Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells that accumulate in bone marrow, leading to bone destruction and marrow failure. Recent statistics from the American Cancer Society indicate that the incidence of MM is increasing. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) included in this issue address management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma and newly diagnosed MM.

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    Harousseau JL, Attal M, Avet-Loiseau H. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone is superior to vincristine plus doxorubicin plus dexamethasone as induction treatment prior to autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the IFM 2005-01 phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:46214629.

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    Moreau P, Avet-Loiseau H, Facon T. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone versus reduced-dose bortezomib, thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction treatment before autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood 2011;118:57525758; quiz 5982.

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  • 79

    Sonneveld P, Schmidt-Wolf IG, van der Holt B. Bortezomib induction and maintenance treatment in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the randomized phase III HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:29462955.

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  • 80

    Cavo M, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F. Bortezomib with thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a randomised phase 3 study. Lancet 2010;376:20752085.

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  • 81

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  • 82

    Rosinol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI. Superiority of bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) as induction pretransplantation therapy in multiple myeloma: a randomized phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM study. Blood 2012;120:15891596.

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  • 83

    Reeder CB, Reece DE, Kukreti V. Cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone induction for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: high response rates in a phase II clinical trial. Leukemia 2009;23:13371341.

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  • 84

    Einsele H, Liebisch P, Langer C. Velcade, intravenous cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) induction for previously untreated multiple myeloma (German DSMM XIa Trial) [abstract]. Blood 2009;114:Abstract 131.

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  • 85

    Kumar S, Flinn I, Richardson PG. Randomized, multicenter, phase 2 study (EVOLUTION) of combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide in previously untreated multiple myeloma. Blood 2012;119:43754382.

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  • 86

    Reeder CB, Reece DE, Kukreti V. Long-term survival with cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone induction therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol 2014;167:563565.

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    Reeder CB, Reece DE, Kukreti V. Once- versus twice-weekly bortezomib induction therapy with CyBorD in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood 2010;115:34163417.

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    Zonder JA, Crowley J, Hussein MA. Superiority of lenalidomide (Len) plus high-dose dexamethasone (HD) compared to HD alone as treatment of newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM): Results of the randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled SWOG Trial S0232 [abstract]. Blood 2007;110:Abstract 77.

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    Rajkumar SV, Jacobus S, Callander N. A randomized trial of lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone (RD) versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (E4A03): a trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [abstract]. Blood 2007;110:Abstract 74.

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  • 90

    Rajkumar SV, Jacobus S, Callander NS. Lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone as initial therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:2937.

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  • 91

    Gay F, Hayman SR, Lacy MQ. Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone versus thalidomide plus dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis of 411 patients. Blood 2010;115:13431350.

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  • 92

    Zangari M, Tricot G, Polavaram L. Survival effect of venous thromboembolism in patients with multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide and high-dose dexamethasone. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:132135.

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    Palumbo A, Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA. Prevention of thalidomide- and lenalidomide-associated thrombosis in myeloma. Leukemia 2008;22:414423.

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    Kumar S, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ. Impact of lenalidomide therapy on stem cell mobilization and engraftment post-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. Leukemia 2007;21:20352042.

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    Kumar S, Giralt S, Stadtmauer EA. Mobilization in myeloma revisited: IMWG consensus perspectives on stem cell collection following initial therapy with thalidomide-, lenalidomide-, or bortezomib-containing regimens. Blood 2009;114:17291735.

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  • 97

    Mark T, Stern J, Furst JR. Stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide overcomes the suppressive effect of lenalidomide therapy on stem cell collection in multiple myeloma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008;14:795798.

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    Nademanee AP, DiPersio JF, Maziarz RT. Plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus placebo plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for mobilization of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells in patients with multiple myeloma and low peripheral blood CD34(+) cell count: results of a subset analysis of a randomized trial. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012;18:15641572.

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  • 99

    Duarte RF, Shaw BE, Marin P. Plerixafor plus granulocyte CSF can mobilize hematopoietic stem cells from multiple myeloma and lymphoma patients failing previous mobilization attempts: EU compassionate use data. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010.

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  • 100

    Richardson P, Weller E, Lonial S. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood 2010;116:679686.

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  • 101

    Roussel M, Lauwers-Cances V, Robillard N. Front-line transplantation program with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination as induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:27122717.

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  • 102

    Rajkumar S, Blood EA, Vesole D. Phase III clinical trial of thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a clinical trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:431436.

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  • 103

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  • 104

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    Kirk CJ, Jiang J, Muchamuel T. The selective proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib is well tolerated in experimental animals with dose intensive administration [abstract]. Blood 2008;112:Abstract 2765.

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  • 106

    Siegel DS, Martin T, Wang M. A phase 2 study of single-agent carfilzomib (PX-171-003-A1) in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Blood 2012;120:28172825.

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    Vij R, Wang M, Kaufman JL. An open-label, single-arm, phase 2 (PX-171-004) study of single-agent carfilzomib in bortezomib-naive patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. Blood 2012;119:56615670.

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    Vij R, Wang M, Orlowski R. Initial results of PX-171-003, an open-label, single-arm, phase II study of carfilzomib (CFZ) in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) [abstract]. Blood 2008;112:Abstract 865.

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  • 109

    Jakubowiak AJ, Dytfeld D, Griffith KA. A phase 1/2 study of carfilzomib in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone as a frontline treatment for multiple myeloma. Blood 2012;120:18011809.

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    Dytfeld D, Jasielec J, Griffith KA. Carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and low-dose dexamethasone in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Haematologica 2014;99:e162164.

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    Korde N, Zingone A, Kwok M. Phase II clinical and correlative study of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (CRd) in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients [abstract]. Blood 2012;120:Abstract 732.

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