This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Head and Neck Cancers focuses on glottic laryngeal cancer, which is the most common type of laryngeal cancer and has an excellent cure rate. The lymphatic drainage of the glottis is sparse, and early stage primaries rarely spread to regional nodes. Because hoarseness is an early symptom, most glottic laryngeal cancer is early stage at diagnosis. Updates to these guidelines for 2014 include revisions to “Principles of Radiation Therapy” for each site and “Principles of Surgery,” and the addition of a new section on “Principles of Dental Evaluation and Management.”

  • Adelstein DJ, Li Y, Adams GL. An intergroup phase III comparison of standard radiation therapy and two schedules of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with unresectable squamous cell head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:9298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ang KK, Chen A, Curran WJ Jr. Head and neck carcinoma in the United States: first comprehensive report of the Longitudinal Oncology Registry of Head and Neck Carcinoma (LORHAN). Cancer 2012;118:57835792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernier J, Cooper JS, Pajak TF. Defining risk levels in locally advanced head and neck cancers: a comparative analysis of concurrent postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy trials of the EORTC (#22931) and RTOG (# 9501). Head Neck 2005;27:843850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernier J, Domenge C, Ozsahin M. Postoperative irradiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;350:19451952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J. Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer: 5-year survival data from a phase 3 randomised trial, and relation between cetuximab-induced rash and survival. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:2128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bourhis J, Overgaard J, Audry H. Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2006;368:843854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bourhis J, Sire C, Graff P. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus acceleration of radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (GORTEC 99-02): an open-label phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:145153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brizel DM, Albers ME, Fisher SR. Hyperfractionated irradiation with or without concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 1998;338:17981804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colevas AD. Chemotherapy options for patients with metastatic or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:26442652.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper JS, Pajak TF, Forastiere AA. Postoperative concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 2004;350:19371944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper JS, Zhang Q, Pajak TF. Long-term follow-up of the RTOG 9501/intergroup phase III trial: postoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy in high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of thehead and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;84:11981205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 9th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forastiere AA, Zhang Q, Weber RS. Long-term results of RTOG 91-11: a comparison of three nonsurgical treatment strategies to preserve the larynx in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:845852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fu KK, Pajak TF, Trotti A. A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyperfractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: first report of RTOG 9003. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;48:716.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kutler DI, Patel SG, Shah JP. The role of neck dissection following definitive chemoradiation. Oncology (Williston Park) 2004;18:993998; discussion 999, 1003-1004, 1007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piccirillo JF. Importance of comorbidity in head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope 2000;110:593602.

  • Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C; on behalf of the MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. Lancet 2000;355:949955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pignon JP, le Maître A, Maillard E. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC): an update on 93 randomised trials and 17,346 patients. Radiother Oncol 2009;92:414.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenthal DI, Trotti A. Strategies for managing radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol 2009;19:2934.

  • Vermorken JB, Mesia R, Rivera F. Platinum-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 2008;359:11161127.

  • 1.

    Mendenhall WM, Werning JW, Pfister DG. Treatment of head and neck cancer. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    DeVita V Jr, Lawrence T, Rosenberg S. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Baxi S, Fury M, Ganly I. Ten years of progress in head and neck cancers. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2012;10:806810.

  • 4.

    Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:929.

  • 5.

    Edge S, Byrd D, Compton C. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.

  • 6.

    Greene F, Page D, Fleming I. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2002.

  • 7.

    Chaukar DA, Walvekar RR, Das AK. Quality of life in head and neck cancer survivors: a cross-sectional survey. Am J Otolaryngol 2009;30:176180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    So WK, Chan RJ, Chan DN. Quality-of-life among head and neck cancer survivors at one year after treatment—a systematic review. Eur J Cancer 2012;48:23912408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Colasanto JM, Prasad P, Nash MA. Nutritional support of patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Oncology (Williston Park) 2005;19:371379.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Schnoll RA, Zhang B, Rue M. Brief physician-initiated quit-smoking strategies for clinical oncology settings: a trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:355365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Gritz ER, Carr CR, Rapkin D. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation in head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1993;2:261270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lin BM, Starmer HM, Gourin CG. The relationship between depressive symptoms, quality of life, and swallowing function in head and neck cancer patients 1 year after definitive therapy. Laryngoscope 2012;122:15181525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Krebber AM, Leemans CR, de Bree R. Stepped care targeting psychological distress in head and neck and lung cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial. BMC Cancer 2012;12:173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Verdonck-de Leeuw IM, de Bree R, Keizer AL. Computerized prospective screening for high levels of emotional distress in head and neck cancer patients and referral rate to psychosocial care. Oral Oncol 2009;45:e129133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Andersen BL, DeRubeis RJ, Berman BS. Screening, assessment, and care of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adults with cancer: an American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline adaptation. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:16051619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Feinstein AR. The pre-therapeutic classification of co-morbidity in chronic disease. J Chronic Dis 1970;23:455468.

  • 17.

    Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis 1987;40:373383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Piccirillo JF. Importance of comorbidity in head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope 2000;110:593602.

  • 19.

