: differences in patients’ survival after preoperative chemoradiation. Dis Esophagus 2009;22:3241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Walsh TN, Noonan N, Hollywood D. A comparison of multimodal therapy and surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 1996;335:462467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Bosset JF, Gignoux M, Triboulet JP. Chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone in squamous-cell cancer of the esophagus. N Engl J Med 1997;337:161167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Urba SG, Orringer MB, Turrisi A. Randomized trial of preoperative chemoradiation versus surgery alone in patients with locoregional esophageal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:305313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Bains MS, Stojadinovic A, Minsky B. A phase II trial of preoperative combined-modality therapy for localized esophageal carcinoma: initial results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002;124:270277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Kaklamanos IG, Walker GR, Ferry K. Neoadjuvant treatment for resectable cancer of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Surg Oncol 2003;10:754761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Burmeister BH, Smithers BM, Gebski V. Surgery alone versus chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for resectable cancer of the oesophagus: a randomised controlled phase III trial. Lancet Oncol 2005;6:659668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Mariette C, Dahan L, Mornex F. Surgery alone versus chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for stage I and II esophageal cancer: final analysis of randomized controlled phase III trial FFCD 9901. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:24162422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Oppedijk V, van der Gaast A, van Lanschot JJ. Patterns of recurrence after surgery alone versus preoperative chemoradiotherapy and surgery in the CROSS trials. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:385391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Tepper J, Krasna MJ, Niedzwiecki D. Phase III trial of trimodality therapy with cisplatin, fluorouracil, radiotherapy, and surgery compared with surgery alone for esophageal cancer: CALGB 9781. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:10861092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Burmeister BH, Thomas JM, Burmeister EA. Is concurrent radiation therapy required in patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus? A randomised phase II trial. Eur J Cancer 2011;47:354360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Macdonald JS, Smalley SR, Benedetti J. Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N Engl J Med 2001;345:725730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Smalley SR, Benedetti JK, Haller DG. Updated analysis of SWOG-directed intergroup study 0116: a phase III trial of adjuvant radiochemotherapy versus observation after curative gastric cancer resection. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:23272333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Bedard EL, Inculet RI, Malthaner RA. The role of surgery and postoperative chemoradiation therapy in patients with lymph node positive esophageal carcinoma. Cancer 2001;91:24232430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Rice TW, Adelstein DJ, Chidel MA. Benefit of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced esophageal carcinoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;126:15901596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Kofoed SC, Muhic A, Baeksgaard L. Survival after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or surgery alone in resectable adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction. Scand J Surg 2012;101:2631.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Adelstein DJ, Rice TW, Rybicki LA. Mature results from a phase II trial of postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for poor prognosis cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. J Thorac Oncol 2009;4:12641269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Fuchs CS, Tepper JE, Niedzwiecki D. Postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation for gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma using epirubicin, cisplatin, and infusional (CI) 5-FU (ECF) before and after CI 5-FU and radiotherapy (CRT) compared with bolus 5-FU/LV before and after CRT: Intergroup trial CALGB 80101[abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2011;29(Suppl 15):Abstract 4003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Kelsen DP, Ginsberg R, Pajak TF. Chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone for localized esophageal cancer. N Engl J Med 1998;339:19791984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Kelsen DP, Winter KA, Gunderson LL. Long-term results of RTOG trial 8911 (USA Intergroup 113): a random assignment trial comparison of chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone for esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:37193725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Medical Research Council Oesophageal Cancer Working Group. Surgical resection with or without preoperative chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359:17271733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Allum WH, Stenning SP, Bancewicz J. Long-term results of a randomized trial of surgery with or without preoperative chemotherapy in esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:50625067.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Boonstra JJ, Kok TC, Wijnhoven BP. Chemotherapy followed by surgery versus surgery alone in patients with resectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: long-term results of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Cancer 2011;11:181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Thirion PG, Michiels S, Le Maitre A. Individual patient data-based meta-analysis assessing pre-operative chemotherapy in resectable oesophageal carcinoma [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2007;25(Suppl 18):Abstract 4512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Ychou M, Boige V, Pignon JP. Perioperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: an FNCLCC and FFCD multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:17151721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Leichman L, Berry BT. Experience with cisplatin in treatment regimens for esophageal cancer. Semin Oncol 1991;18:6472.

  • 77.

