Restricted access

Prostate cancer represents a spectrum of disease that ranges from nonaggressive, slow-growing disease that may not require treatment to aggressive, fast-growing disease that does. The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide a set of sequential recommendations detailing a screening and evaluation strategy for maximizing the detection of prostate cancer that is potentially curable and that, if left undetected, represents a risk to the patient. The guidelines were developed for healthy men who have elected to participate in the early detection of prostate cancer, and they focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease.

  • 1.

    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65:529.

  • 2.

    National Cancer Institute. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2004. 2007. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2004/. Accessed April 26, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    U.S. National Library of Medicine-Key MEDLINE® Indicators. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/bsd_key.html. Accessed July 24, 2014.

  • 4.

    Catalona WJ, Partin AW, Slawin KM. Use of the percentage of free prostate-specific antigen to enhance differentiation of prostate cancer from benign prostatic disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial. JAMA 1998;279:15421547.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Thompson IM, Ankerst DP, Chi C. Operating characteristics of prostate-specific antigen in men with an initial PSA level of 3.0 ng/ml or lower. JAMA 2005;294:6670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Eggener SE, Large MC, Gerber GS. Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a randomised, prospective, controlled multi-institutional trial. BJU international 2013;112:925929.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    D'Amico AV, Roehrborn CG. Effect of 1 mg/day finasteride on concentrations of serum prostate-specific antigen in men with androgenic alopecia: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2007;8:2125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Brawer MK, Lin DW, Williford WO. Effect of finasteride and/or terazosin on serum PSA: results of VA Cooperative Study #359. Prostate 1999;39:234239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Gomella LG, Roherborn CG, Andriole GL. Effect of dutasteride on the detection of prostate cancer in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia in the combination of dutasteride and tamsulosin (CombAT) trial [abstract]. Presented at the ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium; May 5-7, 2010; San Francisco, CA. Abstract 28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Andriole GL, Bostwick DG, Brawley OW. Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2010;362:11921202.

  • 11.

    Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:215224.

  • 12.

    Thompson IM Jr., Goodman PJ, Tangen CM. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial. The New England journal of medicine 2013;369:603610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Pinsky PF, Black A, Grubb R. Projecting prostate cancer mortality in the PCPT and REDUCE chemoprevention trials. Cancer 2013;119:593601.

  • 14.

    Roehrborn CG, Andriole GL, Wilson TH. Effect of dutasteride on prostate biopsy rates and the diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and enlarged prostates in the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin trial. Eur Urol 2011;59:244249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Small EJ, Halabi S, Dawson NA. Antiandrogen withdrawal alone or in combination with ketoconazole in androgen-independent prostate cancer patients: a phase III trial (CALGB 9583). J Clin Oncol 2004;22:10251033.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Barqawi A, Gamito E, O'Donnell C, Crawford ED. Herbal and vitamin supplement use in a prostate cancer screening population. Urology 2004;63:288292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Draisma G, Etzioni R, Tsodikov A. Lead time and overdiagnosis in prostate-specific antigen screening: importance of methods and context. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101:374383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Aus G, Bergdahl S, Lodding P. Prostate cancer screening decreases the absolute risk of being diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer--results from a prospective, population-based randomized controlled trial. Eur Urol 2007;51:659664.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Thompson IM, Pauler DK, Goodman PJ. Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level < or =4.0 ng per milliliter. N Engl J Med 2004;350:22392246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL. Measurement of prostate-specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 1991;324:11561161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Clegg LX, Li FP, Hankey BF. Cancer survival among US whites and minorities: a SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) Program population-based study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:19851993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Paquette EL, Sun L, Paquette LR. Improved prostate cancer-specific survival and other disease parameters: impact of prostate-specific antigen testing. Urology 2002;60:756759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Etzioni R, Gulati R, Tsodikov A. The prostate cancer conundrum revisited: treatment changes and prostate cancer mortality declines. Cancer 2012;118:59555963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Chou R, LeFevre ML. Prostate cancer screening—the evidence, the recommendations, and the clinical implications. JAMA 2011;306:27212722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Moyer VA. Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of internal medicine 2012;157:120134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Catalona WJ, Richie JP, Ahmann FR. Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men. J Urol 1994;151:12831290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, Basler JW. Detection of organ-confined prostate cancer is increased through prostate-specific antigen-based screening. JAMA 1993;270:948954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Brawley OW. Trends in prostate cancer in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2012;2012:152156.