    Piccirillo JF, Lacy PD, Basu A, Spitznagel EL. Development of a new head and neck cancer-specific comorbidity index. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;128:11721179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Piccirillo JF. Impact of comorbidity and symptoms on the prognosis of patients with oral carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;126:10861088.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Chen AY, Matson LK, Roberts D, Goepfert H. The significance of comorbidity in advanced laryngeal cancer. Head Neck 2001;23:566572.

  • 22.

    Singh B, Bhaya M, Stern J. Validation of the Charlson comorbidity index in patients with head and neck cancer: a multiinstitutional study. Laryngoscope 1997;107:14691475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Hall SF, Rochon PA, Streiner DL. Measuring comorbidity in patients with head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope 2002;112:19881996.

  • 24.

    Hall SF, Groome PA, Rothwell D. The impact of comorbidity on the survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck 2000;22:317322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Ribeiro KC, Kowalski LP, Latorre MR. Impact of comorbidity, symptoms, and patients’ characteristics on the prognosis of oral carcinomas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;126:10791085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    de Graeff A, de Leeuw JR, Ros WJ. Pretreatment factors predicting quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer. Head Neck 2000;22:398407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Funk GF, Karnell LH, Whitehead S. Free tissue transfer versus pedicled flap cost in head and neck cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;127:205212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Farwell DG, Reilly DF, Weymuller EA. Predictors of perioperative complications in head and neck patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;128:505511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Kaplan MH, Feinstein AR. The importance of classifying initial co-morbidity in evaluatin the outcome of diabetes mellitus. J Chronic Dis 1974;27:387404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Bang D, Piccirillo J, Littenberg B, Johnston A. The Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) test: a new comorbidity index for patients with cancer [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2000;19(Suppl):Abstract 1701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Piccirillo JF, Costas I, Claybour P. The measurement of comorbidity by cancer registries. J Registry Manag 2003;30:814.

  • 32.

    Patrick D, Erickson P. Health Status and health Policy: Quality of Life in Health Care Evaluation and Resource Allocation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Yueh B. Measuring and Reporting Quality of Life in Head and Neck Cancer. McLean, VA: Proceedings of the National Institutes of Health; 2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Rogers SN, Gwanne S, Lowe D. The addition of mood and anxiety domains to the University of Washington quality of life scale. Head Neck 2002;24:521529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Bjordal K, Hammerlid E, Ahlner-Elmqvist M. Quality of life in head and neck cancer patients: validation of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-H&N35. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:10081019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Cella D. Manual for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) Measurement System (version 4). Chicago, IL: Rush Medical Center; 1997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    List MA, D’Antonio LL, Cella DF. The Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Scale. A study of utility and validity. Cancer 1996;77:22942301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Harrison L, Sessions R, Hong W. Head and Neck Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    DeVita V Jr, Lawrence T, Rosenberg S, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Adelstein DJ, Ridge JA, Brizel DM. Transoral resection of pharyngeal cancer: summary of a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, November 6-7, 2011, Arlington, Virginia. Head Neck 2012;34:16811703.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Arens C. Transoral treatment strategies for head and neck tumors [published online ahead of print December 20, 2012. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;11:Doc05. doi: 10.3205/cto000087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Weinstein GS, O’Malley BW Jr, Magnuson JS. Transoral robotic surgery: a multicenter study to assess feasibility, safety, and surgical margins. Laryngoscope 2012;122:17011707.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Li RJ, Richmon JD. Transoral endoscopic surgery: new surgical techniques for oropharyngeal cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2012;45:823844.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Robbins KT, Shaha AR, Medina JE. Consensus statement on the classification and terminology of neck dissection. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008;134:536538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Byers RM. Neck dissection: concepts, controversies, and technique. Semin Surg Oncol 1991;7:913.

  • 46.

    Stringer SP. Current concepts in surgical management of neck metastases from head and neck cancer. Oncology (Williston Park) 1995;9:547554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Candela FC, Kothari K, Shah JP. Patterns of cervical node metastases from squamous carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx. Head Neck 1990;12:197203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Candela FC, Shah J, Jaques DP, Shah JP. Patterns of cervical node metastases from squamous carcinoma of the larynx. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1990;116:432435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Shah JP, Candela FC, Poddar AK. The patterns of cervical lymph node metastases from squamous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Cancer 1990;66:109113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Silver CE. Elective and therapeutic selective neck dissection. Oral Oncol 2006;42:1425.

  • 51.

