• 1

    SiegelRNaishadhamDJemalA. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin2012;62:1029.

  • 2

    NazeerTRoJYAmatoRJ. Histologically pure seminoma with elevated alpha-fetoprotein: a clinicopathologic study of ten cases. Oncol Rep1998;5:14251429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    WeissbachLBussar-MaatzRMannK. The value of tumor markers in testicular seminomas. Results of a prospective multicenter study. Eur Urol1997;32:1622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    KimWRosenMALangerJE. US MR imaging correlation in pathologic conditions of the scrotum. Radiographics2007;27:12391253.

  • 5

    KleinEA. Tumor markers in testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am1993;20:6773.

  • 6

    RagniGSomiglianaERestelliL. Sperm banking and rate of assisted reproduction treatment: insights from a 15-year cryopreservation program for male cancer patients. Cancer2003;97:16241629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    SaitoKSuzukiKIwasakiA. Sperm cryopreservation before cancer chemotherapy helps in the emotional battle against cancer. Cancer2005;104:521524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    BrydoyMFossaSDKleppO. Paternity following treatment for testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst2005;97:15801588.

  • 9

    HuygheEMatsudaTDaudinM. Fertility after testicular cancer treatments: results of a large multicenter study. Cancer2004;100:732737.

  • 10

    GordonWJrSiegmundKStanisicTH. A study of reproductive function in patients with seminoma treated with radiotherapy and orchidectomy: (SWOG-8711). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys1997;38:8394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    JonesRHVaseyPA. Part I: testicular cancer--management of early disease. Lancet Oncol2003;4:730737.

  • 12

    FossaSDChenJSchonfeldSJ. Risk of contralateral testicular cancer: a population-based study of 29,515 U.S. men. J Natl Cancer Inst2005;97:10561066.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    International Germ Cell Consensus Classification: a prognostic factor-based staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers. International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. J Clin Oncol1997;15:594603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    LeibovitchLFosterRSKopeckyKKDonohueJP. Improved accuracy of computerized tomography based clinical staging in low stage nonseminomatous germ cell cancer using size criteria of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. J Urol1995;154:17591763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    SeeWAHoxieL. Chest staging in testis cancer patients: imaging modality selection based upon risk assessment as determined by abdominal computerized tomography scan results. J Urol1993;150:874878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    MeadGMFossaSDOliverRT. Randomized trials in 2466 patients with stage I seminoma: patterns of relapse and follow-up. J Natl Cancer Inst2011;103:241249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    GrollRJWardePJewettMA. A comprehensive systematic review of testicular germ cell tumor surveillance. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol2007;64:182197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    AparicioJGarcia del MuroXMarotoP. Multicenter study evaluating a dual policy of postorchiectomy surveillance and selective adjuvant single-agent carboplatin for patients with clinical stage I seminoma. Ann Oncol2003;14:867872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    WardePSpechtLHorwichA. Prognostic factors for relapse in stage I seminoma managed by surveillance: a pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol2002;20:44484452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    ChungPParkerCPanzarellaT. Surveillance in stage I testicular seminoma: risk of late relapse. Can J Urol2002;9:16371640.

  • 21

    von der MaaseHSpechtLJacobsenGK. Surveillance following orchidectomy for stage I seminoma of the testis. Eur J Cancer1993;29A:19311934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    WardePGospodarowiczMKBanerjeeD. Prognostic factors for relapse in stage I testicular seminoma treated with surveillance. J Urol1997;157:17051709; discussion 1709–1710.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    ChungPWDaugaardGTyldesleyS. Prognostic factors for relapse in stage I seminoma managed with surveillance: a validation study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2010;28:Abstract 4535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    ChungPWardeP. Stage I seminoma: adjuvant treatment is effective but is it necessary?J Natl Cancer Inst2011;103:194196.

  • 25

    OliverRTMasonMDMeadGM. Radiotherapy versus single-dose carboplatin in adjuvant treatment of stage I seminoma: a randomised trial. Lancet2005;366:293300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    OliverRTMeadGMRustinGJ. Randomized trial of carboplatin versus radiotherapy for stage I seminoma: mature results on relapse and contralateral testis cancer rates in MRC TE19/EORTC 30982 study (ISRCTN27163214). J Clin Oncol2011;29:957962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    AparicioJGermaJRGarcia del MuroX. Risk-adapted management for patients with clinical stage I seminoma: the Second Spanish Germ Cell Cancer Cooperative Group study. J Clin Oncol2005;23:87178723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    GarmezyBPagliaroLC. Choosing treatment for stage I seminoma: who should get what?Oncology (Williston Park)2009;23:753 759.