  • 29.

    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial. N Engl J Med 2009;360:13101319.

  • 30.

    Hugosson J, Carlsson S, Aus G. Mortality results from the Goteborg randomised population-based prostate-cancer screening trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:725732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med 2009;360:13201328.

  • 32.

    Gosselaar C, Roobol MJ, Roemeling S, Schroder FH. The role of the digital rectal examination in subsequent screening visits in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer (ERSPC), Rotterdam. European urology 2008;54:581588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Thompson IM, Ankerst DP, Chi C. Assessing prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:529534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Flanigan RC, Catalona WJ, Richie JP. Accuracy of digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography in localizing prostate cancer. J Urol 1994;152:15061509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Schroder FH, van der Maas P, Beemsterboer P. Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:18171823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Hattangadi JA, Chen MH, D'Amico AV. Early detection of high-grade prostate cancer using digital rectal examination (DRE) in men with a prostate-specific antigen level of <2.5 ng/mL and the risk of death. BJU international 2012;110:16361641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ. Prostate-cancer mortality at 11 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med 2012;366:981990.

  • 38.

    Heijnsdijk EA, Wever EM, Auvinen A. Quality-of-life effects of prostate-specific antigen screening. N Engl J Med 2012;367:595605.

  • 39.

    Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ. Screening and prostate cancer mortality: results of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) at 13 years of follow-up. Lancet 2014;384:20272035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Buzzoni C, Auvinen A, Roobol MJ. Metastatic prostate cancer incidence and prostate-specific antigen testing: new insights from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol 2015:68:885890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Roobol MJ, Kranse R, Bangma CH. Screening for prostate cancer: results of the rotterdam section of the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2013;64:530539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Bokhorst LP, Bangma CH, van Leenders GJ. Prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening: reduction of prostate cancer mortality after correction for nonattendance and contamination in the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol 2014;65:329336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Arnsrud Godtman R, Holmberg E, Lilja H. Opportunistic testing versus organized prostate-specific antigen screening: outcome after 18 years in the Goteborg Randomized Population-based Prostate Cancer Screening Trial. Eur Urol 2015;68:354360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Grenabo Bergdahl A, Holmberg E, Moss S, Hugosson J. Incidence of prostate cancer after termination of screening in a population-based randomised screening trial. Eur Urol 2013;64:703709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Kilpelainen TP, Tammela TL, Malila N. Prostate cancer mortality in the Finnish randomized screening trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013;105:719725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd. Prostate cancer screening in the randomized Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial: mortality results after 13 years of follow-up. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104:125132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Andriole GL. Update of the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Recent Results Cancer Res 2014;202:5357.

  • 48.

    Crawford ED, Grubb R 3rd, Black A. Comorbidity and mortality results from a randomized prostate cancer screening trial. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:355361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Bach PB, Vickers AJ. Do the data support the comorbidity hypothesis for the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Results? J Clin Oncol 2011;29:e387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Howard K, Barratt A, Mann GJ, Patel MI. A model of prostate-specific antigen screening outcomes for low- to high-risk men: information to support informed choices. Arch Int Med 2009;169:16031610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Lilja H, Cronin AM, Dahlin A. Prediction of significant prostate cancer diagnosed 20 to 30 years later with a single measure of prostate-specific antigen at or before age 50. Cancer 2011;117:12101219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Vickers AJ, Ulmert D, Sjoberg DD. Strategy for detection of prostate cancer based on relation between prostate specific antigen at age 40-55 and long term risk of metastasis: case-control study. BMJ 2013;346:f2023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Capitanio U, Perrotte P, Zini L. Population-based analysis of normal total PSA and percentage of free/total PSA values: results from screening cohort. Urology 2009;73:13231327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Chun FK, Hutterer GC, Perrotte P. Distribution of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and percentage free PSA in a contemporary screening cohort with no evidence of prostate cancer. BJU Int 2007;100:3741.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Ulmert D, Cronin AM, Bjork T. Prostate-specific antigen at or before age 50 as a predictor of advanced prostate cancer diagnosed up to 25 years later: a case-control study. BMC Med 2008;6:6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    van Leeuwen PJ, Roobol MJ, Kranse R. Towards an optimal interval for prostate cancer screening. European urology 2012;61:171176.

  • 57.

