Overview

Mesothelioma is a rare cancer that is estimated to occur in approximately 2500 people in the United States every year.1,2 These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) focus on malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), which is the most common type; mesothelioma can also occur in other sites (e.g., peritoneum, pericardium, tunica vaginalis testis). The disease is difficult to treat;

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus

Category 1: Based upon high-level evidence, there is uniform NCCN consensus that the intervention is appropriate.

Category 2A: Based upon lower-level evidence, there is uniform NCCN consensus that the intervention is appropriate.

Category 2B: Based upon lower-level evidence, there is NCCN consensus that the intervention is appropriate.

Category 3: Based upon any level of evidence, there is major NCCN disagreement that the intervention is appropriate.

All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise noted.

Clinical trials: NCCN believes that the best management for any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged. median overall survival is only approximately 1 year. MPM occurs mainly in older men (median age, 72 years) who have been exposed to asbestos, although it occurs decades after exposure (20-40 years later).3,4

The incidence of MPM is leveling off in the United States, because asbestos use has decreased since the 1970s; however, the United States still has more cases than anywhere else in the world.5,6 Although asbestos is no longer mined in the United States, it is still imported.6 The incidence of MPM is increasing in other countries, such as Russia, Western Europe, China, and India.1,5,7-11 Mortality rates from MPM are highest in the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Australia, and are increasing in several other countries, such as Japan, Argentina, and Brazil.7 Although most mesothelioma is linked to asbestos exposure, reports suggest that it may also be caused by radiotherapy,12-16 and recent data suggest that erionite (a mineral that may be found in gravel roads) is associated with the disease.17 Genetic factors may also play a role in MPM.18

The histologic subtypes of mesothelioma include epithelioid (most common); biphasic or mixed; and sarcomatoid.2 Patients with epithelioid histology have better outcomes than those with either mixed (biphasic) or sarcomatoid histologies. Some patients who have been exposed to asbestos only have benign pleural disease, although they may have significant chest pain.19,20 Although screening for mesothelioma has been studied in high-risk patients (i.e., those with asbestos exposure), these guidelines do not currently recommend screening for MPM.21-23 Note that the recent results about screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography do not apply to malignant mesothelioma.24 The NCCN Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer panel developed this guideline for MPM in 2010.

F1NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Version 2:2012

Version 2.2012, 10-04-11 ©2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®

Citation: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network J Natl Compr Canc Netw 10, 1; 10.6004/jnccn.2012.0006

F2NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Version 2:2012

Version 2.2012, 10-04-11 ©2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®.

Citation: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network J Natl Compr Canc Netw 10, 1; 10.6004/jnccn.2012.0006

F3NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Version 2:2012

Version 2.2012, 10-04-11 ©2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®.

Citation: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network J Natl Compr Canc Netw 10, 1; 10.6004/jnccn.2012.0006

Diagnosis

Patients with suspected MPM often have symptoms (e.g., dyspnea and chest pain) and can also have pleural effusion, cough, chest wall mass, weight loss, fever, and sweating.25 In patients with recurrent pleural effusion and/or pleural thickening, the recommended initial evaluation for suspected MPM includes 1) CT of the chest with contrast, 2) thoracentesis for cytologic assessment, and 3) pleural biopsy (e.g., thoracoscopic biopsy [preferred]; see Initial Evaluation, page 28).26,27 However, cytologic samples are often negative even when patients have MPM. Talc pleurodesis or pleural catheter may be needed for management of pleural effusion.28-31 Serum mesothelin-related peptide levels may also be assessed, and these levels may correlate with disease status32-34; osteopontin does not seem to be as useful for diagnosis.35-39

It can be difficult to distinguish malignant from benign pleural disease and also to distinguish MPM from other malignancies, such as metastatic adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, or other metastases to the pleura.8,40,41 On CT, thymoma can mimic MPM; however, pleural effusion does not typically occur with thymoma. Diagnosis is difficult, because cytologic samples of pleural fluid are often negative.42 Calretinin, WT1, D240, and cytokeratin 5/6 are useful immunohistochemical markers for diagnosing MPM, as are markers that typically are positive in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and negative in mesothelioma (e.g., thyroid transcription factor 1, carcinoembryonic antigen; see also the College of American Pathologists' Protocol for the Examination of Specimens from Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma at http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/committees/cancer/cancer_protocols/2011/Mesothelioma_11protocol.pdf).40

Management

These guidelines recommend that patients with MPM be managed by a multidisciplinary team with experience in MPM. Treatment options for patients with MPM include surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy2; select patients (clinical stages I-III, medically operable, good performance status) are candidates for multimodality therapy.43-47 Definitive radiotherapy alone is not recommended for unresectable MPM (see the algorithm).48,49 Appropriate patients should be evaluated by radiation oncologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, diagnostic imaging specialists, and pulmonologists to assess whether they are candidates for multimodality treatment.

Pretreatment evaluation for patients diagnosed with MPM is performed to stage patients and assess whether they are candidates for surgery. This evaluation includes chest and abdominal CT with contrast and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT. Video-assisted thoracic surgery can be considered if contralateral disease is suspected. If possible, PET/CT scans should be obtained before pleurodesis, because talc causes pleural inflammation, which can affect the FDG avidity (i.e., false-positive result).50-52 If surgical resection is being considered, mediastinoscopy or endobronchial ultrasonography fine-needle aspiration of the mediastinal lymph nodes is recommended.53,54 The following tests may be performed if suggested by imaging: 1) laparoscopy to rule out transdiaphragmatic extension (e.g., extension to the peritoneum indicates stage IV [unresectable] disease) and 2) chest MRI.

