Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer and its treatment. Pain management is an important aspect of oncologic care, and unrelieved pain significantly comprises overall quality of life. These NCCN Guidelines list the principles of management and acknowledge the range of complex decisions faced in the management oncologic pain. In addition to pain assessment techniques, these guidelines provide principles of use, dosing, management of adverse effects, and safe handling procedures of pharmacologic therapies and discuss a multidisciplinary approach for the management of cancer pain.

  • LevyMHChwistekMMehtaRS. Management of chronic pain in cancer survivors. Cancer J2008;14:401409.

  • LevyMHSamuelTA. Management of cancer pain. Semin Oncol2005;32:179193.

  • KochharRLegrandSBWalshD. Opioids in cancer pain: common dosing errors. Oncology (Williston Park)2003;17:571575; discussion 575-576 579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeinsteinSMPortenoyRHarringtonS. UNIPAC 3: Assessment and Treatment of Physical Pain Associated with Life-Limiting Illness. 4th edition. Glenview, Illinois: American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine; 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1.

    MerskeyHBugdukN. Classification of Chronic Pain. Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. 2nd ed.Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 1994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    CohenMZEasleyMKEllisC. Cancer pain management and the JCAHO’s pain standards: an institutional challenge. J Pain Symptom Manage2003;25:519527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    GoudasLCBlochRGialeli-GoudasM. The epidemiology of cancer pain. Cancer Invest2005;23:182190.

  • 4.

    SvendsenKBAndersenSArnasonS. Breakthrough pain in malignant and non-malignant diseases: a review of prevalence, characteristics and mechanisms. Eur J Pain2005;9:195206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    TemelJSGreerJAMuzikanskyA. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med2010;363:733742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    CleelandCSGoninRHatfieldAK. Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. N Engl J Med1994;330:592596.

  • 7.

    MartinLAHagenNA. Neuropathic pain in cancer patients: mechanisms, syndromes, and clinical controversies. J Pain Symptom Manage1997;14:99117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    MercadanteS. Malignant bone pain: pathophysiology and treatment. Pain1997;69:118.

  • 9.

    StjernswardJ. WHO cancer pain relief programme. Cancer Surv1988;7:195208.

  • 10.

    StjernswardJColleauSMVentafriddaV. The World Health Organization Cancer Pain and Palliative Care Program. Past, present, and future. J Pain Symptom Manage1996;12:6572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    CaraceniAWeinsteinSM. Classification of cancer pain syndromes. Oncology (Williston Park)2001;15:16271640.

  • 12.

    HewittDJ. The management of pain in the oncology patient. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am2001;28:819846.

  • 13.

    PortenoyRK. Cancer pain. Epidemiology and syndromes. Cancer1989;63:22982307.

  • 14.

    HicksCLvon BaeyerCLSpaffordPA. The Faces Pain Scale-Revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Pain2001;93:173183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    SerlinRCMendozaTRNakamuraY. When is cancer pain mild, moderate or severe? Grading pain severity by its interference with function. Pain1995;61:277284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    SoetengaDFrankJPellinoTA. Assessment of the validity and reliability of the University of Wisconsin Children’s Hospital Pain scale for Preverbal and Nonverbal Children. Pediatr Nurs1999;25:670676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    WareLJEppsCDHerrKPackardA. Evaluation of the Revised Faces Pain Scale, Verbal Descriptor Scale, Numeric Rating Scale, and Iowa Pain Thermometer in older minority adults. Pain Manag Nurs2006;7:117125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Al-AtiyyatHN. Cultural diversity and cancer pain. J Hosp Palliat Nurs2009;11:154164.

  • 19.