    Gulati R, Gore JL, Etzioni R. Comparative effectiveness of alternative prostate-specific antigen--based prostate cancer screening strategies: model estimates of potential benefits and harms. Ann Intern Med 2013;158:145153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Roobol MJ, Roobol DW, Schroder FH. Is additional testing necessary in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 1.0 ng/mL or less in a population-based screening setting? (ERSPC, section Rotterdam). Urology 2005;65:343346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Bjork T. Prostate specific antigen concentration at age 60 and death or metastasis from prostate cancer: case-control study. BMJ 2010;341:c4521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Social Security Administration. Period Life Table. 2009. Available at: http://www.ssa.gov/OACT/STATS/table4c6.html. Accessed March 10, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Howard DH. Life expectancy and the value of early detection. J Health Econ 2005;24:891906.

  • 62.

    Lee SJ, Lindquist K, Segal MR, Covinsky KE. Development and validation of a prognostic index for 4-year mortality in older adults. JAMA 2006;295:801808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Daskivich TJ, Chamie K, Kwan L. Overtreatment of men with low-risk prostate cancer and significant comorbidity. Cancer 2011;117:20582066.

  • 64.

    Daskivich TJ, Chamie K, Kwan L. Comorbidity and competing risks for mortality in men with prostate cancer. Cancer 2011;117:46424650.

  • 65.

    Sun L, Caire AA, Robertson CN. Men older than 70 years have higher risk prostate cancer and poorer survival in the early and late prostate specific antigen eras. J Urol 2009;182:22422248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Bechis SK, Carroll PR, Cooperberg MR. Impact of age at diagnosis on prostate cancer treatment and survival. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:235241.

  • 67.

    Schaeffer EM, Carter HB, Kettermann A. Prostate specific antigen testing among the elderly—when to stop? J Urol 2009;181:16061614; discussion 1613–1604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate Cancer. 2015. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html. Accessed April 28, 2015.

  • 69.

    Bratt O. Hereditary prostate cancer: clinical aspects. J Urol 2002;168:906913.

  • 70.

    Carter BS, Beaty TH, Steinberg GD. Mendelian inheritance of familial prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89:33673371.

  • 71.

    Chen YC, Page JH, Chen R, Giovannucci E. Family history of prostate and breast cancer and the risk of prostate cancer in the PSA era. Prostate 2008;68:15821591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Grill S, Fallah M, Leach RJ. Incorporation of detailed family history from the Swedish Family Cancer Database into the PCPT risk calculator. J Urol 2015;193:460465.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Barocas DA, Grubb R 3rd, Black A. Association between race and follow-up diagnostic care after a positive prostate cancer screening test in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer 2013;119:22232229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Mahal BA, Aizer AA, Ziehr DR. Trends in disparate treatment of African American men with localized prostate cancer across National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk groups. Urology 2014;84:386392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Zhang H, Messing EM, Travis LB. Age and racial differences among PSA-detected (AJCC Stage T1cN0M0) prostate cancer in the U.S.: a population-based study of 70,345 men. Front Oncol 2013;3:312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Mondo DM, Roehl KA, Loeb S. Which is the most important risk factor for prostate cancer: race, family history, or baseline PSA level? [abstract]. J Urol 2008;179:Abstract 417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Vertosick EA, Poon BY, Vickers AJ. Relative value of race, family history and prostate specific antigen as indications for early initiation of prostate cancer screening. J Urol 2014;192:724728.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:13101316.

  • 79.

    Agalliu I, Gern R, Leanza S, Burk RD. Associations of high-grade prostate cancer with BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:11121120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Ford D, Easton DF, Bishop DT. Risks of cancer in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Lancet 1994;343:692695.

  • 81.

    Gallagher DJ, Gaudet MM, Pal P. Germline BRCA mutations denote a clinicopathologic subset of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2010;16:21152121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Kirchhoff T, Kauff ND, Mitra N. BRCA mutations and risk of prostate cancer in Ashkenazi Jews. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:29182921.

  • 83.

    Leongamornlert D, Mahmud N, Tymrakiewicz M. Germline BRCA1 mutations increase prostate cancer risk. Br J Cancer 2012;106:16971701.

  • 84.

    Liede A, Karlan BY, Narod SA. Cancer risks for male carriers of germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2: a review of the literature. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:735742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Tulinius H, Olafsdottir GH, Sigvaldason H. The effect of a single BRCA2 mutation on cancer in Iceland. J Med Genet 2002;39:457462.