  • 29

    JonesWGFossaSDMeadGM. Randomized trial of 30 versus 20 Gy in the adjuvant treatment of stage I testicular seminoma: a report on Medical Research Council Trial TE18, European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 30942 (ISRCTN18525328). J Clin Oncol2005;23:12001208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    FossaSDHorwichARussellJM. Optimal planning target volume for stage I testicular seminoma: a Medical Research Council randomized trial. Medical Research Council Testicular Tumor Working Group. J Clin Oncol1999;17:1146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    DinniwellRChanPCzarnotaG. Pelvic lymph node topography for radiotherapy treatment planning from ferumoxtran-10 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2009;74:844851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    McMahonCJRofskyNMPedrosaI. Lymphatic metastases from pelvic tumors: anatomic classification, characterization, and staging. Radiology2010;254:3146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    MartinJMPanzarellaTZwahlenDR. Evidence-based guidelines for following stage 1 seminoma. Cancer2007;109:22482256.

  • 34

    SouchonRHartmannMKregeS. Interdisciplinary evidence-based recommendations for the follow-up of early stage seminomatous testicular germ cell cancer patients. Strahlenther Onkol2011;187:158166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    TolanSVespriniDJewettMA. No role for routine chest radiography in stage I seminoma surveillance. Eur Urol2010;57:474479.

  • 36

    TRISST (MRC TE24) trial of imaging and schedule in seminoma testis. Available at: http://www.ctu.mrc.ac.uk/plugins/StudyDisplay/protocols/TRISST%20protocol%20version%203%209_MAR10.pdf. Accessed February 24 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    LivseyJETaylorBMobarekN. Patterns of relapse following radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis: implications for follow-up. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)2001;13:296300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    van AsNJGilbertDCMoney-KyrleJ. Evidence-based pragmatic guidelines for the follow-up of testicular cancer: optimising the detection of relapse. Br J Cancer2008;98:18941902.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    ClassenJSchmidbergerHMeisnerC. Radiotherapy for stages IIA/B testicular seminoma: final report of a prospective multicenter clinical trial. J Clin Oncol2003;21:11011106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    PattersonHNormanARMitraSS. Combination carboplatin and radiotherapy in the management of stage II testicular seminoma: comparison with radiotherapy treatment alone. Radiother Oncol2001;59:511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    SchmidbergerHBambergMMeisnerC. Radiotherapy in stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma with reduced portals: a prospective multicenter study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys1997;39:321326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    DettiBLiviLScocciantiS. Management of stage II testicular seminoma over a period of 40 years. Urol Oncol2009;27:534538.

  • 43

    ChooRSandlerHWardeP. Survey of radiation oncologists: practice patterns of the management of stage I seminoma of testis in Canada and a selected group in the United States. Can J Urol2002;9:14791485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    GospodarwiczMKSturgeonJFJewettMA. Early stage and advanced seminoma: role of radiation therapy, surgery, and chemotherapy. Semin Oncol1998;25:160173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    DomontJMassardCPatrikidouA. A risk-adapted strategy of radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy in stage II seminoma. Urol Oncolin press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Garcia-del-MuroXMarotoPGumaJ. Chemotherapy as an alternative to radiotherapy in the treatment of stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: a Spanish Germ Cell Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol2008;26:54165421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    de WitRRobertsJTWilkinsonPM. Equivalence of three or four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy and of a 3- or 5-day schedule in good-prognosis germ cell cancer: a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group and the Medical Research Council. J Clin Oncol2001;19:16291640.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    LoehrerPJSrJohnsonDElsonP. Importance of bleomycin in favorable-prognosis disseminated germ cell tumors: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol1995;13:470476.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    SaxmanSBFinchDGoninREinhornLH. Long-term follow-up of a phase III study of three versus four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in favorable-prognosis germ-cell tumors: the Indian University experience. J Clin Oncol1998;16:702706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50

    BajorinDFSarosdyMFPfisterDG. Randomized trial of etoposide and cisplatin versus etoposide and carboplatin in patients with good-risk germ cell tumors: a multiinstitutional study. J Clin Oncol1993;11:598606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    XiaoHMazumdarMBajorinDF. Long-term follow-up of patients with good-risk germ cell tumors treated with etoposide and cisplatin. J Clin Oncol1997;15:25532558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    KondaguntaGVBacikJBajorinD. Etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic good-risk germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol2005;23:92909294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53

    Tjan-HeijnenVCOosterhofGOde WitRDe MulderPH. Treatment in germ cell tumours: state of the art. Eur J Surg Oncol1997;23:110117.