    EzenwaMOAmeringerSWardSESerlinRC. Racial and ethnic disparities in pain management in the United States. J Nurs Scholarsh2006;38:225233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    AkbikHButlerSFBudmanSH. Validation and clinical application of the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP). J Pain Symptom Manage2006;32:287293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    ButlerSFFernandezKBenoitC. Validation of the revised Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP-R). J Pain2008;9:360372.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    WebsterLRWebsterRM. Predicting aberrant behaviors in opioid-treated patients: preliminary validation of the Opioid Risk Tool. Pain Med2005;6:432442.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    PassikSDKirshKL. The interface between pain and drug abuse and the evolution of strategies to optimize pain management while minimizing drug abuse. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol2008;16:400404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    ChouRFanciulloGJFinePG. Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: prediction and identification of aberrant drug-related behaviors: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society and American Academy of Pain Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Pain2009;10:131146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    StewartMBrownJBDonnerA. The impact of patient-centered care on outcomes. J Fam Pract2000;49:796804.

  • 26.

    SyrjalaKLAbramsJRPolissarNL. Patient training in cancer pain management using integrated print and video materials: a multisite randomized controlled trial. Pain2008;135:175186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    American Pain Society. Principles of Analgesic Use in the Treatment of Acute Pain and Cancer Pain. 5th ed.Glenview, IL: American Pain Society; 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    MercadanteSLBerchovichMCasuccioA. A prospective randomized study of corticosteroids as adjuvant drugs to opioids in advanced cancer patients. Am J Hosp Palliat Care2007;24:1319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    PortenoyRKLesageP. Management of cancer pain. Lancet1999;353:16951700.

  • 30.

    MercadanteSArcuriEFerreraP. Alternative treatments of breakthrough pain in patients receiving spinal analgesics for cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage2005;30:485491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    GreenCRAndersonKOBakerTA. The unequal burden of pain: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain. Pain Med2003;4:277294.

  • 32.

    GordonDBPellinoTAMiaskowskiC. A 10-year review of quality improvement monitoring in pain management: recommendations for standardized outcome measures. Pain Manag Nurs2002;3:116130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    SunVCBornemanTFerrellB. Overcoming barriers to cancer pain management: an institutional change model. J Pain Symptom Manage2007;34:359369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    LinCCChouPLWuSL. Long-term effectiveness of a patient and family pain education program on overcoming barriers to management of cancer pain. Pain2006;122:271281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    ChangMCChangYCChiouJF. Overcoming patient-related barriers to cancer pain management for home care patients. A pilot study. Cancer Nurs2002;25:470476.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    KlepstadPKaasaSBorchgrevinkPC. Start of oral morphine to cancer patients: effective serum morphine concentrations and contribution from morphine-6-glucuronide to the analgesia produced by morphine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol2000;55:713719.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    KlepstadPKaasaSSkaugeMBorchgrevinkPC. Pain intensity and side effects during titration of morphine to cancer patients using a fixed schedule dose escalation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand2000;44:656664.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    FoleyKM. The treatment of pain in the patient with cancer. CA Cancer J Clin1986;36:194215.

  • 39.

    ChernyNI. The pharmacologic management of cancer pain. Oncology (Williston Park)2004;18:14991515.

  • 40.

    HanksGWConnoFChernyN. Morphine and alternative opioids in cancer pain: the EAPC recommendations. Br J Cancer2001;84:587593.

  • 41.

    KornickCASantiago-PalmaJKhojainovaN. A safe and effective method for converting cancer patients from intravenous to transdermal fentanyl. Cancer2001;92:30563061.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    PortenoyRKTaylorDMessinaJTremmelL. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of fentanyl buccal tablet for breakthrough pain in opioid-treated patients with cancer. Clin J Pain2006;22:805811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    WeinsteinSMMessinaJXieF. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic cancer pain: a long-term, open-label safety study. Cancer2009;115:25712579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    KleebergURFilbetMZeppetellaG. Fentanyl buccal tablet for breakthrough cancer pain: why titrate?Pain Pract2011;11:185190.

  • 45.

    SrinivasanVWielboDTebbettIR. Analgesic effects of codeine-6-glucuronide after intravenous administration. Eur J Pain1997;1:185190.

  • 46.