  • 86.

    van Asperen CJ, Brohet RM, Meijers-Heijboer EJ. Cancer risks in BRCA2 families: estimates for sites other than breast and ovary. J Med Genet 2005;42:711719.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Mersch J, Jackson MA, Park M. Cancers associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations other than breast and ovarian. Cancer 2015;121:269275.

  • 88.

    Moran A, O'Hara C, Khan S. Risk of cancer other than breast or ovarian in individuals with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Fam Cancer 2012;11:235242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Castro E, Goh C, Olmos D. Germline BRCA mutations are associated with higher risk of nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and poor survival outcomes in prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:17481757.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Mitra A, Fisher C, Foster CS. Prostate cancer in male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has a more aggressive phenotype. Br J Cancer 2008;98:502507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Narod SA, Neuhausen S, Vichodez G. Rapid progression of prostate cancer in men with a BRCA2 mutation. Br J Cancer 2008;99:371374.

  • 92.

    Thorne H, Willems AJ, Niedermayr E. Decreased prostate cancer-specific survival of men with BRCA2 mutations from multiple breast cancer families. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011;4:10021010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    Tryggvadottir L, Vidarsdottir L, Thorgeirsson T. Prostate cancer progression and survival in BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:929935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Engel C, Loeffler M, Steinke V. Risks of less common cancers in proven mutation carriers with lynch syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:44094415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Haraldsdottir S, Hampel H, Wei L. Prostate cancer incidence in males with Lynch syndrome. Genet Med 2014;16:553557.

  • 96.

    Raymond VM, Mukherjee B, Wang F. Elevated risk of prostate cancer among men with Lynch syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:17131718.

  • 97.

    Ryan S, Jenkins MA, Win AK. Risk of prostate cancer in Lynch syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014;23:437449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98.

    Win AK, Lindor NM, Young JP. Risks of primary extracolonic cancers following colorectal cancer in lynch syndrome. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104:13631372.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    Bancroft EK, Page EC, Castro E. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study. Eur Urol 2014;66:489499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Schroder FH, Roobol-Bouts M, Vis AN. Prostate-specific antigen-based early detection of prostate cancer--validation of screening without rectal examination. Urology 2001;57:8390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Ankerst DP, Hoefler J, Bock S. Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator 2.0 for the prediction of low- vs high-grade prostate cancer. Urology 2014;83:13621367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Nam RK, Kattan MW, Chin JL. Prospective multi-institutional study evaluating the performance of prostate cancer risk calculators. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:29592964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Nam RK, Toi A, Klotz LH. Assessing individual risk for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:35823588.

  • 104.

    Roobol MJ, Steyerberg EW, Kranse R. A risk-based strategy improves prostate-specific antigen-driven detection of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2010;57:7985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Glass AS, Cary KC, Cooperberg MR. Risk-based prostate cancer screening: who and how? Curr Urol Rep 2013;14:192198.

  • 106.

    Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) Version 2. Available at: http://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/Resources/PIRADS. Accessed April 29, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Barentsz JO, Richenberg J, Clements R. ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012. Eur Radiol 2012;22:746757.

  • 108.

    Kuru TH, Roethke MC, Seidenader J. Critical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging targeted, transrectal ultrasound guided transperineal fusion biopsy for detection of prostate cancer. J Urol 2013;190:13801386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Pokorny MR, de Rooij M, Duncan E. Prospective study of diagnostic accuracy comparing prostate cancer detection by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy versus magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with subsequent MR-guided biopsy in men without previous prostate biopsies. Eur Urol 2014;66:2229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Tonttila PP, Lantto J, Paakko E. Prebiopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer diagnosis in biopsy-naive men with suspected prostate cancer based on elevated prostate-specific antigen values: results from a randomized prospective blinded controlled trial. Eur Urol 2015; pii: S0302-2838(15)00426-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Siddiqui MM, Rais-Bahrami S, Turkbey B. Comparison of MR/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. JAMA 2015;313:390397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Oesterling JE, Jacobsen SJ, Chute CG. Serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy men: establishment of age-specific reference ranges. JAMA 1993;270:860864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Morgan TO, Jacobsen SJ, McCarthy WF. Age-specific reference ranges for prostate-specific antigen in black men. N Engl J Med 1996;335:304310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Oesterling JE, Jacobsen SJ, Klee GG. Free, complexed and total serum prostate specific antigen: the establishment of appropriate reference ranges for their concentrations and ratios. J Urol 1995;154:10901095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Moul JW. Targeted screening for prostate cancer in African-American men. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2000;3:248255.