  • 54

    de WitRLouwerensMde MulderPH. Management of intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer: results of a phase I/II study of Taxol-BEP. Int J Cancer1999;83:831833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    BechererADe SantisMKaranikasG. FDG PET is superior to CT in the prediction of viable tumour in post-chemotherapy seminoma residuals. Eur J Radiol2005;54:284288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56

    HinzSSchraderMKempkensteffenC. The role of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of residual masses after chemotherapy for advanced stage seminoma. J Urol2008;179:936940; discussion 940.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57

    CremeriusUWildbergerJEBorchersH. Does positron emission tomography using 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose improve clinical staging of testicular cancer?–results of a study in 50 patients. Urology1999;54:900904.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    AlbersPBenderHYilmazH. Positron emission tomography in the clinical staging of patients with stage I and II testicular germ cell tumors. Urology1999;53:808811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    SpermonJRDe Geus-OeiLFKiemeneyLA. The role of (18)fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in initial staging and re-staging after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumours. BJU Int2002;89:549556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60

    De SantisMPontJ. The role of positron emission tomography in germ cell cancer. World J Urol2004;22:4146.

  • 61

    De SantisMBechererABokemeyerC. 2-18fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is a reliable predictor for viable tumor in postchemotherapy seminoma: an update of the prospective multicentric SEMPET trial. J Clin Oncol2004;22:10341039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    EhrlichYBramesMJBeckSD. Long-term follow-up of cisplatin combination chemotherapy in patients with disseminated nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: is a postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection needed after complete remission?J Clin Oncol2010;28:531536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63

    KollmannsbergerCDaneshmandSSoA. Management of disseminated nonseminomatous germ cell tumors with risk-based chemotherapy followed by response-guided postchemotherapy surgery. J Clin Oncol2010;28:537542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    KondaguntaGVBacikJSheinfeldJ. Paclitaxel plus ifosfamide followed by high-dose carboplatin plus etoposide in previously treated germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol2007;25:8590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    MillerKDLoehrerPJGoninREinhornLH. Salvage chemotherapy with vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin in recurrent seminoma. J Clin Oncol1997;15:14271431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    LoehrerPJSrLauerRRothBJ. Salvage therapy in recurrent germ cell cancer: ifosfamide and cisplatin plus either vinblastine or etoposide. Ann Intern Med1988;109:540546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    KondaguntaGVBacikJDonadioA. Combination of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin is an effective second-line therapy for patients with relapsed testicular germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol2005;23:65496555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    SchmollHJJordanKHuddartR. Testicular seminoma: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol2010;21(Suppl 5):v140146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    de WitMBrennerWHartmannM. [18F]-FDG-PET in clinical stage I/II non-seminomatous germ cell tumours: results of the German multicentre trial. Ann Oncol2008;19:16191623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    HuddartRAO’DohertyMJPadhaniA. 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the prediction of relapse in patients with high-risk, clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: preliminary report of MRC Trial TE22: the NCRI Testis Tumour Clinical Study Group. J Clin Oncol2007;25:30903095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    SheinfeldJHerrHW. Role of surgery in management of germ cell tumor. Semin Oncol1998;25:203209.

  • 72

    CollsBMHarveyVJSkeltonL. Late results of surveillance of clinical stage I nonseminoma germ cell testicular tumours: 17 years’ experience in a national study in New Zealand. BJU Int1999;83:7682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    ReadGStenningSPCullenMH. Medical Research Council prospective study of surveillance for stage I testicular teratoma. Medical Research Council Testicular Tumors Working Party. J Clin Oncol1992;10:17621768.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    KakiashviliDAnson-CartwrightLSturgeonJF. Non risk-adapted surveillance management for clinical stage I nonseminomatous testis tumors [abstract]. J Urol2007;177:Abstract 835.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    ZunigaAKakiashviliDJewettMA. Surveillance in stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis. BJU Int2009;104:13511356.