    KirchheinerJSchmidtHTzvetkovM. Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolite morphine in ultra-rapid metabolizers due to CYP2D6 duplication. Pharmacogenomics J2007;7:257265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    MurrayAHagenNA. Hydromorphone. J Pain Symptom Manage2005;29(Suppl 5):S5766.

  • 48.

    ThwaitesDMcCannSBroderickP. Hydromorphone neuroexcitation. J Palliat Med2004;7:545550.

  • 49.

    WrightAWMatherLESmithMT. Hydromorphone-3-glucuronide: a more potent neuro-excitant than its structural analogue, morphine-3-glucuronide. Life Sci2001;69:409420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    MercadanteS. Intravenous morphine for management of cancer pain. Lancet Oncol2010;11:484489.

  • 51.

    TiseoPJThalerHTLapinJ. Morphine-6-glucuronide concentrations and opioid-related side effects: a survey in cancer patients. Pain1995;61:4754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    PortenoyRKFoleyKMStulmanJ. Plasma morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide during chronic morphine therapy for cancer pain: plasma profiles, steady-state concentrations and the consequences of renal failure. Pain1991;47:1319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    AndersenGJensenNHChristrupL. Pain, sedation and morphine metabolism in cancer patients during long-term treatment with sustained-release morphine. Palliat Med2002;16:107114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    SmithMT. Neuroexcitatory effects of morphine and hydromorphone: evidence implicating the 3-glucuronide metabolites. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol2000;27:524528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    DavisMPVargaJDickersonD. Normal-release and controlled-release oxycodone: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and controversy. Support Care Cancer2003;11:8492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Ordonez GallegoAGonzalez BaronMEspinosa ArranzE. Oxycodone: a pharmacological and clinical review. Clin Transl Oncol2007;9:298307.

  • 57.

    AdamZPourLKrejciM. Treatment of AL-amyloidosis— results from one clinic and review of published experience with new agents (bortezomib, thalidomide and lenalidomide) in AL-amyloidosis. Vnitr Lek2010;56:190209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    GabrailNYDvergstenCAhdiehH. Establishing the dosage equivalency of oxymorphone extended release and oxycodone controlled release in patients with cancer pain: a randomized controlled study. Curr Med Res Opin2004;20:911918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    SloanP. Review of oral oxymorphone in the management of pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag2008;4:777787.

  • 60.

    DavisMPHomsiJ. The importance of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP2D6 in palliative medicine. Support Care Cancer2001;9:442451.

  • 61.

    MercadanteSCasuccioAFulfaroF. Switching from morphine to methadone to improve analgesia and tolerability in cancer patients: a prospective study. J Clin Oncol2001;19:28982904.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    MorylNSantiago-PalmaJKornickC. Pitfalls of opioid rotation: substituting another opioid for methadone in patients with cancer pain. Pain2002;96:325328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    ParsonsHAde la CruzMEl OstaB. Methadone initiation and rotation in the outpatient setting for patients with cancer pain. Cancer2010;116:520528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    KrantzMJLewkowiezLHaysH. Torsade de pointes associated with very-high-dose methadone. Ann Intern Med2002;137:501504.

  • 65.

    KrantzMJKutinskyIBRobertsonADMehlerPS. Dose-related effects of methadone on QT prolongation in a series of patients with torsade de pointes. Pharmacotherapy2003;23:802805.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    KornickCAKilbornMJSantiago-PalmaJ. QTc interval prolongation associated with intravenous methadone. Pain2003;105:499506.

  • 67.

    ReddySHuiDEl OstaB. The effect of oral methadone on the QTc interval in advanced cancer patients: a prospective pilot study. J Palliat Med2010;13:3338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    RodriguezRFBravoLECastroF. Incidence of weak opioids adverse events in the management of cancer pain: a double-blind comparative trial. J Palliat Med2007;10:5660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    GrondSSablotzkiA. Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet2004;43:879923.

  • 70.