  • 116.

    Carter HB, Pearson JD, Metter EJ. Longitudinal evaluation of prostate-specific antigen levels in men with and without prostate disease. JAMA 1992;267:22152220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Carter HB, Ferrucci L, Kettermann A. Detection of life-threatening prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen velocity during a window of curability. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:15211527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    D'Amico AV, Chen MH, Roehl KA, Catalona WJ. Preoperative PSA velocity and the risk of death from prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. N Engl J Med 2004;351:125135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    D'Amico AV, Renshaw AA, Sussman B, Chen MH. Pretreatment PSA velocity and risk of death from prostate cancer following external beam radiation therapy. JAMA 2005;294:440447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    Vickers AJ, Till C, Tangen CM. An empirical evaluation of guidelines on prostate-specific antigen velocity in prostate cancer detection. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011;103:462469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Elshafei A, Li YH, Hatem A. The utility of PSA velocity in prediction of prostate cancer and high grade cancer after an initially negative prostate biopsy. Prostate 2013;73:17961802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Wolters T, Roobol MJ, Bangma CH, Schroder FH. Is prostate-specific antigen velocity selective for clinically significant prostate cancer in screening? European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (Rotterdam). Eur Urol 2009;55:385392..

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Loeb S, Roehl KA, Helfand BT. Can prostate specific antigen velocity thresholds decrease insignificant prostate cancer detection? J Urol 2010;183:112116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Eggener SE, Roehl KA, Catalona WJ. Prostatitis confounds the use of PSA velocity for prostate cancer detection [abstract]. Presented at the ASCO Prostate Cancer Symposium; 2006. Abstract 4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Partin AW, Brawer MK, Subong EN. Prospective evaluation of percent free-PSA and complexed-PSA for early detection of prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 1998;1:197203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Partin AW, Brawer MK, Bartsch G. Complexed prostate specific antigen improves specificity for prostate cancer detection: results of a prospective multicenter clinical trial. J Urol 2003;170:17871791.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Okihara K, Cheli CD, Partin AW. Comparative analysis of complexed prostate specific antigen, free prostate specific antigen and their ratio in detecting prostate cancer. J Urol 2002;167:20172023; discussion 2023–2024.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128.

    Horninger W, Cheli CD, Babaian RJ. Complexed prostate-specific antigen for early detection of prostate cancer in men with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 2 to 4 nanograms per milliliter. Urology 2002;60:3135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Okihara K, Fritsche HA, Ayala A. Can complexed prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume enhance prostate cancer detection in men with total prostate specific antigen between 2.5 and 4.0 ng./ml. J Urol 2001;165:19301936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    Babaian RJ, Naya Y, Cheli C, Fritsche HA. The detection and potential economic value of complexed prostate specific antigen as a first line test. J Urol 2006;175:897901; discussion 901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131.

    Veneziano S, Pavlica P, Querze R. Correlation between prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume, evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography: usefulness in diagnosis of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 1990;18:112116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Benson MC, Whang IS, Pantuck A. Prostate specific antigen density: a means of distinguishing benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. J Urol 1992;147:815816.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Lujan M, Paez A, Llanes L. Prostate specific antigen density. Is there a role for this parameter when screening for prostate cancer? Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2001;4:146149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Sozen S, Eskicorapci S, Kupeli B. Complexed prostate specific antigen density is better than the other PSA derivatives for detection of prostate cancer in men with total PSA between 2.5 and 20 ng/ml: results of a prospective multicenter study. Eur Urol 2005;47:302307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135.

    Veneziano S, Pavlica P, Compagnone G, Martorana G. Usefulness of the (F/T)/PSA density ratio to detect prostate cancer. Urol Int 2005;74:1318.

  • 136.

    Aksoy Y, Oral A, Aksoy H. PSA density and PSA transition zone density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in PSA gray zone cases. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2003;33:320323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137.

    Allan RW, Sanderson H, Epstein JI. Correlation of minute (0.5 MM or less) focus of prostate adenocarcinoma on needle biopsy with radical prostatectomy specimen: role of prostate specific antigen density. J Urol 2003;170:370372.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138.

