These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Cervical Cancer focus on early-stage disease, because it occurs more frequently in the United States. After careful clinical evaluation and staging, the primary treatment of early-stage cervical cancer is either surgery or radiotherapy. These guidelines include fertility-sparing and non-fertility-sparing treatment for those with early-stage disease, which is disease confined to the uterus. A new fertility-sparing algorithm was added for select patients with stage IA and IB1 disease..

  • 1.

    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 2010;60:277300.

  • 2.

    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;62:1029.

  • 3.

    Barnholtz-Sloan J, Patel N, Rollison D. Incidence trends of invasive cervical cancer in the United States by combined race and ethnicity. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20:11291138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Wang SS, Carreon JD, Gomez SL, Devesa SS. Cervical cancer incidence among 6 Asian ethnic groups in the United States, 1996 through 2004. Cancer 2010;116:949956.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Howe HL, Wu X, Ries LA. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2003, featuring cancer among U.S. Hispanic/Latino populations. Cancer 2006;107:17111742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Sherman ME, Wang SS, Carreon J, Devesa SS. Mortality trends for cervical squamous and adenocarcinoma in the United States. Relation to incidence and survival. Cancer 2005;103:12581264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:6990.

  • 8.

    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55:74108.

  • 9.

    Kamangar F, Dores GM, Anderson WF. Patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence across five continents: defining priorities to reduce cancer disparities in different geographic regions of the world. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:21372150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kjaer SK, Frederiksen K, Munk C, Iftner T. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:14781488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Rodriguez AC, Schiffman M, Herrero R. Longitudinal study of human papillomavirus persistence and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3: critical role of duration of infection. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:315324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. Lancet Oncol 2005;6:271278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Ault KA. Effect of prophylactic human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine on risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, and adenocarcinoma in situ: a combined analysis of four randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2007;369:18611868.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med 2007;356:19151927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Arbyn M, Dillner J. Review of current knowledge on HPV vaccination: an appendix to the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. J Clin Virol 2007;38:189197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Rambout L, Hopkins L, Hutton B, Fergusson D. Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomavirus infection and disease in women: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ 2007;177:469479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Comparison of risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 8,097 women with squamous cell carcinoma and 1,374 women with adenocarcinoma from 12 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer 2007;120:885891.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bray F, Loos AH, McCarron P. Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 European countries: changing risk and the effects of screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:677686.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Watson M, Saraiya M, Benard V. Burden of cervical cancer in the United States, 1998-2003. Cancer 2008;113:28552864.

  • 20.

    Bray F, Carstensen B, Moller H. Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:21912199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Wang SS, Sherman ME, Hildesheim A. Cervical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma incidence trends among white women and black women in the United States for 1976-2000. Cancer 2004;100:10351044.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Castellsague X, Diaz M, de Sanjose S. Worldwide human papillomavirus etiology of cervical adenocarcinoma and its cofactors: implications for screening and prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:303315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Sasieni P, Castanon A, Cuzick J. Screening and adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Int J Cancer 2009;125:525529.

  • 24.

    Dahlstrom LA, Ylitalo N, Sundstrom K. Prospective study of human papillomavirus and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer 2010;127:19231930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Amit A, Schink J, Reiss A, Lowenstein L. PET/CT in gynecologic cancer: present applications and future prospects—a clinician’s perspective. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2011;38:121, vii.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Patel S, Liyanage SH, Sahdev A. Imaging of endometrial and cervical cancer. Insights Imaging 2010;1:309328.

  • 27.

    ACOG Practice Bulletin. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical carcinomas. Number 35, May 2002. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2002;78:7991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Gold MA, Tian C, Whitney CW. Surgical versus radiographic determination of para-aortic lymph node metastases before chemoradiation for locally advanced cervical carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Cancer 2008;112:19541963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Monk BJ, Tian C, Rose PG, Lanciano R. Which clinical/pathologic factors matter in the era of chemoradiation as treatment for locally advanced cervical carcinoma? Analysis of two Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trials. Gynecol Oncol 2007;105:427433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Siegel CL, Andreotti RF, Cardenes HR. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® pretreatment planning of invasive cancer of the cervix. J Am Coll Radiol 2012;9:395402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Weinberg L, Rao S, Escobar PF. Robotic surgery in gynecology: an updated systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Int 2011;2011:852061.

  • 32.

