The authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors. This work was supported by a Heritage Medical Research Institute/Prostate Cancer Foundation Young Investigator Award (to PN); Joint Center for Radiation Therapy Foundation Grant (to PN); Fitz’s Cancer Warriors (to PN); David and Cynthia Chapin (to PN); and a grant from an anonymous family foundation (to PN).
This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors. The authors acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, NCI; the Office of Research, Development and Information, CMS; Information Management Services (IMS), Inc.; and the SEER program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database.
van den BerghRCRoemelingSRoobolMJ. Outcomes of men with screen-detected prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance who were managed expectantly. Eur Urol2009;55:1–8.
TosoianJJTrockBJLandisP. Active surveillance program for prostate cancer: an update of the Johns Hopkins experience. J Clin Oncol2011;29:2185–2190.
Dall’EraMAKonetyBRCowanJE. Active surveillance for the management of prostate cancer in a contemporary cohort. Cancer2008;112:2664–2670.
MoyerVA. Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med2012;157:120–134.
HayesJHOllendorfDAPearsonSD. Active surveillance compared with initial treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer: a decision analysis. JAMA2010;304:2373–2380.
Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) Research Data (1973-2009) National Cancer Institute DCCPS Surveillance Research Program Surveillance Systems Branch released April 2012 based on the November 2011 submission. Available at: http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/seermedicare/obtain/requests.html.
WarrenJLKlabundeCNSchragD. Overview of the SEER-Medicare data: content, research applications, and generalizability to the United States elderly population. Med Care2002;40(8 Suppl):IV-3–18.
Actuarial Life Table Year 2007. Social Security Administration. Available at: http://www.ssa.gov/OACT/STATS/table4c6.html. Accessed September 19 2012.
WalterLCCovinskyKE. Cancer screening in elderly patients: a framework for individualized decision making. JAMA2001;285:2750–2756.
QuanHSundararajanVHalfonP. Coding algorithms for defining comorbidities in ICD-9-CM and ICD-10 administrative data. Med Care2005;43:1130–1139.
NguyenPLGuXLipsitzSR. Cost implications of the rapid adoption of newer technologies for treating prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol2011;29:1517–1524.
AlbertsenPCHanleyJAFineJ. 20-year outcomes following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA2005;293:2095–2101.
KingCRMcNealJEGillHPrestiJCJr. Extended prostate biopsy scheme improves reliability of Gleason grading: implications for radiotherapy patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2004;59:386–391.
San FranciscoIFDeWolfWCRosenS. Extended prostate needle biopsy improves concordance of Gleason grading between prostate needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy. J Urol2003;169:136–140.
DivrikRTErogluASahinA. Increasing the number of biopsies increases the concordance of Gleason scores of needle biopsies and prostatectomy specimens. Urol Oncol2007;25:376–382.
EmiliozziPMaymoneSPaternoA. Increased accuracy of biopsy Gleason score obtained by extended needle biopsy. J Urol2004;172(6 Pt 1):2224–2226.
MoussaASKattanMWBerglundR. A nomogram for predicting upgrading in patients with low- and intermediate-grade prostate cancer in the era of extended prostate sampling. BJU Int2010;105:352–358.
SundiDRossAEHumphreysEB. African American men with very low-risk prostate cancer exhibit adverse oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy: should active surveillance still be an option for them?J Clin Oncol2013;31:2991–2997.
D’AmicoAVManolaJLoffredoM. 6-month androgen suppression plus radiation therapy vs radiation therapy alone for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA2004;292:821–827.
BollaMGonzalezDWardeP. Improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. N Engl J Med1997;337:295–300.
UnoHNakanoMEharaHDeguchiT. Indications for extended 14-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Urology2008;71:23–27.
BittencourtLKBarentszJOde MirandaLCGasparettoEL. Prostate MRI: diffusion-weighted imaging at 1.5T correlates better with prostatectomy Gleason grades than TRUS-guided biopsies in peripheral zone tumours. Eur Radiol2012;22:468–475.
FreedlandSJGerberLReidJ. Prognostic utility of cell cycle progression score in men with prostate cancer after primary external beam radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2013;86:848–853.
CuzickJSwansonGPFisherG. Prognostic value of an RNA expression signature derived from cell cycle proliferation genes in patients with prostate cancer: a retrospective study. Lancet Oncol2011;12:245–255.
KnezevicDGoddardADNatrajN. Analytical validation of the Oncotype DX prostate cancer assay—a clinical RT-PCR assay optimized for prostate needle biopsies. BMC Genomics2013;14:690.
SandaMGDunnRLMichalskiJ. Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors. N Engl J Med2008;358:1250–1261.
JacobsBLZhangYSchroeckFR. Use of advanced treatment technologies among men at low risk of dying from prostate cancer. JAMA2013;309:2587–2595.
KlotzLZhangLLamA. Clinical results of long-term follow-up of a large, active surveillance cohort with localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol2010;28:126–131.
2012 Budget Request. National Cancer InstituteWeb site. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/aboutnci/budget_planning_leg/plan-2012/2012budgetrequest. Accessed May 2 2013.
CooperbergMRBroeringJMCarrollPR. Time trends and local variation in primary treatment of localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol2010;28:1117–1123.
FeliuJJimenez-GordoAMMaderoR. Development and validation of a prognostic nomogram for terminally ill cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst2011;103:1613–1620.
FroehnerMKochRLitzRJ. Which patients are at the highest risk of dying from competing causes </= 10 years after radical prostatectomy?BJU Int2012;110:206–210.
FowlerFJJrMcNaughton CollinsMAlbertsenPC. Comparison of recommendations by urologists and radiation oncologists for treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA2000;283:3217–3222.
AizerAAPalyJJZietmanAL. Multidisciplinary care and pursuit of active surveillance in low-risk prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol2012;30:3071–3076.
MooreMJO’SullivanBTannockIF. How expert physicians would wish to be treated if they had genitourinary cancer. J Clin Oncol1988;6:1736–1745.
FalitBPGrossCPRobertsKB. Integrated prostate cancer centers and over-utilization of IMRT: a close look at fee-for-service medicine in radiation oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2010;76:1285–1288.
MitchellJMSunshineJH. Consequences of physicians’ ownership of health care facilities--joint ventures in radiation therapy. N Engl J Med1992;327:1497–1501.
AnscherMSAnscherBMBradleyCJ. The negative impact of stark law exemptions on graduate medical education and health care costs: the example of radiation oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2010;76:1289–1294.
Medicare Advantage 2012 Data Spotlight: Enrollment Market Update. The Henry J. Kaiser Family FoundationWeb site. Available at: http://www.kff.org/medicare/8323.cfm. Accessed September 23 2012.