  • 76

    OliverRTOngJShamashJ. Long-term follow-up of Anglian Germ Cell Cancer Group surveillance versus patients with stage 1 nonseminoma treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Urology2004;63:556561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    de BruinMJOosterhofGODebruyneFM. Nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for low stage testicular cancer. Br J Urol1993;71:336339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78

    StephensonAJBoslGJMotzerRJ. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer: impact of patient selection factors on outcome. J Clin Oncol2005;23:27812788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    BohlenDBornerMSonntagRW. Long-term results following adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with clinical stage I testicular nonseminomatous malignant germ cell tumors with high risk factors. J Urol1999;161:11481152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    BohlenDBurkhardFCMillsR. Fertility and sexual function following orchiectomy and 2 cycles of chemotherapy for stage I high risk nonseminomatous germ cell cancer. J Urol2001;165:441444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    ChevreauCMazerollesCSoulieM. Long-term efficacy of two cycles of BEP regimen in high-risk stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors with embryonal carcinoma and/or vascular invasion. Eur Urol2004;46:209214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    CullenMHStenningSPParkinsonMC. Short-course adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: a Medical Research Council report. J Clin Oncol1996;14:11061113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83

    OliverRTRajaMAOngJGallagherCJ. Pilot study to evaluate impact of a policy of adjuvant chemotherapy for high risk stage 1 malignant teratoma on overall relapse rate of stage 1 cancer patients. J Urol1992;148:14531455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84

    PontJAlbrechtWPostnerG. Adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ cell cancer: long-term results of a prospective trial. J Clin Oncol1996;14:441448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    StuderUEFeyMFCalderoniA. Adjuvant chemotherapy after orchiectomy in high-risk patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Eur Urol1993;23:444449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    SharirSFosterRSDonohueJPJewettMA. What is the appropriate follow-up after treatment?Semin Urol Oncol1996;14:4553.

  • 87

    StuderUEFeyMFCalderoniA. Adjuvant chemotherapy after orchiectomy in high-risk patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Eur Urol1993;23:444449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    BohlenDBornerMSonntagRW. Long-term results following adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with clinical stage I testicular nonseminomatous malignant germ cell tumors with high risk factors. J Urol1999;161:11481152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89

    PontJAlbrechtWPostnerG. Adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ cell cancer: long-term results of a prospective trial. J Clin Oncol1996;14:441448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90

    ChevreauCMazerollesCSoulieM. Long-term efficacy of two cycles of BEP regimen in high-risk stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors with embryonal carcinoma and/or vascular invasion. Eur Urol2004;46:209214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    MeinardiMTGietemaJAvan der GraafWT. Cardiovascular morbidity in long-term survivors of metastatic testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol2000;18:17251732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    BergerCCBokemeyerCSchneiderM. Secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon and other late vascular complications following chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Eur J Cancer1995;31A:22292238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    StrumbergDBruggeSKornMW. Evaluation of long-term toxicity in patients after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Ann Oncol2002;13:229236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    BokemeyerCBergerCCKuczykMASchmollHJ. Evaluation of long-term toxicity after chemotherapy for testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol1996;14:29232932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    HuddartRANormanAShahidiM. Cardiovascular disease as a long-term complication of treatment for testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol2003;21:15131523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    BajorinDFMotzerRJRodriguezE. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in germ cell tumor patients treated with etoposide-containing chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst1993;85:6062.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97