    WadeWESpruillWJ. Tapentadol hydrochloride: a centrally acting oral analgesic. Clin Ther2009;31:28042818.

  • 71.

    HartrickCTRodriguez HernandezJR. Tapentadol for pain: a treatment evaluation. Expert Opin Pharmacother2012;13:283286.

  • 72.

    AfilaloMEtropolskiMSKuperwasserB. Efficacy and safety of tapentadol extended release compared with oxycodone controlled release for the management of moderate to severe chronic pain related to osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase III study. Clin Drug Investig2010;30:489505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    BuynakRShapiroDYOkamotoA. Efficacy and safety of tapentadol extended release for the management of chronic low back pain: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase III study. Expert Opin Pharmacother2010;11:17871804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    SchwartzSEtropolskiMShapiroDY. Safety and efficacy of tapentadol ER in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized-withdrawal, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Med Res Opin2011;27:151162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    MercadanteSPorzioGFerreraP. Tapentadol in cancer pain management: a prospective open-label study. Curr Med Res Opin2012;28:17751779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    PergolizziJVJr.MercadanteSEchaburuAV. The role of transdermal buprenorphine in the treatment of cancer pain: an expert panel consensus. Curr Med Res Opin2009;25:15171528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    JohnsonREFudalaPJPayneR. Buprenorphine: considerations for pain management. J Pain Symptom Manage2005;29:297326.

  • 78.

    BellRFEcclestonCKalsoEA. Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2012;11:CD003351.

  • 79.

    HardyJQuinnSFazekasB. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous ketamine in the management of cancer pain. J Clin Oncol2012;30:36113617.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    BrueraEKimHN. Cancer pain. JAMA2003;290:24762479.

  • 81.

    StevensRAGhaziSM. Routes of opioid analgesic therapy in the management of cancer pain. Cancer Control2000;7:132141.

  • 82.

    HarrisJTSuresh KumarKRajagopalMR. Intravenous morphine for rapid control of severe cancer pain. Palliat Med2003;17:248256.

  • 83.

    ButlerSFBudmanSHFernandezKC. Development and validation of the Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Pain2007;130:144156.

  • 84.

    McNicolEHorowicz-MehlerNFiskRA. Management of opioid side effects in cancer-related and chronic noncancer pain: a systematic review. J Pain2003;4:231256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    MercadanteS. Comments on Wang et al., PAIN, 67 (1996) 407-416. Pain1998;74:106107.

  • 86.

    MercadanteS. Pathophysiology and treatment of opioid-related myoclonus in cancer patients. Pain1998;74:59.

  • 87.

    WilsonRKWeissmanDE. Neuroexcitatory effects of opioids: patient assessment #57. J Palliat Med2004;7:579.

  • 88.

    MorylNCarverAFoleyKM. Pain and palliation. In: HollandJFFreiE eds. Cancer Medicine. 7th ed.Hamilton, ON: BC Decker Inc; 2006:11131124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    MorylNObbensEAOzigboOHKrisMG. Analgesic effect of gefitinib in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. J Support Oncol2006;4:111111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    BoettgerSBreitbartW. Atypical antipsychotics in the management of delirium: a review of the empirical literature. Palliat Support Care2005;3:227237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    BreitbartWMarottaRPlattMM. A double-blind trial of haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and lorazepam in the treatment of delirium in hospitalized AIDS patients. Am J Psychiatry1996;153:231237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    BrueraEBelzileMNeumannC. A double-blind, crossover study of controlled-release metoclopramide and placebo for the chronic nausea and dyspepsia of advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage2000;19:427435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    ChallonerKRMcCarronMMNewtonEJ. Pentazocine (Talwin) intoxication: report of 57 cases. J Emerg Med1990;8:6774.

  • 94.

    KatcherJWalshD. Opioid-induced itching: morphine sulfate and hydromorphone hydrochloride. J Pain Symptom Manage1999;17:7072.

  • 95.