    Schmitz S, Machiels JP, Weynand B. Results of selective neck dissection in the primary management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2009;266:437443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Patel RS, Clark J, Wyten R. Squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown head and neck primary site: a “selective treatment” approach. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007;133:12821287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Sivanandan R, Kaplan MJ, Lee KJ. Long-term results of 100 consecutive comprehensive neck dissections: implications for selective neck dissections. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130:13691373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Liauw SL, Mancuso AA, Amdur RJ. Postradiotherapy neck dissection for lymph node-positive head and neck cancer: the use of computed tomography to manage the neck. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:14211427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Porceddu SV, Jarmolowski E, Hicks RJ. Utility of positron emission tomography for the detection of disease in residual neck nodes after (chemo)radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Head Neck 2005;27:175181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Yao M, Smith RB, Hoffman HT. Clinical significance of postradiotherapy [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in management of head-and-neck cancer-a long-term outcome report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Lango MN, Myers JN, Garden AS. Controversies in surgical management of the node-positive neck after chemoradiation. Semin Radiat Oncol 2009;19:2428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Isles MG, McConkey C, Mehanna HM. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of positron emission tomography in the follow up of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma following radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Clin Otolaryngol 2008;33:210222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Corry J, Peters L, Fisher R. N2-N3 neck nodal control without planned neck dissection for clinical/radiologic complete responders-results of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 98.02. Head Neck 2008;30:737742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Lau H, Phan T, Mackinnon J, Matthews TW. Absence of planned neck dissection for the N2-N3 neck after chemoradiation for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008;134:257261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Ong SC, Schoder H, Lee NY. Clinical utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in assessing the neck after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locoregional advanced head and neck cancer. J Nucl Med 2008;49:532540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Nayak JV, Walvekar RR, Andrade RS. Deferring planned neck dissection following chemoradiation for stage IV head and neck cancer: the utility of PET-CT. Laryngoscope 2007;117:21292134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Abgral R, Querellou S, Potard G. Does 18F-FDG PET/CT improve the detection of posttreatment recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in patients negative for disease on clinical follow-up? J Nucl Med 2009;50:2429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Porceddu SV, Pryor DI, Burmeister E. Results of a prospective study of positron emission tomography-directed management of residual nodal abnormalities in node-positive head and neck cancer after definitive radiotherapy with or without systemic therapy. Head Neck 2011;33:16751682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Bernier J, Domenge C, Ozsahin M. Postoperative irradiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;350:19451952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Cooper JS, Pajak TF, Forastiere AA. Postoperative concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 2004;350:19371944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Cooper JS, Zhang Q, Pajak TF. Long-term follow-up of the RTOG 9501/intergroup phase III trial: postoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy in high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;84:11981205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Bernier J, Cooper JS, Pajak TF. Defining risk levels in locally advanced head and neck cancers: a comparative analysis of concurrent postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy trials of the EORTC (#22931) and RTOG (# 9501). Head Neck 2005;27:843850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Bachaud JM, Cohen-Jonathan E, Alzieu C. Combined postoperative radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin infusion for locally advanced head and neck carcinoma: final report of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36:999104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Shah JP, Cendon RA, Farr HW, Strong EW. Carcinoma of the oral cavity. factors affecting treatment failure at the primary site and neck. Am J Surg 1976;132:504507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Looser KG, Shah JP, Strong EW. The significance of “positive” margins in surgically resected epidermoid carcinomas. Head Neck Surg 1978;1:107111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Johnson JT, Barnes EL, Myers EN. The extracapsular spread of tumors in cervical node metastasis. Arch Otolaryngol 1981;107:725729.

  • 73.

    Feldman M, Fletcher GH. Analysis of the parameters relating to failures above the clavicles in patients treated by postoperative irradiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity or oropharynx. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1982;8:2730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Mirimanoff RO, Wang CC, Doppke KP. Combined surgery and postoperative radiation therapy for advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1985;11:499504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Peters LJ, Goepfert H, Ang KK. Evaluation of the dose for postoperative radiation therapy of head and neck cancer: first report of a prospective randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993;26:311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Fu KK, Pajak TF, Trotti A. A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyperfractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: first report of RTOG 9003. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;48:716.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Beitler JJ, Zhang Q, Fu KK. Final results of local-regional control and late toxicity of RTOG 9003: a randomized trial of altered fractionation radiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014;89:1320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Overgaard J, Hansen HS, Specht L. Five compared with six fractions per week of conventional radiotherapy of squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck: DAHANCA 6 and 7 randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362:933940.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Fletcher GH. Textbook of Radiotherapy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1980.

  • 80.

    Northrop M, Fletcher GH, Jesse RH, Lindberg RD. Evolution of neck disease in patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, floor of mouth, and palatine arch, and clinically positive neck nodes neither fixed nor bilateral. Cancer 1972;29:2330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Barkley HT, Fletcher GH. The significance of residual disease after external irradiation of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Radiology 1977;124:493495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Arcangeli G, Friedman M, Paoluzi R. A quantitative study of late radiation effect on normal skin and subcutaneous tissues in human beings. Br J Radiol 1974;47:4450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Andrews JR. Dose-time relationships in cancer radiotherapy. A clinical radiobiology study of extremes of dose and time. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1965;93:5674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Report 62: Prescribing, Recording and Reporting Photon Beam Therapy (Supplement to ICRU Report 50). Bethesda, MD: International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements; 1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Report 83: Prescribing, recording, and reporting intensity-modulated photon beam therapy (IMRT). J ICRU 2010;10:4154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Garden AS, Dong L, Morrison WH. Patterns of disease recurrence following treatment of oropharyngeal cancer with intensity modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013;85:941947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Daly ME, Le QT, Maxim PG. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer: clinical outcomes and patterns of failure. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010;76:13391346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Thames HD Jr, Withers HR, Peters LJ, Fletcher GH. Changes in early and late radiation responses with altered dose fractionation: implications for dose-survival relationships. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1982;8:219226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Withers H, Thames H, Peters L. Differences in the fractionation response of acutely and late-responding tissues In: Kaercher K, Kogelnik H, Reinartz G, eds. Progress in Radio-Oncology II. Vol. 11. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1982:287296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Withers HR, Taylor JM, Maciejewski B. The hazard of accelerated tumor clonogen repopulation during radiotherapy. Acta Oncol 1988;27:131146.