    AlbersPSienerRKregeS. Randomized phase III trial comparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with one course of bleomycin and etoposide plus cisplatin chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors: AUO Trial AH 01/94 by the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol2008;26:29662972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    CulineSTheodoreCTerrier-LacombeMJDrozJP. Primary chemotherapy in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis and biological disease only after orchiectomy. J Urol1996;155:12961298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    DavisBEHerrHWFairWRBoslGJ. The management of patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis with serologic disease only after orchiectomy. J Urol1994;152:111113; discussion 114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    StephensonAJBoslGJMotzerRJ. Nonrandomized comparison of primary chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage IIA and IIB nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol2007;25:55975602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    WeissbachLBussar-MaatzRFlechtnerH. RPLND or primary chemotherapy in clinical stage IIA/B nonseminomatous germ cell tumors? Results of a prospective multicenter trial including quality of life assessment. Eur Urol2000;37:582594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    DonohueJPThornhillJAFosterRS. Clinical stage B non-seminomatous germ cell testis cancer: the Indiana University experience (1965-1989) using routine primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Eur J Cancer1995;31A:15991604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    PizzocaroG. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical stage IIA and IIB nonseminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis. Int J Androl1987;10:269275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    CulineSTheodoreCCourtBH. Evaluation of primary standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy for clinical stage II non-seminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis. Br J Urol1997;79:258262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    RabbaniFSheinfeldJFarivar-MohseniH. Low-volume nodal metastases detected at retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for testicular cancer: pattern and prognostic factors for relapse. J Clin Oncol2001;19:20202025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    StephensonAJBoslGJBajorinDF. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with low stage testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance and/or lymphovascular invasion. J Urol2005;174:557560; discussion 560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107

    CarverBSShayeganBEggenerS. Incidence of metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor outside the boundaries of a modified postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Clin Oncol2007;25:43654369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108

    WilliamsSDStableinDMEinhornLH. Immediate adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation with treatment at relapse in pathological stage II testicular cancer. N Engl J Med1987;317:14331438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109

    SheinfeldJMotzerRJRabbaniF. Incidence and clinical outcome of patients with teratoma in the retroperitoneum following primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stages I and IIA nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. J Urol2003;170:11591162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110

    VogelzangNJFraleyEELangePH. Stage II nonseminomatous testicular cancer: a 10-year experience. J Clin Oncol1983;1:171178.

  • 111

    BehniaMFosterREinhornLH. Adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin in pathological stage II non-seminomatous testicular cancer. The Indiana University experience. Eur J Cancer2000;36:472475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112

    KondaguntaGVSheinfeldJMazumdarM. Relapse-free and overall survival in patients with pathologic stage II nonseminomatous germ cell cancer treated with etoposide and cisplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2004;22:464467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113

    MotzerRJSheinfeldJMazumdarM. Etoposide and cisplatin adjuvant therapy for patients with pathologic stage II germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol1995;13:27002704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    DonohueJPThornhillJAFosterRS. The role of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in clinical stage B testis cancer: the Indiana University experience (1965 to 1989). J Urol1995;153:8589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115

    HartlappJHWeissbachLBussar-MaatzR. Adjuvant chemotherapy in nonseminomatous testicular tumour stage II. Int J Androl1987;10:277284.

  • 116

    HorwichANormanAFisherC. Primary chemotherapy for stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. J Urol1994;151:7277.

  • 117

    LogothetisCJSwansonDADexeusF. Primary chemotherapy for clinical stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: a follow-up of 50 patients. J Clin Oncol1987;5:906911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118

    SternbergCN. Role of primary chemotherapy in stage I and low-volume stage II nonseminomatous germ-cell testis tumors. Urol Clin North Am1993;20:93109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119

    BoslGJGellerNLBajorinD. A randomized trial of etoposide + cisplatin versus vinblastine + bleomycin + cisplatin + cyclophosphamide + dactinomycin in patients with good-prognosis germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol1988;6:12311238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120

    WilliamsSDBirchREinhornLH. Treatment of disseminated germ-cell tumors with cisplatin, bleomycin, and either vinblastine or etoposide. N Engl J Med1987;316:14351440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121

    EinhornLHWilliamsSDLoehrerPJ. Evaluation of optimal duration of chemotherapy in favorable-prognosis disseminated germ cell tumors: a Southeastern Cancer Study Group protocol. J Clin Oncol1989;7:387391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122

    de WitRStoterGKayeSB. Importance of bleomycin in combination chemotherapy for good-prognosis testicular nonseminoma: a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol1997;15:18371843.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123

    HorwichASleijferDTFossaSD. Randomized trial of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin compared with bleomycin, etoposide, and carboplatin in good-prognosis metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a Multiinstitutional Medical Research Council/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial. J Clin Oncol1997;15:18441852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124

    JonesRHVaseyPA. Part II: testicular cancer: management of advanced disease. Lancet Oncol2003;4:738747.