    Radwan MH, Yan Y, Luly JR. Prostate-specific antigen density predicts adverse pathology and increased risk of biochemical failure. Urology 2007;69:11211127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    Catalona WJ, Southwick PC, Slawin KM. Comparison of percent free PSA, PSA density, and age-specific PSA cutoffs for prostate cancer detection and staging. Urology 2000;56:255260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140.

    Gittelman MC, Hertzman B, Bailen J. PCA3 molecular urine test as a predictor of repeat prostate biopsy outcome in men with previous negative biopsies: a prospective multicenter clinical study. The Journal of urology 2013;190:6469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141.

    Bradley LA, Palomaki GE, Gutman S. Comparative effectiveness review: prostate cancer antigen 3 testing for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. J Urol 2013;190:389398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142.

    Auprich M, Bjartell A, Chun FK. Contemporary role of prostate cancer antigen 3 in the management of prostate cancer. European urology 2011;60:1045-1054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143.

    Aubin SM, Reid J, Sarno MJ. PCA3 molecular urine test for predicting repeat prostate biopsy outcome in populations at risk: validation in the placebo arm of the dutasteride REDUCE trial. J Urol 2010;184:19471952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144.

    Wei JT, Feng Z, Partin AW. Can urinary PCA3 supplement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer? J Clin Oncol 2014;32:40664072.

  • 145.

    Vickers AJ. Markers for the early detection of prostate cancer: some principles for statistical reporting and interpretation. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:40334034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146.

    Filella X, Gimenez N. Evaluation of [-2] proPSA and Prostate Health Index (phi) for the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Chem Lab Med2013;51:729739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147.

    Lazzeri M, Haese A, Abrate A. Clinical performance of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivatives, %p2PSA and the prostate health index (PHI), in men with a family history of prostate cancer: results from a multicentre European study, the PROMEtheuS project. BJU Int 2013;112:313321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148.

    Loeb S. Prostate cancer: Prostate Health Index—improving screening in men with family history. Nat Rev Urol 2013;10:497498.

  • 149.

    Catalona WJ, Partin AW, Sanda MG. A multicenter study of [-2]pro-prostate specific antigen combined with prostate specific antigen and free prostate specific antigen for prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0 ng/ml prostate specific antigen range. J Urol 2011;185:16501655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150.

    Vickers A, Cronin A, Roobol M. Reducing unnecessary biopsy during prostate cancer screening using a four-kallikrein panel: an independent replication. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:24932498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151.

    Vickers AJ, Gupta A, Savage CJ. A panel of kallikrein marker predicts prostate cancer in a large, population-based cohort followed for 15 years without screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011;20:255261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152.

    Parekh DJ, Punnen S, Sjoberg DD. A multi-institutional prospective trial in the USA confirms that the 4Kscore accurately identifies men with high-grade prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2014;68:464470..

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153.

    Bryant RJ, Sjoberg DD, Vickers AJ. Predicting high-grade cancer at ten-core prostate biopsy using four Kallikrein markers measured in blood in the ProtecT Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2015;107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154.

    Stewart GD, Van Neste L, Delvenne P. Clinical utility of an epigenetic assay to detect occult prostate cancer in histopathologically negative biopsies: results of the MATLOC study. J Urol 2013;189:11101116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155.

    Partin AW, Van Neste L, Klein EA. Clinical validation of an epigenetic assay to predict negative histopathological results in repeat prostate biopsies. J Urol 2014;192:10811087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156.

    Presti JC Jr., O'Dowd GJ, Miller MC. Extended peripheral zone biopsy schemes increase cancer detection rates and minimize variance in prostate specific antigen and age related cancer rates: results of a community multi-practice study. J Urol 2003;169:125129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 157.

    Ukimura O, Coleman JA, de la Taille A. Contemporary role of systematic prostate biopsies: indications, techniques, and implications for patient care. Eur Urol 2013;63:214230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158.

    Robertson NL, Emberton M, Moore CM. MRI-targeted prostate biopsy: a review of technique and results. Nat Rev Urol 2013;10:589597.

  • 159.

    Maccagnano C, Gallina A, Roscigno M. Prostate saturation biopsy following a first negative biopsy: state of the art. Urol Int 2012;89:126135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160.