  • 91.

    Harwood AR, Beale FA, Cummings BJ. T4NOMO glottic cancer: an analysis of dose-time volume factors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1981;7:15071512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    Amornmarn R, Prempree T, Viravathana T. A therapeutic approach to early vocal cord carcinoma. Acta Radiol Oncol 1985;24:321325.

  • 93.

    Schwaibold F, Scariato A, Nunno M. The effect of fraction size on control of early glottic cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1988;14:451454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Kim RY, Marks ME, Salter MM. Early-stage glottic cancer: importance of dose fractionation in radiation therapy. Radiology 1992;182:273275.

  • 95.

    Parson J. Time-dose-volume relationships in radiation therapy. In: Million R, Cassisi N, eds. Management of Head and Neck Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1994:203243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    Yamazaki H, Nishiyama K, Tanaka E. Radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma (T1N0M0): results of prospective randomized study of radiation fraction size and overall treatment time. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;64:7782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Yu E, Shenouda G, Beaudet MP, Black MJ. Impact of radiation therapy fraction size on local control of early glottic carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;37:587591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98.

    Horiot JC, Bontemps P, van den Bogaert W. Accelerated fractionation (AF) compared to conventional fractionation (CF) improves loco-regional control in the radiotherapy of advanced head and neck cancers: results of the EORTC 22851 randomized trial. Radiother Oncol 1997;44:111121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    Konski AA, Winter K, Cole BF. Quality-adjusted survival analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 90-03: phase III randomized study comparing altered fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck 2009;31:207212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Bourhis J, Overgaard J, Audry H. Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2006;368:843854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Baujat B, Bourhis J, Blanchard P. Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;12:CD002026.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Bourhis J, Sire C, Graff P. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus acceleration of radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (GORTEC 99-02): an open-label phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:145153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Haigentz M Jr, Corry J, Strojan P, Ferlito A. Easing acceleration of head and neck chemoradiotherapy. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:113115.

  • 104.

    Budach V, Stuschke M, Budach W. Hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiation with concurrent fluorouracil-mitomycin is more effective than dose-escalated hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy alone in locally advanced head and neck cancer: final results of the radiotherapy cooperative clinical trials group of the German Cancer Society 95-06 Prospective Randomized Trial. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:11251135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Budach W, Hehr T, Budach V. A meta-analysis of hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy and combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens in unresected locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. BMC Cancer 2006;6:2828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    Ang KK, Harris J, Wheeler R. Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2435.

  • 107.

    Bensadoun RJ, Benezery K, Dassonville O. French multicenter phase III randomized study testing concurrent twice-a-day radiotherapy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (BiRCF) in unresectable pharyngeal carcinoma: results at 2 years (FNCLCC-GORTEC). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;64:983994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108.

    Brizel DM, Albers ME, Fisher SR. Hyperfractionated irradiation with or without concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 1998;338:17981804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Jeremic B, Shibamoto Y, Milicic B. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy with or without concurrent low-dose daily cisplatin in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:14581464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Ang K, Zhang Q, Wheeler RH. A phase III trial (RTOG 0129) of two radiation-cisplatin regimens for head and neck carcinomas (HNC): impact of radiation and cisplatin intensity on outcome [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2010;28(Suppl 15):Abstract 5507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Denis F, Garaud P, Bardet E. Final results of the 94-01 French Head and Neck Oncology and Radiotherapy Group randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone with concomitant radiochemotherapy in advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:6976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Denis F, Garaud P, Bardet E. Late toxicity results of the GORTEC 94-01 randomized trial comparing radiotherapy with concomitant radiochemotherapy for advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma: comparison of LENT/SOMA, RTOG/EORTC, and NCI-CTC scoring systems. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Bourhis J, Calais G, Lapeyre M. Concomitant radiochemotherapy or accelerated radiotherapy: analysis of two randomized trials of the French Head and Neck Cancer Group (GORTEC). Semin Oncol 2004;31:822826.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Machtay M, Moughan J, Trotti A. Factors associated with severe late toxicity after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer: an RTOG analysis. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:35823589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Hartford AC, Palisca MG, Eichler TJ. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) practice guidelines for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;73:914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116.

    Holmes T, Das R, Low D. American Society of Radiation Oncology recommendations for documenting intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:13111318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Gregoire V, Mackie TR. State of the art on dose prescription, reporting and recording in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (ICRU report No. 83). Cancer Radiother 2011;15:555559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    Wu Q, Manning M, Schmidt-Ullrich R, Mohan R. The potential for sparing of parotids and escalation of biologically effective dose with intensity-modulated radiation treatments of head and neck cancers: a treatment design study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;46:195205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    Chao KS, Majhail N, Huang CJ. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy reduces late salivary toxicity without compromising tumor control in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma: a comparison with conventional techniques. Radiother Oncol 2001;61:275280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    Dogan N, King S, Emami B. Assessment of different IMRT boost delivery methods on target coverage and normal-tissue sparing. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;57:14801491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Li Y, Taylor JM, Ten Haken RK, Eisbruch A. The impact of dose on parotid salivary recovery in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;67:660669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Vergeer MR, Doornaert PA, Rietveld DH. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces radiation-induced morbidity and improves health-related quality of life: results of a nonrandomized prospective study using a standardized follow-up program. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Pow EH, Kwong DL, McMillan AS. Xerostomia and quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: initial report on a randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;66:981991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Kam MK, Leung SF, Zee B. Prospective randomized study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on salivary gland function in early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:48734879.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Pfister D, Cassileth B, Deng G. Acupuncture for pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:25652570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Scarantino C, LeVeque F, Swann RS. Effect of pilocarpine during radiation therapy: results of RTOG 97-09, a phase III randomized study in head and neck cancer patients. J Support Oncol 2006;4:252258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Petrone D, Condemi JJ, Fife R. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of cevimeline in Sjogren’s syndrome patients with xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46:748754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128.