    MarinellaMA. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction complicated by cecal perforation in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. South Med J1997;90:10231026.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    ReissigJERybarczykAM. Pharmacologic treatment of opioid-induced sedation in chronic pain. Ann Pharmacother2005;39:727731.

  • 97.

    TarcatuDTamasdanCMorylNObbensE. Are we still scratching the surface? A case of intractable pruritus following systemic opioid analgesia. J Opioid Manag2007;3:167170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98.

    PrommerE. Modafinil: is it ready for prime time?J Opioid Manag2006;2:130136.

  • 99.

    HawleyPHByeonJJ. A comparison of sennosides-based bowel protocols with and without docusate in hospitalized patients with cancer. J Palliat Med2008;11:575581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    MichnaEBlonskyERSchulmanS. Subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic, nonmalignant pain: a randomized controlled study. J Pain2011;12:554562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    PortenoyRKThomasJMoehl BoatwrightML. Subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness: a double-blind, randomized, parallel group, dose-ranging study. J Pain Symptom Manage2008;35:458468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    ChappellDRehmMConzenP. Methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation in advanced illness. N Engl J Med2008;359:1071; author reply 1071.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Sanz RubialesAdel Valle RiveroML. Methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation in advanced illness. N Engl J Med2008;359:10701071; author reply 1071.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    ThomasJKarverSCooneyGA. Methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation in advanced illness. N Engl J Med2008;358:23322343.

  • 105.

    BrueraESeifertLWatanabeS. Chronic nausea in advanced cancer patients: a retrospective assessment of a metoclopramide-based antiemetic regimen. J Pain Symptom Manage1996;11:147153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    FriedmanJDDello BuonoFA. Opioid antagonists in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation and pruritus. Ann Pharmacother2001;35:8591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    ChamberlainJMKleinBL. A comprehensive review of naloxone for the emergency physician. Am J Emerg Med1994;12:650660.

  • 108.

    GagnonPAllardPMasseBDeSerresM. Delirium in terminal cancer: a prospective study using daily screening, early diagnosis, and continuous monitoring. J Pain Symptom Manage2000;19:412426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    BrueraEMacmillanKHansonJMacDonaldRN. The cognitive effects of the administration of narcotic analgesics in patients with cancer pain. Pain1989;39:1316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    SlatkinNE. Opioid switching and rotation in primary care: implementation and clinical utility. Curr Med Res Opin2009;25:21332150.

  • 111.

    VissersKCBesseKHansG. Opioid rotation in the management of chronic pain: where is the evidence?Pain Pract2010;10:8593.

  • 112.

    NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db81.htm. Accessed July 17 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for Extended-Release and Long-Acting Opioids. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/informationbydrugclass/ucm163647.htm. Accessed July 17 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm111350.htm. Accessed July 17 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    NCCN Resource Tool: Risk Evaluation & Mitigation Strategies (REMS). National Comprehensive Cancer Network Web site. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/rems/default.asp. Accessed July 17 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116.

    LussierDHuskeyAGPortenoyRK. Adjuvant analgesics in cancer pain management. Oncologist2004;9:571591.

  • 117.

    ManfrediPLGonzalesGRSadyR. Neuropathic pain in patients with cancer. J Palliat Care2003;19:115118.

  • 118.

    FinnerupNBSindrupSHJensenTS. The evidence for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Pain2010;150:573581.

  • 119.

    SaartoTWiffenPJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2007:CD005454.

  • 120.

    SaartoTWiffenPJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain: a Cochrane review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry2010;81:13721373.

  • 121.