    Marnitz S, Kohler C, Roth C. Is there a benefit of pretreatment laparoscopic transperitoneal surgical staging in patients with advanced cervical cancer? Gynecol Oncol 2005;99:536544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Ramirez PT, Slomovitz BM, Soliman PT. Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Gynecol Oncol 2006;102:252255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Abu-Rustum NR, Gemignani ML, Moore K. Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy using the argon-beam coagulator: pilot data and comparison to laparotomy. Gynecol Oncol 2003;91:402409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Chi DS. Laparoscopy in gynecologic malignancies. Oncology (Williston Park) 1999;13:773782.

  • 36.

    Chen Y, Xu H, Li Y. The outcome of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for cervical cancer: a prospective analysis of 295 patients. Ann Surg Oncol 2008;15:28472855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Puntambekar SP, Palep RJ, Puntambekar SS. Laparoscopic total radical hysterectomy by the Pune technique: our experience of 248 cases. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2007;14:682689.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Lowe MP, Chamberlain DH, Kamelle SA. A multi-institutional experience with robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2009;113:191194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Nezhat FR, Datta MS, Liu C. Robotic radical hysterectomy versus total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for treatment of early cervical cancer. JSLS 2008;12:227237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Cantrell LA, Mendivil A, Gehrig PA, Boggess JF. Survival outcomes for women undergoing type III robotic radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: a 3-year experience. Gynecol Oncol 2010;117:260265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Pecorelli S, Zigliani L, Odicino F. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009;105:107108.

  • 42.

    Moore DH. Surgical staging and cervical cancer: after 30 years, have we reached a conclusion? Cancer 2008;112:18741876.

  • 43.

    Pecorelli S. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009;105:103104.

  • 44.

    Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.

  • 45.

    Park JY, Kim EN, Kim DY. Comparison of the validity of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the preoperative evaluation of patients with uterine corpus cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2008;108:486492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Boughanim M, Leboulleux S, Rey A. Histologic results of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical cancer with negative [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans in the para-aortic area. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:25582561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Hricak H, Gatsonis C, Coakley FV. Early invasive cervical cancer: CT and MR imaging in preoperative evaluation ACRIN/GOG comparative study of diagnostic performance and interobserver variability. Radiology 2007;245:491498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Mitchell DG, Snyder B, Coakley F. Early invasive cervical cancer: tumor delineation by magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and clinical examination, verified by pathologic results, in the ACRIN 6651/GOG 183 Intergroup Study. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:56875694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Gaffney DK, Erickson-Wittmann BA, Jhingran A. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® on advanced cervical cancer expert panel on radiation oncology-gynecology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;81:609614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Monk BJ, Tewari KS, Koh WJ. Multimodality therapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma: state of the art and future directions. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:29522965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Gien LT, Beauchemin MC, Thomas G. Adenocarcinoma: a unique cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2010;116:140146.

  • 52.

    Baalbergen A, Veenstra Y, Stalpers LL, Ansink AC. Primary surgery versus primary radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy for early adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD006248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Park JY, Kim DY, Kim JH. Outcomes after radical hysterectomy in patients with early-stage adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix. Br J Cancer 2010;102:16921698.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Wo JY, Viswanathan AN. Impact of radiotherapy on fertility, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes in female cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;73:13041312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Pahisa J, Martinez-Roman S, Martinez-Zamora MA. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition in patients with early cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2008;18:584589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Morice P, Juncker L, Rey A. Ovarian transposition for patients with cervical carcinoma treated by radiosurgical combination. Fertil Steril 2000;74:743748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Landoni F, Maneo A, Colombo A. Randomised study of radical surgery versus radiotherapy for stage Ib-IIa cervical cancer. Lancet 1997;350:535540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Keys HM, Bundy BN, Stehman FB. Cisplatin, radiation, and adjuvant hysterectomy compared with radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1999;340:11541161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Morris M, Eifel PJ, Lu J. Pelvic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy compared with pelvic and para-aortic radiation for high-risk cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 1999;340:11371143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Peters WA, Liu PY, Barrett RJ. Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:16061613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Whitney CW, Sause W, Bundy BN. Randomized comparison of fluorouracil plus cisplatin versus hydroxyurea as an adjunct to radiation therapy in stage IIB-IVA carcinoma of the cervix with negative para-aortic lymph nodes: a Gynecologic Oncology Group and Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:13391348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Rose PG, Bundy BN, Watkins EB. Concurrent cisplatin-based radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 1999;340:11441153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Thomas GM. Improved treatment for cervical cancer: concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. N Engl J Med 1999;340:11981200.

  • 64.