    Gregoire V, Jeraj R, Lee JA, O’Sullivan B. Radiotherapy for head and neck tumours in 2012 and beyond: conformal, tailored, and adaptive? Lancet Oncol 2012;13:e292300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Galvin JM, De Neve W. Intensity modulating and other radiation therapy devices for dose painting. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:924930.

  • 130.

    Lauve A, Morris M, Schmidt-Ullrich R. Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas: II—clinical results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;60:374387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131.

    Schoenfeld GO, Amdur RJ, Morris CG. Patterns of failure and toxicity after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;71:377385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Ang KK, Chen A, Curran WJ Jr. Head and neck carcinoma in the United States: first comprehensive report of the Longitudinal Oncology Registry of Head and Neck Carcinoma (LORHAN). Cancer 2012;118:57835792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Guadagnolo BA, Liu CC, Cormier JN, Du XL. Evaluation of trends in the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer from 2000 through 2005: socioeconomic disparity and geographic variation in a large population-based cohort. Cancer 2010;116:35053512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Chi A, Nguyen NP, Tse W. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for sinonasal malignancies with a focus on optic pathway preservation. J Hematol Oncol 2013;6:4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135.

    Lee NY, de Arruda FF, Puri DR. A comparison of intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;66:966974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136.

    de Arruda FF, Puri DR, Zhung J. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;64:363373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137.

    Garden AS, Morrison WH, Wong PF. Disease-control rates following intensity-modulated radiation therapy for small primary oropharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;67:438444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138.

    Eisbruch A, Levendag PC, Feng FY. Can IMRT or brachytherapy reduce dysphagia associated with chemoradiotherapy of head and neck cancer? The Michigan and Rotterdam experiences. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;69:S4042.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    Wolden SL, Chen WC, Pfister DG. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharynx cancer: update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;64:5762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140.

    Madani I, Bonte K, Vakaet L. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for sinonasal tumors: Ghent University Hospital update. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;73:424432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141.

    Eisbruch A. Reducing xerostomia by IMRT: what may, and may not, be achieved. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:48634864.

  • 142.

    Nutting CM, Morden JP, Harrington KJ. Parotid-sparing intensity modulated versus conventional radiotherapy in head and neck cancer (PARSPORT): a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2011;12:127136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143.

    Hodge CW, Bentzen SM, Wong G. Are we influencing outcome in oropharynx cancer with intensity-modulated radiotherapy? An inter-era comparison. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;69:10321041.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144.

    Veldeman L, Madani I, Hulstaert F. Evidence behind use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy: a systematic review of comparative clinical studies. Lancet Oncol 2008;9:367375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145.

    Turaka A, Li T, Sharma NK. Increased recurrences using intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the postoperative setting. Am J Clin Oncol 2010;33:599603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146.

    Chen AM, Farwell DG, Luu Q. Marginal misses after postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;80:14231429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147.

    Eisbruch A, Marsh LH, Dawson LA. Recurrences near base of skull after IMRT for head-and-neck cancer: implications for target delineation in high neck and for parotid gland sparing. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;59:2842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148.

    Rosenthal DI, Trotti A. Strategies for managing radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol 2009;19:2934.

  • 149.

    Yao M, Lu M, Savvides PS. Distant metastases in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;83:684689.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150.

    Frank SJ, Rosenthal DI, Petsuksiri J. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from unknown head-and-neck primary site: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center outcomes and patterns of failure. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010;78:10051010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151.

    Traynor AM, Richards GM, Hartig GK. Comprehensive IMRT plus weekly cisplatin for advanced head and neck cancer: the University of Wisconsin experience. Head Neck 2010;32:599606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152.

    Sher DJ, Thotakura V, Balboni TA. Treatment of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with adjuvant or definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;81:e215222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153.

    Geretschlager A, Bojaxhiu B, Crowe S. Outcome and patterns of failure after postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced or high-risk oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Radiat Oncol 2012;7:175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154.

    Schoenfeld JD, Sher DJ, Norris CM Jr. Salivary gland tumors treated with adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;82:308314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155.

    Gomez DR, Zhung JE, Gomez J. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in postoperative treatment of oral cavity cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;73:10961103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156.

    Lee NY, O’Meara W, Chan K. Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locoregionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;69:459468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 157.

    Paris KJ, Spanos WJ Jr, Lindberg RD. Phase I-II study of multiple daily fractions for palliation of advanced head and neck malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993;25:657660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158.