    Muhr-Wilkenshoff F, Hinkelbein W, Ohnesorge I. A pilot study of irinotecan (CPT-11) as single-agent therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Int J Colorectal Dis 2003;18:330334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Enzinger PC, Kulke MH, Clark JW. A phase II trial of irinotecan in patients with previously untreated advanced esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. Dig Dis Sci 2005;50:22182223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Burkart C, Bokemeyer C, Klump B. A phase II trial of weekly irinotecan in cisplatin-refractory esophageal cancer. Anticancer Res 2007;27:28452848.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Muro K, Hamaguchi T, Ohtsu A. A phase II study of single-agent docetaxel in patients with metastatic esophageal cancer. Ann Oncol 2004;15:955959.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Albertsson M, Johansson B, Friesland S. Phase II studies on docetaxel alone every third week, or weekly in combination with gemcitabine in patients with primary locally advanced, metastatic, or recurrent esophageal cancer. Med Oncol 2007;24:407412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Ajani JA, Ilson DH, Daugherty K. Activity of taxol in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:10861091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Ilson DH, Wadleigh RG, Leichman LP, Kelsen DP. Paclitaxel given by a weekly 1-h infusion in advanced esophageal cancer. Ann Oncol 2007;18:898902.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    Harstrick A, Bokemeyer C, Preusser P. Phase II study of single-agent etoposide in patients with metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1992;29:321322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Ilson DH, Ajani J, Bhalla K. Phase II trial of paclitaxel, fluorouracil, and cisplatin in patients with advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:18261834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Petrasch S, Welt A, Reinacher A. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer 1998;78:511514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Ilson DH, Forastiere A, Arquette M. A phase II trial of paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Cancer J 2000;6:316323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Ajani JA, Fodor MB, Tjulandin SA. Phase II multi-institutional randomized trial of docetaxel plus cisplatin with or without fluorouracil in patients with untreated, advanced gastric, or gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:56605667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Van Cutsem E, Moiseyenko VM, Tjulandin S. Phase III study of docetaxel and cisplatin plus fluorouracil compared with cisplatin and fluorouracil as first-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer: a report of the V325 Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:49914997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Kim JY, Do YR, Park KU. A multi-center phase II study of docetaxel plus cisplatin as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic squamous cell esophageal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2010;66:3136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Al-Batran SE, Hartmann JT, Hofheinz R. Biweekly fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel (FLOT) for patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction: a phase II trial of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie. Ann Oncol 2008;19:18821887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    Shankaran V, Mulcahy MF, Hochster HS. Docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas: preliminary results of a phase II study [abstract]. Presented at 2009 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium; January 15–17, 2009; San Francisco, California. Abstract 47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    Overman MJ, Kazmi SM, Jhamb J. Weekly docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil as initial therapy for patients with advanced gastric and esophageal cancer. Cancer 2010;116:14461453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Tebbutt NC, Cummins MM, Sourjina T. Randomised, noncomparative phase II study of weekly docetaxel with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil or with capecitabine in oesophagogastric cancer: the AGITG ATTAX trial. Br J Cancer 2010;102:475481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Stein A, Arnold D, Thuss-Patience PC. Docetaxel, oxaliplatin and capecitabine (TEX regimen) in patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal cancer: results of a multicenter phase I/II study. Acta Oncol 2014;53:392398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    Cunningham D, Starling N, Rao S. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for advanced esophagogastric cancer. N Engl J Med 2008;358:3646.

  • 97.

    Ilson DH. Phase II trial of weekly irinotecan/cisplatin in advanced esophageal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park) 2004;18:2225.

  • 98.