    Chemoradiotherapy for Cervical Cancer Meta-Analysis Collaboration. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 18 randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:58025812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    King M, McConkey C, Latief TN. Improved survival after concurrent weekly cisplatin and radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma with assessment of acute and late side-effects. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2006;18:3845.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Tan LT, Zahra M. Long-term survival and late toxicity after chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer—the Addenbrooke’s experience. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2008;20:358364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Gaffney DK, Du Bois A, Narayan K. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;68:485490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Cetina L, Garcia-Arias A, Uribe MD. Concurrent chemoradiation with carboplatin for elderly, diabetic and hypertensive patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2008;29:608612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Dubay RA, Rose PG, O’Malley DM. Evaluation of concurrent and adjuvant carboplatin with radiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2004;94:121124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Higgins RV, Naumann WR, Hall JB, Haake M. Concurrent carboplatin with pelvic radiation therapy in the primary treatment of cervix cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2003;89:499503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Lorvidhaya V, Chitapanarux I, Sangruchi S. Concurrent mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, and radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix: a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:12261232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Wong LC, Ngan HY, Cheung AN. Chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy in cervical cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:20552060.

  • 73.

    Koliopoulos G, Sotiriadis A, Kyrgiou M. Conservative surgical methods for FIGO stage IA2 squamous cervical carcinoma and their role in preserving women’s fertility. Gynecol Oncol 2004;93:469473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Wright JD, NathavithArana R, Lewin SN. Fertility-conserving surgery for young women with stage IA1 cervical cancer: safety and access. Obstet Gynecol 2010;115:585590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Abu-Rustum NR, Sonoda Y. Fertility-sparing surgery in early-stage cervical cancer: indications and applications. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2010;8:14351438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Bernardini M, Barrett J, Seaward G, Covens A. Pregnancy outcomes in patients after radical trachelectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:13781382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Boss EA, van Golde RJT, Beerendonk CCM, Massuger LFAG. Pregnancy after radical trachelectomy: a real option? Gynecol Oncol 2005;99:152156.

  • 78.

    Plante M, Renaud MC, Hoskins IA, Roy M. Vaginal radical trachelectomy: a valuable fertility-preserving option in the management of early-stage cervical cancer. A series of 50 pregnancies and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 2005;98:310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Marchiole P, Benchaib M, Buenerd A. Oncological safety of laparoscopic-assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy (LARVT or Dargent’s operation): a comparative study with laparoscopic-assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy (LARVH). Gynecol Oncol 2007;106:132141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Shepherd JH, Spencer C, Herod J, Ind TEJ. Radical vaginal trachelectomy as a fertility-sparing procedure in women with early-stage cervical cancer-cumulative pregnancy rate in a series of 123 women. BJOG 2006;113:719724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Landoni F, Zanagnolo V, Lovato-Diaz L. Ovarian metastases in early-stage cervical cancer (IA2-IIA): a multicenter retrospective study of 1965 patients (a Cooperative Task Force study). Int J Gynecol Cancer 2007;17:623628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Shimada M, Kigawa J, Nishimura R. Ovarian metastasis in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 2006;101:234237.

  • 83.

    Small W Jr., Strauss JB, Jhingran A. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® definitive therapy for early-stage cervical cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 2012;35:399405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    Raju SK, Papadopoulos AJ, Montalto SA. Fertility-sparing surgery for early cervical cancer-approach to less radical surgery. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2012;22:311317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Diaz JP, Sonoda Y, Leitao MM. Oncologic outcome of fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy versus radical hysterectomy for stage IB1 cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2008;111:255260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Landoni F, Maneo A, Cormio G. Class II versus class III radical hysterectomy in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer: a prospective randomized study. Gynecol Oncol 2001;80:312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Cormier B, Diaz JP, Shih K. Establishing a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm for the treatment of early cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2011;122:275280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Lecuru F, Mathevet P, Querleu D. Bilateral negative sentinel nodes accurately predict absence of lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer: results of the SENTICOL study. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:16861691.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Bats AS, Buenerd A, Querleu D. Diagnostic value of intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph node in early cervical cancer: a prospective, multicenter study. Gynecol Oncol 2011;123:230235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Lecuru F, Bats A, Mathevet P. Impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy on staging of early cervical cancer: results of a prospective, multicenter study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2009;27(Suppl 18):Abstract CRA5506.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Altgassen C, Hertel H, Brandstadt A. Multicenter validation study of the sentinel lymph node concept in cervical cancer: AGO Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:29432951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    Fader AN, Edwards RP, Cost M. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage cervical cancer: utility of intraoperative versus postoperative assessment. Gynecol Oncol 2008;111:1317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    Selman TJ, Mann C, Zamora J. Diagnostic accuracy of tests for lymph node status in primary cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ 2008;178:855862.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    van de Lande J, Torrenga B, Raijmakers PG. Sentinel lymph node detection in early stage uterine cervix carcinoma: a systematic review. Gynecol Oncol 2007;106:604613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Schneider A. The sentinel concept in patients with cervical cancer. J Surg Oncol 2007;96:337341.