    Stevens CM, Huang SH, Fung S. Retrospective study of palliative radiotherapy in newly diagnosed head and neck carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;81:958963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 159.

    Porceddu SV, Rosser B, Burmeister BH. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for the palliation of advanced head and neck cancer in patients unsuitable for curative treatment—“Hypo Trial”. Radiother Oncol 2007;85:456462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160.

    Corry J, Peters LJ, Costa ID. The ‘QUAD SHOT’—a phase II study of palliative radiotherapy for incurable head and neck cancer. Radiother Oncol 2005;77:137142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161.

    Colevas AD, Read R, Thornhill J. Hypothyroidism incidence after multimodality treatment for stage III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;51:599604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162.

    Tell R, Lundell G, Nilsson B. Long-term incidence of hypothyroidism after radiotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;60:395400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 163.

    Posner MR, Ervin TJ, Miller D. Incidence of hypothyroidism following multimodality treatment for advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Laryngoscope 1984;94:451454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164.

    Cousins N, MacAulay F, Lang H. A systematic review of interventions for eating and drinking problems following treatment for head and neck cancer suggests a need to look beyond swallowing and trismus. Oral Oncol 2013;49:387400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165.

    Locher JL, Bonner JA, Carroll WR. Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in treatment of head and neck cancer: a comprehensive review and call for evidence-based medicine. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:365374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 166.

    Langius JA, van Dijk AM, Doornaert P. More than 10% weight loss in head and neck cancer patients during radiotherapy is independently associated with deterioration in quality of life. Nutr Cancer 2013;65:7683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167.

    August DA, Huhmann MB. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: nutrition support therapy during adult anticancer treatment and in hematopoietic cell transplantation. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33:472500.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168.

    Garg S, Yoo J, Winquist E. Nutritional support for head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a systematic review. Support Care Cancer 2010;18:667677.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 169.

    Rabeneck L, McCullough LB, Wray NP. Ethically justified, clinically comprehensive guidelines for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Lancet 1997;349:496498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 170.

    Dysphagia Section, Oral Care Study Group, Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society of Oral Oncology (ISOO) . Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2012;20:433443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 171.

    Wilson JA, Carding PN, Patterson JM. Dysphagia after nonsurgical head and neck cancer treatment: patients’ perspectives. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011;145:767771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 172.

    Tschiesner U. Preservation of organ function in head and neck cancer [published online ahead of print December 20, 2012]. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;11:Doc07. doi: 10.3205/cto000089.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 173.

    Roe JW, Carding PN, Rhys-Evans PH. Assessment and management of dysphagia in patients with head and neck cancer who receive radiotherapy in the United Kingdom—a web-based survey. Oral Oncol 2012;48:343348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 174.

    Russi EG, Corvo R, Merlotti A. Swallowing dysfunction in head and neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy: review and recommendations of the supportive task group of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology. Cancer Treat Rev 2012;38:10331049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 175.

    Cnossen IC, de Bree R, Rinkel RN. Computerized monitoring of patient-reported speech and swallowing problems in head and neck cancer patients in clinical practice. Support Care Cancer 2012;20:29252931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 176.

    Langendijk JA, Doornaert P, Verdonck-de Leeuw IM. Impact of late treatment-related toxicity on quality of life among patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:37703776.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 177.

    Walker MP, Wichman B, Cheng AL. Impact of radiotherapy dose on dentition breakdown in head and neck cancer patients. Pract Radiat Oncol 2011;1:142148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 178.

    Jensen SB, Pedersen AM, Vissink A. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life. Support Care Cancer 2010;18:10391060.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 179.

    Epstein JB, Thariat J, Bensadoun RJ. Oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy: from cancer treatment to survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;62:400422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 180.

    Duarte VM, Liu YF, Rafizadeh S. Comparison of dental health of patients with head and neck cancer receiving IMRT vs conventional radiation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014;150:8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 181.

    Eisbruch A, Ten Haken RK, Kim HM. Dose, volume, and function relationships in parotid salivary glands following conformal and intensity-modulated irradiation of head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;45:577587.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 182.

    Murdoch-Kinch CA, Kim HM, Vineberg KA. Dose-effect relationships for the submandibular salivary glands and implications for their sparing by intensity modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;72:373382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 183.

    Little M, Schipper M, Feng FY. Reducing xerostomia after chemo-IMRT for head-and-neck cancer: beyond sparing the parotid glands. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;83:10071014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 184.

    Chao KS. Protection of salivary function by intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol 2002;12:2025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 185.

    Murdoch-Kinch CA, Zwetchkenbaum S. Dental management of the head and neck cancer patient treated with radiation therapy. J Mich Dent Assoc 2011;93:2837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 186.

    Studer G, Glanzmann C, Studer SP. Risk-adapted dental care prior to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2011;121:216229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 187.

    Ben-David MA, Diamante M, Radawski JD. Lack of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: likely contributions of both dental care and improved dose distributions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;68:396402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 188.

    Schiodt M, Hermund NU. Management of oral disease prior to radiation therapy. Support Care Cancer 2002;10:4043.

  • 189.

    Thariat J, Ramus L, Darcourt V. Compliance with fluoride custom trays in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2012;20:18111814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 190.