    AubertRStanekEJYaoJ. Risk of breast cancer recurrence in women initiating tamoxifen with CYP2D6 inhibitors [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl):Abstract CRA508

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    DezentjeVVan BlijderveenNJGelderblomH. Concomitant CYP2D6 inhibitor use and tamoxifen adherence in early-stage breast cancer: a pharmacoepidemiologic study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2009;27(Suppl):Abstract CRA509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    JinYDestaZStearnsV. CYP2D6 genotype, antidepressant use, and tamoxifen metabolism during adjuvant breast cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst2005;97:3039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Johannessen LandmarkC. Antiepileptic drugs in non-epilepsy disorders: relations between mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CNS Drugs2008;22:2747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    BaronRBrunnmullerUBrasserM. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia: open-label, non-comparative, flexible-dose study. Eur J Pain2008;12:850858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Bar AdVWeinsteinGDuttaPR. Gabapentin for the treatment of pain syndrome related to radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Cancer2010;116:42064213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    BennettMI. Effectiveness of antiepileptic or antidepressant drugs when added to opioids for cancer pain: systematic review. Palliat Med2011;25:553559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128.

    FlemingJAO’ConnorBD. Use of lidocaine patches for neuropathic pain in a comprehensive cancer centre. Pain Res Manag2009;14:381388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    GammaitoniARAlvarezNAGalerBS. Safety and tolerability of the lidocaine patch 5%, a targeted peripheral analgesic: a review of the literature. J Clin Pharmacol2003;43:111117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    WooldridgeJEAndersonCMPerryMC. Corticosteroids in advanced cancer. Oncology (Williston Park)2001;15:225234; discussion 234-226.

  • 131.

    StocklerMVardyJPillaiAWarrD. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) improves pain and well-being in people with advanced cancer already receiving a strong opioid regimen: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. J Clin Oncol2004;22:33893394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Pharmacological management of persistent pain in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc2009;57:13311346.

  • 133.

    IsraelFJParkerGCharlesMReymondL. Lack of benefit from paracetamol (acetaminophen) for palliative cancer patients requiring high-dose strong opioids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Pain Symptom Manage2010;39:548554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    BodyJJDielIJLichinitzerM. Oral ibandronate reduces the risk of skeletal complications in breast cancer patients with metastatic bone disease: results from two randomised, placebo-controlled phase III studies. Br J Cancer2004;90:11331137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135.

    BodyJJDielIJBellR. Oral ibandronate improves bone pain and preserves quality of life in patients with skeletal metastases due to breast cancer. Pain2004;111:306312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136.

    CleelandCSBodyJJStopeckA. Pain outcomes in patients with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases: results from a randomized, double-blind study of denosumab and zoledronic acid. Cancer2013;119:832838.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137.

    RosenLSGordonDKaminskiM. Zoledronic acid versus pamidronate in the treatment of skeletal metastases in patients with breast cancer or osteolytic lesions of multiple myeloma: a phase III, double-blind, comparative trial. Cancer J2001;7:377387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138.

    WardleyADavidsonNBarrett-LeeP. Zoledronic acid significantly improves pain scores and quality of life in breast cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomised, crossover study of community vs hospital bisphosphonate administration. Br J Cancer2005;92:18691876.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    MalviyaAGerrandC. Evidence for orthopaedic surgery in the treatment of metastatic bone disease of the extremities: a review article. Palliat Med2012;26:788796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140.

    RaphaelJHesterJAhmedzaiS. Cancer pain: part 2: physical, interventional and complimentary therapies; management in the community; acute, treatment-related and complex cancer pain: a perspective from the British Pain Society endorsed by the UK Association of Palliative Medicine and the Royal College of General Practitioners. Pain Med2010;11:872896.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141.

    PfisterDGCassilethBRDengGE. Acupuncture for pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol2010;28:25652570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142.

    StoelbBLMoltonIRJensenMPPattersonDR. The efficacy of hypnotic analgesia in adults: a review of the literature. Contemp Hypn2009;26:2439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143.

    HuangSTGoodMZauszniewskiJA. The effectiveness of music in relieving pain in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud2010;47:13541362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144.

    KwekkeboomKLCherwinCHLeeJWWantaB. Mind-body treatments for the pain-fatigue-sleep disturbance symptom cluster in persons with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage2010;39:126138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145.