    Rastinehad AR, Turkbey B, Salami SS. Improving detection of clinically significant prostate cancer: MRI/TRUS fusion-guided prostate biopsy. J Urol 2014;191:17491754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161.

    Puech P, Rouviere O, Renard-Penna R. Prostate cancer diagnosis: multiparametric MR-targeted biopsy with cognitive and transrectal US-MR fusion guidance versus systematic biopsy--prospective multicenter study. Radiology 2013;268:461469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162.

    Hoeks CM, Schouten MG, Bomers JG. Three-Tesla magnetic resonance-guided prostate biopsy in men with increased prostate-specific antigen and repeated, negative, random, systematic, transrectal ultrasound biopsies: detection of clinically significant prostate cancers. Eur Urol 2012;62:902909.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 163.

    Portalez D, Mozer P, Cornud F. Validation of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology scoring system for prostate cancer diagnosis on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of repeat biopsy patients. Eur Urol 2012;62:986996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164.

    Sonn GA, Chang E, Natarajan S. Value of targeted prostate biopsy using magnetic resonance-ultrasound fusion in men with prior negative biopsy and elevated prostate-specific antigen. Eur Urol 2014;65:809815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165.

    Vourganti S, Rastinehad A, Yerram NK. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound fusion biopsy detect prostate cancer in patients with prior negative transrectal ultrasound biopsies. J Urol 2012;188:21522157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 166.

    Roethke M, Anastasiadis AG, Lichy M. MRI-guided prostate biopsy detects clinically significant cancer: analysis of a cohort of 100 patients after previous negative TRUS biopsy. World J Urol 2012;30:213218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167.

    Sciarra A, Panebianco V, Ciccariello M. Value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging for detecting prostate cancer foci in men with prior negative biopsy. Clin Cancer Res 2010;16:18751883.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168.

    Anastasiadis AG, Lichy MP, Nagele U. MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate increases diagnostic performance in men with elevated or increasing PSA levels after previous negative TRUS biopsies. Eur Urol 2006;50:738748; discussion 748–739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 169.

    Rais-Bahrami S, Siddiqui MM, Turkbey B. Utility of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging suspicion levels for detecting prostate cancer. J Urol 2013;190:17211727.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 170.

    Nelson AW, Harvey RC, Parker RA. Repeat prostate biopsy strategies after initial negative biopsy: meta-regression comparing cancer detection of transperineal, transrectal saturation and MRI guided biopsy. PLoS One 2013;8:e57480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 171.

    Abdollah F, Novara G, Briganti A. Trans-rectal versus trans-perineal saturation rebiopsy of the prostate: is there a difference in cancer detection rate? Urology 2011;77:921925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 172.

    Acher P, Dooldeniya M. Prostate biopsy: will transperineal replace transrectal? BJU Int 2013;112:533534.

  • 173.

    Grummet JP, Weerakoon M, Huang S. Sepsis and ‘superbugs’: should we favour the transperineal over the transrectal approach for prostate biopsy? BJU Int 2014;114:384388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 174.

    Pepe P, Aragona F. Morbidity after transperineal prostate biopsy in 3000 patients undergoing 12 vs 18 vs more than 24 needle cores. Urology 2013;81:11421146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 175.

    Vyas L, Acher P, Challacombe B. Indications, results and safety profile of transperineal sector biopsies of the prostate: a single centre experience of 634 cases. BJU Int 2014;114:3237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 176.

    Murphy DG, Weerakoon M, Grummet J. Is zero sepsis alone enough to justify transperineal prostate biopsy? BJU Int 2014;114:34.

  • 177.

    Taira AV, Merrick GS, Galbreath RW. Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2010;13:7177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 178.

    Merrick GS, Gutman S, Andreini H. Prostate cancer distribution in patients diagnosed by transperineal template-guided saturation biopsy. Eur Urol 2007;52:715723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 179.

    Walz J, Graefen M, Chun FK. High incidence of prostate cancer detected by saturation biopsy after previous negative biopsy series. Eur Urol 2006;50:498505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 180.

    Zaytoun OM, Moussa AS, Gao T. Office based transrectal saturation biopsy improves prostate cancer detection compared to extended biopsy in the repeat biopsy population. J Urol 2011;186:850854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 181.

    Liss MA. Infection: prostate biopsy-infection and prior fluoroquinolone exposure. Nat Rev Urol 2011;8:592594.

  • 182.