    Horiot JC, Bone MC, Ibrahim E, Castro JR. Systematic dental management in head and neck irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1981;7:10251029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 191.

    Sulaiman F, Huryn JM, Zlotolow IM. Dental extractions in the irradiated head and neck patient: a retrospective analysis of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center protocols, criteria, and end results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003;61:11231131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 192.

    Beumer J 3rd, Harrison R, Sanders B, Kurrasch M. Postradiation dental extractions: a review of the literature and a report of 72 episodes. Head Neck Surg 1983;6:581586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 193.

    Chang DT, Sandow PR, Morris CG. Do pre-irradiation dental extractions reduce the risk of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible? Head Neck 2007;29:528536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 194.

    Gomez DR, Estilo CL, Wolden SL. Correlation of osteoradionecrosis and dental events with dosimetric parameters in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;81:e207213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 195.

    Galler C, Epstein JB, Guze KA. The development of osteoradionecrosis from sites of periodontal disease activity: report of 3 cases. J Periodontol 1992;63:310316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 196.

    Lee IJ, Koom WS, Lee CG. Risk factors and dose-effect relationship for mandibular osteoradionecrosis in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;75:10841091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 197.

    O’Dell K, Sinha U. Osteoradionecrosis. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2011;23:455464.

  • 198.

    Gevorgyan A, Wong K, Poon I. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: a case series at a single institution. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013;42:46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 199.

    Jacobson AS, Buchbinder D, Hu K, Urken ML. Paradigm shifts in the management of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. Oral Oncol 2010;46:795801.

  • 200.

    Oh HK, Chambers MS, Martin JW. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: treatment outcomes and factors influencing the progress of osteoradionecrosis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009;67:13781386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 201.

    Rhodus NL, Bereuter J. Clinical evaluation of a commercially available oral moisturizer in relieving signs and symptoms of xerostomia in postirradiation head and neck cancer patients and patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. J Otolaryngol 2000;29:2834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 202.

    Singh ML, Papas AS. Long-term clinical observation of dental caries in salivary hypofunction patients using a supersaturated calcium-phosphate remineralizing rinse. J Clin Dent 2009;20:8792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 203.

    Epstein JB, Schubert MM. Synergistic effect of sialagogues in management of xerostomia after radiation therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1987;64:179182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 204.

    Gorsky M, Epstein JB, Parry J. The efficacy of pilocarpine and bethanechol upon saliva production in cancer patients with hyposalivation following radiation therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;97:190195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 205.

    Johnson JT, Ferretti GA, Nethery WJ. Oral pilocarpine for post-irradiation xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 1993;329:390395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 206.

    Dholam KP, Somani PP, Prabhu SD, Ambre SR. Effectiveness of fluoride varnish application as cariostatic and desensitizing agent in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Int J Dent 2013;2013:824982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 207.

    Epstein JB, van der Meij EH, Lunn R, Stevenson-Moore P. Effects of compliance with fluoride gel application on caries and caries risk in patients after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1996;82:268275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 208.

    Horiot JC, Schraub S, Bone MC. Dental preservation in patients irradiated for head and neck tumours: a 10-year experience with topical fluoride and a randomized trial between two fluoridation methods. Radiother Oncol 1983;1:7782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 209.

    Fleming TJ. Use of topical fluoride by patients receiving cancer therapy. Curr Probl Cancer 1983;7:3741.

  • 210.

    Joyston-Bechal S, Hayes K, Davenport ES, Hardie JM. Caries incidence, mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in irradiated patients during a 12-month preventive programme using chlorhexidine and fluoride. Caries Res 1992;26:384390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 211.

    Shulman DH, Shipman B, Willis FB. Treating trismus with dynamic splinting: a case report. J Oral Sci 2009;51:141144.

  • 212.

    Teguh DN, Levendag PC, Voet P. Trismus in patients with oropharyngeal cancer: relationship with dose in structures of mastication apparatus. Head Neck 2008;30:622630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 213.

    Brunello DL, Mandikos MN. The use of a dynamic opening device in the treatment of radiation induced trismus. Aust Prosthodont J 1995;9:4548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 214.

    Epstein JB, Emerton S, Le ND, Stevenson-Moore P. A double-blind crossover trial of Oral Balance gel and Biotene toothpaste versus placebo in patients with xerostomia following radiation therapy. Oral Oncol 1999;35:132137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 215.

    Papas A, Russell D, Singh M. Caries clinical trial of a remineralising toothpaste in radiation patients. Gerodontology 2008;25:7688.

  • 216.

    Rodel RM, Steiner W, Muller RM. Endoscopic laser surgery of early glottic cancer: involvement of the anterior commissure. Head Neck 2009;31:583592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 217.

    Zouhair A, Azria D, Coucke P. Decreased local control following radiation therapy alone in early-stage glottic carcinoma with anterior commissure extension. Strahlenther Onkol 2004;180:8490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 218.

    Silver CE, Beitler JJ, Shaha AR. Current trends in initial management of laryngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2009;266:13331352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 219.

    Forastiere AA, Zhang Q, Weber RS. Long-term results of RTOG 91-11: a comparison of three nonsurgical treatment strategies to preserve the larynx in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:845852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 220.

    Forastiere AA, Goepfert H, Maor M. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:20912098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 221.