  • 125

    de WitRStoterGSleijferDT. Four cycles of BEP vs four cycles of VIP in patients with intermediate-prognosis metastatic testicular non-seminoma: a randomized study of the EORTC Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Br J Cancer1998;78:828832.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126

    FrohlichMWSmallEJ. Stage II nonseminomatous testis cancer: the roles of primary and adjuvant chemotherapy. Urol Clin North Am1998;25:451459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127

    NicholsCRCatalanoPJCrawfordED. Randomized comparison of cisplatin and etoposide and either bleomycin or ifosfamide in treatment of advanced disseminated germ cell tumors: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Southwest Oncology Group, and Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. J Clin Oncol1998;16:12871293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128

    TonerGCPanicekDMHeelanRT. Adjunctive surgery after chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: recommendations for patient selection. J Clin Oncol1990;8:16831694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129

    KuczykMMachtensSStiefCJonasU. Management of the post-chemotherapy residual mass in patients with advanced stage non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). Int J Cancer1999;83:852855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130

    HartmannJTSchmollHJKuczykMA. Postchemotherapy resections of residual masses from metastatic non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. Ann Oncol1997;8:531538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131

    MotzerRJGellerNLTanCC. Salvage chemotherapy for patients with germ cell tumors. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience (1979-1989). Cancer1991;67:13051310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132

    EinhornLHWilliamsSDChamnessA. High-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue for metastatic germ-cell tumors. N Engl J Med2007;357:340348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133

    LorchABeyerJBascoul-MolleviC. Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2010;28:49064911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134

    LoehrerPJSrGoninRNicholsCR. Vinblastine plus ifosfamide plus cisplatin as initial salvage therapy in recurrent germ cell tumor. J Clin Oncol1998;16:25002504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135

    LorchARickOWundischT. High dose chemotherapy as salvage treatment for unresectable late relapse germ cell tumors. J Urol2010;184:168173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136

    LorchANeubauerAHackenthalM. High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) as second-salvage treatment in patients with multiple relapsed or refractory germ-cell tumors. Ann Oncol2010;21:820825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137

    MotzerRJBoslGJ. High-dose chemotherapy for resistant germ cell tumors: recent advances and future directions. J Natl Cancer Inst1992;84:17031709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138

    FeldmanDRSheinfeldJBajorinDF. TI-CE high-dose chemotherapy for patients with previously treated germ cell tumors: results and prognostic factor analysis. J Clin Oncol2010;28:17061713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139

    WoodDPJrHerrHWMotzerRJ. Surgical resection of solitary metastases after chemotherapy in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors and elevated serum tumor markers. Cancer1992;70:23542357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140

    De GiorgiURostiGAietaM. Phase II study of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine salvage chemotherapy in patients with cisplatin-refractory nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. Eur Urol2006;50:10321038; discussion 1038–1039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141

    KollmannsbergerCBeyerJLierschR. Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin in patients with intensively pretreated or refractory germ cell cancer: a study of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol2004;22:108114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142

    PectasidesDPectasidesMFarmakisD. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) in patients with cisplatin-refractory germ cell tumors: a phase II study. Ann Oncol2004;15:493497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143

    BokemeyerCOechsleKHoneckerF. Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel in patients with cisplatin-refractory or multiply relapsed germ-cell tumors: a study of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. Ann Oncol2008;19:448453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144

    EinhornLHBramesMJJuliarBWilliamsSD. Phase II study of paclitaxel plus gemcitabine salvage chemotherapy for germ cell tumors after progression following high-dose chemotherapy with tandem transplant. J Clin Oncol2007;25:513516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145

    MulherinBPBramesMJEinhornLH. Long-term survival with paclitaxel and gemcitabine for germ cell tumors after progression following high-dose chemotherapy with tandem transplants [abstract]. J Clin Oncol2011;29:Abstract 4562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146

    FossaSDBokemeyerCGerlA. Treatment outcome of patients with brain metastases from malignant germ cell tumors. Cancer1999;85:988997.

  • 147

    BokemeyerCNowakPHauptA. Treatment of brain metastases in patients with testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol1997;15:14491454.

  • 148

    HartmannJBambergMAlbersP. Multidiciplinary treatment and prognosis of patients with central nervous metastases (CNS) from testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) origin [abstract]. Proc Ann Soc Clin Oncol2003;22:400.Abstract 1607.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 269 269 13
PDF Downloads 32 32 4
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0