    Djavan B, Waldert M, Zlotta A. Safety and morbidity of first and repeat transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsies: results of a prospective European prostate cancer detection study. J Urol 2001;166:856860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 183.

    Loeb S, Vellekoop A, Ahmed HU. Systematic review of complications of prostate biopsy. Eur Urol 2013;64:876892.

  • 184.

    Loeb S, Carter HB, Berndt SI. Complications after prostate biopsy: data from SEER-Medicare. J Urol 2011;186:18301834.

  • 185.

    Nam RK, Saskin R, Lee Y. Increasing hospital admission rates for urological complications after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. J Urol 2010;183:963968.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 186.

    Pinsky PF, Parnes HL, Andriole G. Mortality and complications after prostate biopsy in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) trial. BJU Int 2014;113:254259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 187.

    Feliciano J, Teper E, Ferrandino M. The incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy--are fluoroquinolones still effective prophylaxis? J Urol 2008;179:952955; discussion 955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 188.

    Zaytoun OM, Vargo EH, Rajan R. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli as cause of postprostate biopsy infection: implications for prophylaxis and treatment. Urology 2011;77:10351041.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 189.

    Akduman B, Akduman D, Tokgoz H. Long-term fluoroquinolone use before the prostate biopsy may increase the risk of sepsis caused by resistant microorganisms. Urology 2011;78:250255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 190.

    Mosharafa AA, Torky MH, El Said WM, Meshref A. Rising incidence of acute prostatitis following prostate biopsy: fluoroquinolone resistance and exposure is a significant risk factor. Urology 2011;78:511514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 191.

    Liss MA, Chang A, Santos R. Prevalence and significance of fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy. J Urol 2011;185:12831288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 192.

    Collins GN, Lloyd SN, Hehir M, McKelvie GB. Multiple transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsies--true morbidity and patient acceptance. Br J Urol 1993;71:460-463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 193.

    Stirling BN, Shockley KF, Carothers GG, Maatman TJ. Comparison of local anesthesia techniques during transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. Urology 2002;60:8992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 194.

    Hergan L, Kashefi C, Parsons JK. Local anesthetic reduces pain associated with transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: a meta-analysis. Urology 2007;69:520525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 195.

    Leibovici D, Zisman A, Siegel YI. Local anesthesia for prostate biopsy by periprostatic lidocaine injection: a double-blind placebo controlled study. J Urol 2002;167:563565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 196.

    Schröder FH, Roobol MJ. PSA Screening Decision-Making Aid For Patients, General Practitioners and Urologists: Societe Internationale D'Urologie; 2014. Available at: http://www.siu-urology.org/themes/web/assets/files/society/psa_testing_brochure.pdf. Accessed November 17, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 197.

    Bostwick DG, Cheng L. Precursors of prostate cancer. Histopathology 2012;60:427.

  • 198.

    Herawi M, Kahane H, Cavallo C, Epstein JI. Risk of prostate cancer on first re-biopsy within 1 year following a diagnosis of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is related to the number of cores sampled. J Urol 2006;175:121124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 199.

    O'Dowd G J, Miller MC, Orozco R, Veltri RW. Analysis of repeated biopsy results within 1 year after a noncancer diagnosis. Urology 2000;55:553559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 200.

    Taneja SS, Morton R, Barnette G. Prostate cancer diagnosis among men with isolated high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia enrolled onto a 3-year prospective phase III clinical trial of oral toremifene. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:523529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 201.

    Thompson IM Jr., Leach R. Prostate cancer and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: true, true, and unrelated? J Clin Oncol 2013;31:515516.

  • 202.

    Lefkowitz GK, Taneja SS, Brown J. Followup interval prostate biopsy 3 years after diagnosis of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with high likelihood of prostate cancer, independent of change in prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol 2002;168:14151418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 203.

    Merrimen JL, Jones G, Srigley JR. Is high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia still a risk factor for adenocarcinoma in the era of extended biopsy sampling? Pathology 2010;42:325329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 204.

    Chan TY, Epstein JI. Follow-up of atypical prostate needle biopsies suspicious for cancer. Urology 1999;53:351355.

  • 205.

    Mian BM, Naya Y, Okihara K. Predictors of cancer in repeat extended multisite prostate biopsy in men with previous negative extended multisite biopsy. Urology 2002;60:836840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1432 1324 667
PDF Downloads 152 115 20
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0