    Induction chemotherapy plus radiation compared with surgery plus radiation in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. The Department of Veterans Affairs Laryngeal Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med 1991;324:16851690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 222.

    Adelstein DJ, Li Y, Adams GL. An intergroup phase III comparison of standard radiation therapy and two schedules of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with unresectable squamous cell head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:9298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 223.

    Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J. Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer: 5-year survival data from a phase 3 randomised trial, and relation between cetuximab-induced rash and survival. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:2128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 224.

    Posner MR, Hershock DM, Blajman CR. Cisplatin and fluorouracil alone or with docetaxel in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 2007;357:17051715.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 225.

    Vermorken JB, Remenar E, van Herpen C. Cisplatin, fluorouracil, and docetaxel in unresectable head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 2007;357:16951704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 226.

    Lo TC, Wiley AL Jr, Ansfield FJ. Combined radiation therapy and 5-fluorouracil for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: a randomized study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1976;126:229235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 227.

    Sanchiz F, Milla A, Torner J. Single fraction per day versus two fractions per day versus radiochemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1990;19:13471350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 228.

    Browman GP, Cripps C, Hodson DI. Placebo-controlled randomized trial of infusional fluorouracil during standard radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:26482653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 229.

    Smid L, Lesnicar H, Zakotnik B. Radiotherapy, combined with simultaneous chemotherapy with mitomycin C and bleomycin for inoperable head and neck cancer—reliminary report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:769775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 230.

    Merlano M, Benasso M, Corvo R. Five-year update of a randomized trial of alternating radiotherapy and chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in treatment of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:583589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 231.

    Wendt TG, Grabenbauer GG, Rodel CM. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in advanced head and neck cancer: a randomized multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:13181324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 232.

    Munro AJ. An overview of randomised controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Br J Cancer 1995;71:8391.

  • 233.

    El-Sayed S, Nelson N. Adjuvant and adjunctive chemotherapy in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. A meta-analysis of prospective and randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:838847.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 234.

    Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C, Designe L. Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy on Head and Neck Cancer. Lancet 2000;355:949955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 235.

    Pignon JP, le Maitre A, Bourhis J. Meta-Analyses of Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer (MACH-NC): an update. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;69:S112114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 236.

    Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J. Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 2006;354:567578.

  • 237.

    Garden AS, Harris J, Vokes EE. Preliminary results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 97-03: a randomized phase II trial of concurrent radiation and chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:28562864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 238.

    Garden AS, Harris J, Vokes EE. Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 97-03—a randomized phase II trial of concurrent radiation and chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck: long-term results and late toxicities [abstract]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;69:S140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 239.

    Fury MG, Pfister DG. Current recommendations for systemic therapy of recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2011;9:681689.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 240.

    Molin Y, Fayette J. Current chemotherapies for recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Anticancer Drugs 2011;22:621625.

  • 241.

    Hoffmann TK. Systemic therapy strategies for head-neck carcinomas: Current status. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;11:Doc03.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 242.

    Price KA, Cohen EE. Current treatment options for metastatic head and neck cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2012;13:3546.

  • 243.

    Jacobs C, Lyman G, Velez-Garcia E. A phase III randomized study comparing cisplatin and fluorouracil as single agents and in combination for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:257263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 244.

    Burtness B, Goldwasser MA, Flood W. Phase III randomized trial of cisplatin plus placebo compared with cisplatin plus cetuximab in metastatic/recurrent head and neck cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:86468654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 245.

    Grau JJ, Caballero M, Verger E. Weekly paclitaxel for platin-resistant stage IV head and neck cancer patients. Acta Otolaryngol 2009;129:12941299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 246.

    Guardiola E, Peyrade F, Chaigneau L. Results of a randomised phase II study comparing docetaxel with methotrexate in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:20712076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 247.

    Catimel G, Verweij J, Mattijssen V. Docetaxel (Taxotere): an active drug for the treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. EORTC Early Clinical Trials Group. Ann Oncol 1994;5:533537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 248.

    Stewart JS, Cohen EE, Licitra L. Phase III study of gefitinib compared with intravenous methotrexate for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [corrected]. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:18641871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 249.

    Forastiere AA, Metch B, Schuller DE. Randomized comparison of cisplatin plus fluorouracil and carboplatin plus fluorouracil versus methotrexate in advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:12451251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 250.

    Haigentz M Jr, Hartl DM, Silver CE. Distant metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Part III. Treatment. Oral Oncol 2012;48:787793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 251.

    Degardin M, Oliveira J, Geoffrois L. An EORTC-ECSG phase II study of vinorelbine in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Ann Oncol 1998;9:11031107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 252.

    Martinez-Trufero J, Isla D, Adansa JC. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment. Br J Cancer 2010;102:16871691.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 253.

    Eschwege F, Sancho-Garnier H, Gerard JP. Ten-year results of randomized trial comparing radiotherapy and concomitant bleomycin to radiotherapy alone in epidermoid carcinomas of the oropharynx: experience of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. NCI Monogr 1988:275278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 254.

    Minatel E, Gigante M, Franchin G. Combined radiotherapy and bleomycin in patients with inoperable head and neck cancer with unfavourable prognostic factors and severe symptoms. Oral Oncol 1998;34:119122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 255.

    Saxman S, Mann B, Canfield