  • 96.

    Pandit-Taskar N, Gemignani ML, Lyall A. Single photon emission computed tomography SPECT-CT improves sentinel node detection and localization in cervical and uterine malignancy. Gynecol Oncol 2010;117:5964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Rotman M, Sedlis A, Piedmonte MR. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: follow-up of a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;65:169176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98.

    Monk BJ, Wang J, Im S. Rethinking the use of radiation and chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy: a clinical-pathologic analysis of a Gynecologic Oncology Group/Southwest Oncology Group/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial. Gynecol Oncol 2005;96:721728.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    Chernofsky MR, Felix JC, Muderspach LI. Influence of quantity of lymph vascular space invasion on time to recurrence in women with early-stage squamous cancer of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol 2006;100:288293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Marchiole P, Buenerd A, Benchaib M. Clinical significance of lympho vascular space involvement and lymph node micrometastases in early-stage cervical cancer: a retrospective case-control surgico-pathological study. Gynecol Oncol 2005;97:727732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Sedlis A, Bundy BN, Rotman MZ. A randomized trial of pelvic radiation therapy versus no further therapy in selected patients with stage IB carcinoma of the cervix after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1999;73:177183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Gong L, Lou JY, Wang P. Clinical evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery in the management of stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012;117:2326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Eddy GL, Bundy BN, Creasman WT. Treatment of (“bulky”) stage IB cervical cancer with or without neoadjuvant vincristine and cisplatin prior to radical hysterectomy and pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenectomy: a phase III trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol 2007;106:362369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Rydzewska L, Tierney J, Vale CL, Symonds PR. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery versus surgery for cervical cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD007406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Salani R, Backes FJ, Fung MF. Posttreatment surveillance and diagnosis of recurrence in women with gynecologic malignancies: Society of Gynecologic Oncologists recommendations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:466478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    Bodurka-Bevers D, Morris M, Eifel PJ. Posttherapy surveillance of women with cervical cancer: an outcomes analysis. Gynecol Oncol 2000;78:187193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Morice P, Deyrolle C, Rey A. Value of routine follow-up procedures for patients with stage I/II cervical cancer treated with combined surgery-radiation therapy. Ann Oncol 2004;15:218223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108.

    Elit L, Fyles AW, Devries MC. Follow-up for women after treatment for cervical cancer: a systematic review. Gynecol Oncol 2009;114:528535.

  • 109.

    Zanagnolo V, Ming L, Gadducci A. Surveillance procedures for patients with cervical carcinoma: a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009;19:194201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Brooks RA, Rader JS, Dehdashti F. Surveillance FDG-PET detection of asymptomatic recurrences in patients with cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2009;112:104109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Schwarz JK, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Grigsby PW. Association of posttherapy positron emission tomography with tumor response and survival in cervical carcinoma. JAMA 2007;298:22892295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Sironi S, Picchio M, Landoni C. Post-therapy surveillance of patients with uterine cancers: value of integrated FDG PET/CT in the detection of recurrence. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2007;34:472479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Chung HH, Jo H, Kang WJ. Clinical impact of integrated PET/CT on the management of suspected cervical cancer recurrence. Gynecol Oncol 2007;104:529534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Wolfson AH, Varia MA, Moore D. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® role of adjuvant therapy in the management of early stage cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2012;125:256262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Chaturvedi AK, Kleinerman RA, Hildesheim A. Second cancers after squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:967973.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116.

    Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Gilbert ES. Second cancers among 104,760 survivors of cervical cancer: evaluation of long-term risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:16341643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Kumar S, Shah JP, Bryant CS. Radiation-associated endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:319325.

  • 118.

    Castells MC, Tennant NM, Sloane DE. Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapy: outcomes and safety of rapid desensitization in 413 cases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;122:574580.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    Lenz HJ. Management and preparedness for infusion and hypersensitivity reactions. Oncologist 2007;12:601609.

  • 120.

