Diagnostic Strategies for Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

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Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) frequently occur and are associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Early diagnosis of IFI in these patients facilitates prompt institution of therapy and leads to improved clinical outcomes. This article reviews widely used methodologies for diagnosing IFIs in patients with HM and HSCT recipients. Advantages and limitations of radiologic studies; microbiologic and histopathologic techniques; fungal biomarker assays, including those for galactomannan antigen and β-(1-3)-D-glucan; and molecular assays that are available to establish an early diagnosis of clinically relevant invasive fungal infections are discussed. Recommendations are provided regarding effective use of these methodologies in clinical practice.

Correspondence: Maxim Norkin, MD, PhD, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, PO Box 100278, Gainesville, FL 32610-0278. E-mail: norkinm@ufl.edu
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