    Dank M, Zaluski J, Barone C. Randomized phase III study comparing irinotecan combined with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid to cisplatin combined with 5-fluorouracil in chemotherapy naive patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction. Ann Oncol 2008;19:14501457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    Wolff K, Wein A, Reulbach U. Weekly high-dose 5-fluorouracil as a 24-h infusion and sodium folinic acid (AIO regimen) plus irinotecan in patients with locally advanced nonresectable and metastatic adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: a phase II trial. Anticancer Drugs 2009;20:165173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Burtness B, Gibson M, Egleston B. Phase II trial of docetaxelirinotecan combination in advanced esophageal cancer. Ann Oncol 2009;20:12421248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Lustberg MB, Bekaii-Saab T, Young D. Phase II randomized study of two regimens of sequentially administered mitomycin C and irinotecan in patients with unresectable esophageal and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol 2010;5:713718.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Moehler M, Kanzler S, Geissler M. A randomized multicenter phase II study comparing capecitabine with irinotecan or cisplatin in metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction. Ann Oncol 2010;21:7177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Guimbaud R, Louvet C, Ries P. Prospective, randomized, multicenter, phase III study of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: a French Intergroup (Federation Francophone de Cancerologie Digestive, Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer, and Groupe Cooperateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie) study. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:35203526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Assersohn L, Brown G, Cunningham D. Phase II study of irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin in patients with primary refractory or relapsed advanced oesophageal and gastric carcinoma. Ann Oncol 2004;15:6469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Leary A, Assersohn L, Cunningham D. A phase II trial evaluating capecitabine and irinotecan as second line treatment in patients with oesophago-gastric cancer who have progressed on, or within 3 months of platinum-based chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009;64:455462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    Mauer AM, Kraut EH, Krauss SA. Phase II trial of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil in patients with advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Oncol 2005;16:13201325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Al-Batran SE, Hartmann JT, Probst S. Phase III trial in metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma with fluorouracil, leucovorin plus either oxaliplatin or cisplatin: a study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:14351442.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108.

    El-Rayes BF, Shields A, Zalupski M. A phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel in esophageal cancer. Ann Oncol 2004;15:960965.

  • 109.

    Ross P, Nicolson M, Cunningham D. Prospective randomized trial comparing mitomycin, cisplatin, and protracted venous-infusion fluorouracil (PVI 5-FU) with epirubicin, cisplatin, and PVI 5-FU in advanced esophagogastric cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:19962004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Urba SG, Chansky K, VanVeldhuizen PJ. Gemcitabine and cisplatin for patients with metastatic or recurrent esophageal carcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Invest New Drugs 2004;22:9197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Millar J, Scullin P, Morrison A. Phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in locally advanced/metastatic oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer 2005;93:11121116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Homs MY, van der Gaast A, Siersema PD. Chemotherapy for metastatic carcinoma of the esophagus and gastro-esophageal junction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD004063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Shah MA, Schwartz GK. Treatment of metastatic esophagus and gastric cancer. Semin Oncol 2004;31:574587.

  • 114.

    Fuchs CS, Tomasek J, Yong CJ. Ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (REGARD): an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2014;383:3139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Wilke H, Muro K, Van Cutsem E. Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15:12241235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116.

    van Westreenen HL, Westerterp M, Bossuyt PM. Systematic review of the staging performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:38053812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Rosenbaum S, Stergar H, Antoch G. Staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal tumors with PET/CT. Abdominal Imaging 2006;31:2535.

  • 118.

    Munden RF, Macapinlac HA, Erasmus JJ. Esophageal cancer: the role of integrated CT-PET in initial staging and response assessment after preoperative therapy. J Thorac Imaging 2006;21:137145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    Flamen P, Lerut A, Van Cutsem E. Utility of positron emission tomography for the staging of patients with potentially operable esophageal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:32023210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    Flamen P, Lerut T, Haustermans K. Position of positron emission tomography and other imaging diagnostic modalities in esophageal cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2004;48:96108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS, Ohja B. The accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration, integrated positron emission tomography with computed tomography, and computed tomography in restaging patients with esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;129:12321241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Blencowe NS, Whistance RN, Strong S. Evaluating the role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in multi-disciplinary team recommendations for oesophago-gastric cancer. Br J Cancer 2013;109:14451450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Du C, Zhou Y, Huang K. Defining a high-risk subgroup of pathological T2N0 gastric cancer by prognostic risk stratification for adjuvant therapy. J Gastrointest Surg 2011;15:21532158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Thuss-Patience PC, Kretzschmar A, Bichev D. Survival advantage for irinotecan versus best supportive care as second-line chemotherapy in gastric cancer—a randomised phase III study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO). Eur J Cancer 2011;47:23062314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Ford HER, Marshall A, Bridgewater JA. Docetaxel versus active symptom control for refractory oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (COUGAR-02): an open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15:7886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Karnofsky DA, Burchenal JH. The clinical evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. In: MacLeod CM, ed. Evaluation of Chemotherapeutic Agents. New York Columbia University Press: New York, NY; 1949:199205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Schag CC, Heinrich RL, Ganz PA. Karnofsky performance status revisited: reliability, validity, and guidelines. J Clin Oncol 1984;2:187193.

  • 128.

    Oken MM, Creech RH, Tormey DC. Toxicity and response criteria of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Am J Clin Oncol 1982;5:649655.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1049 772 40
PDF Downloads 201 152 22
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0