    Markman M, Zanotti K, Peterson G. Expanded experience with an intradermal skin test to predict for the presence or absence of carboplatin hypersensitivity. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:46114614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Erickson-Whitmann B, Rownd J, Khater K. Biologic and physical aspects of radiation oncology. In: Barakat R, Markman M, Randall M, eds. Principles and Practice of Gynecology Oncology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:325380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Lim K, Small W Jr, Portelance L. Consensus guidelines for delineation of clinical target volume for intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy for the definitive treatment of cervix cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;79:348355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Loiselle C, Koh WJ. The emerging use of IMRT for treatment of cervical cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2010;8:14251434.

  • 124.

    Beriwal S, Gan GN, Heron DE. Early clinical outcome with concurrent chemotherapy and extended-field, intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;68:166171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Chen MF, Tseng CJ, Tseng CC. Clinical outcome in posthysterectomy cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent cisplatin and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy: comparison with conventional radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;67:14381444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Chen MF, Tseng CJ, Tseng CC. Adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy with intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy after surgery for high-risk, early stage cervical cancer patients. Cancer J 2008;14:200206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Salama JK, Mundt AJ, Roeske J, Mehta N. Preliminary outcome and toxicity report of extended-field, intensity-modulated radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;65:11701176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128.

    Small W, Mell LK, Anderson P. Consensus guidelines for delineation of clinical target volume for intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy in postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;71:428434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Portelance L, Moughan J, Jhingran A. A phase II multi-institutional study of postoperative pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with weekly cisplatin in patients with cervical carcinoma: two year efficacy results of the RTOG 0418 [abstract]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;81:Abstract 5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    Fyles A, Keane TJ, Barton M, Simm J. The effect of treatment duration in the local control of cervix cancer. Radiother Oncol 1992;25:273279.

  • 131.

    Girinsky T, Rey A, Roche B. Overall treatment time in advanced cervical carcinomas: a critical parameter in treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993;27:10511056.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Lanciano RM, Pajak TF, Martz K, Hanks GE. The influence of treatment time on outcome for squamous cell cancer of the uterine cervix treated with radiation: a patterns-of-care study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993;25:391397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Perez CA, Grigsby PW, Castro-Vita H, Lockett MA. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix. I. Impact of prolongation of overall treatment time and timing of brachytherapy on outcome of radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:12751288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Petereit DG, Sarkaria JN, Chappell R. The adverse effect of treatment prolongation in cervical carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:13011307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135.

    Eifel PJ, Levenback C, Wharton JT, Oswald MJ. Time course and incidence of late complications in patients treated with radiation therapy for FIGO stage IB carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:12891300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136.

    Forrest JL, Ackerman I, Barbera L. Patient outcome study of concurrent chemoradiation, external beam radiotherapy, and high-dose rate brachytherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2010;20:10741078.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137.

    Van Calsteren K, Heyns L, De Smet F. Cancer during pregnancy: an analysis of 215 patients emphasizing the obstetrical and the neonatal outcomes. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:683689.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138.

    Fukushima K, Ogawa S, Tsukimori K. Can we diagnose invasive cervical cancer during pregnancy as precise as in nonpregnant women? Maternal and perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated with cervical cancers. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009;19:14391445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    Smith LH, Danielsen B, Allen ME, Cress R. Cancer associated with obstetric delivery: results of linkage with the California cancer registry. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:11281135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140.

    Swenson RE, Goff BA, Koh WJ. Cancer in the pregnant patient. In: Hoskins WJ, Perez CA, Young RC, eds. Principles and Practice of Gynecologic Oncology, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004:12791311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141.

    Sadler L, Sykes P. How little is known about cervical cancer in pregnancy? Ann Oncol 2005;16:341343.

  • 142.

    Morice P, Narducci F, Mathevet P. French recommendations on the management of invasive cervical cancer during pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009;19:16381641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143.

    Sood AK, Sorosky JI. Invasive cervical cancer complicating pregnancy: how to manage the dilemma. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1998;25:343352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144.

    van de Nieuwenhof HP, van Ham MAPC, Lotgering FK, Massuger LFAG. First case of vaginal radical trachelectomy in a pregnant patient. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2008;18:13811385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145.

    Ben-Arie A, Levy R, Lavie O. Conservative treatment of stage IA2 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:11291131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146.

    Abu-Rustum NR, Tal MN, DeLair D. Radical abdominal trachelectomy for stage IB1 cervical cancer at 15-week gestation. Gynecol Oncol 2010;116:151152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147.

    Gurney EP, Blank SV. Postpartum radical trachelectomy for IB1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:e810.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148.

    Chan JK, Berek JS. Impact of the human papilloma vaccine on cervical cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:29752982.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 812 577 28
PDF Downloads 124 78 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0