    CassilethBRKeefeFJ. Integrative and behavioral approaches to the treatment of cancer-related neuropathic pain. Oncologist2010;15(Suppl 2):1923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146.

    MontgomeryGHWeltzCRSeltzMBovbjergDH. Brief presurgery hypnosis reduces distress and pain in excisional breast biopsy patients. Int J Clin Exp Hypn2002;50:1732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147.

    KeefeFJAbernethyAPCampbellLC. Psychological approaches to understanding and treating disease-related pain. Annu Rev Psychol2005;56:601630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148.

    Sheinfeld GorinSKrebsPBadrH. Meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions to reduce pain in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol2012;30:539547.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 149.

    PuchalskiCFerrellBViraniR. Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: the report of the Consensus Conference. J Palliat Med2009;12:885904.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150.

    BennettMIBagnallAMJose ClossS. How effective are patient-based educational interventions in the management of cancer pain? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain2009;143:192199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151.

    BroganSJunkinsS. Interventional therapies for the management of cancer pain. J Support Oncol2010;8:5259.

  • 152.

    EidelmanAWhiteTSwarmRA. Interventional therapies for cancer pain management: important adjuvants to systemic analgesics. J Natl Compr Canc Netw2007;5:753760.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153.

    TayWHoKY. The role of interventional therapies in cancer pain management. Ann Acad Med Singapore2009;38:989997.

  • 154.

    WongGYSchroederDRCarnsPE. Effect of neurolytic celiac plexus block on pain relief, quality of life, and survival in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA2004;291:10921099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155.

    GoetzMPCallstromMRCharboneauJW. Percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation of painful metastases involving bone: a multicenter study. J Clin Oncol2004;22:300306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156.

    ArcidiaconoPGCaloriGCarraraS. Celiac plexus block for pancreatic cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2011:CD007519.

  • 157.

    ZhangCLZhangTJGuoYN. Effect of neurolytic celiac plexus block guided by computerized tomography on pancreatic cancer pain. Dig Dis Sci2008;53:856860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158.

    SmithTJStaatsPSDeerT. Randomized clinical trial of an implantable drug delivery system compared with comprehensive medical management for refractory cancer pain: impact on pain, drug-related toxicity, and survival. J Clin Oncol2002;20:40404049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 159.

    DeerTRPragerJLevyR. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference 2012: recommendations for the management of pain by intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Neuromodulation2012;15:436464; discussion 464-436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160.

    RastogiRPatelTSwarmRA. Vertebral augmentation for compression fractures caused by malignant disease. J Natl Compr Canc Netw2010;8:10951102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161.

    TancioniFLorenzettiMANavarriaP. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation in metastatic disease: state of the art. J Support Oncol2011;9:410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162.

    GofeldMBhatiaABurtonAW. Vertebroplasty in the management of painful bony metastases. Curr Pain Headache Rep2009;13:288294.

  • 163.

    BerensonJPflugmacherRJarzemP. Balloon kyphoplasty versus non-surgical fracture management for treatment of painful vertebral body compression fractures in patients with cancer: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol2011;12:225235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164.

    ElerakyMPapanastassiouISetzerM. Balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of metastatic tumors of the upper thoracic spine. J Neurosurg Spine2011;14:372376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165.

    ZouJMeiXGanMYangH. Kyphoplasty for spinal fractures from multiple myeloma. J Surg Oncol2010;102:4347.

  • 166.

    FlaggA2ndMcGreevyKWilliamsK. Spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of cancer-related pain: “back to the origins”. Curr Pain Headache Rep2012;16:343349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167.

    DupuyDELiuDHartfeilD. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of painful osseous metastases: a multicenter American College of Radiology Imaging Network trial. Cancer2010;116:989997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168.

    LutzSBerkLChangE. Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases: an ASTRO evidence-based guideline. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2011;79:965976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 528 528 46
PDF Downloads 141 141 17
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0