Staging is performed using the International Mesothelioma Interest Group TNM staging system, which was approved by the American Joint Committee on Cancer.55 Most patients have advanced disease at presentation. Accurately staging patients before surgery is difficult, and understaging is common with PET/CT.52,56 However, PET/CT is useful for determining whether metastatic disease is present.56,57 Patients with clinical stage I through III MPM can be evaluated for surgery using pulmonary function tests, perfusion scanning (if FEV1 < 80%), and cardiac stress tests (see Surgical Evaluation, page 29). Surgical resection is recommended for patients with clinical stage I through III MPM who are medically operable and can tolerate the surgery. Trimodality therapy (i.e., chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy) is recommended for patients with clinical stages I through III MPM who are medically operable. Chemotherapy alone is recommended for those who are not operable, those with clinical stage IV MPM, or those with sarcomatoid histology (see Chemotherapy, page 31).

Pleural effusion can be managed using thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis or placement of a drainage catheter.31,58-60 Therapeutic thoracentesis can also be used to remove pleural fluid and thus decrease dyspnea either before treatment or in patients who are not candidates for more aggressive treatment.

Surgery

Patients must undergo a careful assessment before surgery. Surgical resection for patients with MPM can include either pleurectomy/decortication (P/D; also known as total pleurectomy and lung-sparing surgery), which is complete removal of the involved pleura and all gross tumor; or extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), which is enbloc resection of the involved pleura, lung, ipsilateral diaphragm, and often the pericardium (see Principles of Surgical Resection, page 31).61 Radical (or extended) P/D refers to the resection of the diaphragm and pericardium in addition to total pleurectomy.61 Mediastinal nodal dissection is recommended in patients having either P/D or EPP. In medically operable patients, the decision whether to perform a P/D or an EPP may not be made until surgical exploration.

The choice of surgery for MPM is controversial, because data from randomized controlled trials are not available.2,62-65 EPP often would be required to remove all gross tumor in patients with stages II through III MPM.25 In addition, neither EPP nor P/D will yield an R0 resection.2,66 However, EPP is associated with higher morbidity and mortality; therefore, P/D (i.e., lung-preserving surgery) may be a better option for some patients.67-72 A retrospective analysis (N = 663) found that the type of surgery did not affect survival regardless of whether patients had early-stage or advanced-stage disease.2,69 In addition, because data from randomized trials are not available, surgery has not been shown to improve survival when compared with systemic therapy.64

A recent feasibility trial (Mesothelioma and Radical Surgery [MARS]) in 50 patients assessed whether EPP improves survival when compared with chemotherapy treatment alone.73,74 Results suggest that EPP is not beneficial and is associated with morbidity when compared with chemotherapy.73,75 However, a retrospective study (N = 540) reported that several factors yielded increased survival for select patients, including EPP, surgeon experience, and pemetrexed.76 The NCCN Guidelines panel and other clinicians recommend EPP for select good-risk patients (i.e., good performance status, absence of comorbidities) but not for those with comorbid conditions.62,77

For patients with operable early-stage disease (confined to the pleural envelope [stage I], no N2 lymph node involvement), EPP may be the best option for those with favorable histology (i.e., epithelioid), good performance status, and no comorbidities.47,69,70,78 PD may be a better choice for those with operable advanced disease (stages II-III), mixed (biphasic) histology, and/or high-risk factors (poor performance status, comorbidities).79 The NCCN Guidelines panel does not recommend surgery for patients with stage IV MPM or sarcomatoid histology; chemotherapy is recommended for these patients (see next section and Clinical Assessment, page 29).

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is recommended either alone for patients with medically inoperable MPM, or as part of a regimen for those with medically operable MPM (see Principles of Chemotherapy, page 31, for specific regimens). Patients with medically operable stage I through III MPM can receive chemotherapy either before or after surgery. Chemotherapy alone is recommended for patients with medically inoperable stages I through IV MPM and those with sarcomatoid histology.80,81

A combined first-line regimen using cisplatin and pemetrexed (category 1) is considered the gold standard for MPM, and is currently the only regimen approved by the FDA for malignant mesothelioma.82,83 A phase III randomized trial assessed cisplatin/pemetrexed versus cisplatin alone in patients who were not candidates for surgery; the combined regimen increased survival when compared with cisplatin alone (12.1 vs. 9.3 months; P = .02).82 Other acceptable first-line combination chemotherapy options recommended by NCCN include pemetrexed and carboplatin, which was assessed in 3 large phase II studies (median survival, 12.7, 14, and 14 months, respectively),84-86 or gemcitabine and cisplatin, which was also assessed in phase II studies (median survival, 9.6-11.2 months).87,88 Gemcitabine and cisplatin may be useful for patients who cannot take pemetrexed. A comparison of 1704 patients with medically inoperable MPM treated with cisplatin/pemetrexed or carboplatin/pemetrexed as part of an expanded access trial found that outcomes with the regimens were similar.89 The carboplatin/pemetrexed regimen is a better choice for patients with poor performance status and/or comorbidities.

Acceptable first-line single-agent options include pemetrexed or vinorelbine.90-92 Second-line chemotherapy options include pemetrexed (if not administered first-line), vinorelbine, or gemcitabine.93-95 Limited data are available to guide second-line therapy.96

Recently, trimodality therapy using chemotherapy, surgery, and hemithoracic radiotherapy has been used in patients with MPM,43-46 with a median survival of up to 29 months reported.44 Nodal status and response to chemotherapy can affect survival.44,47 A small retrospective series showed that trimodality therapy using EPP did not improve survival over therapy without EPP.66

Radiation Therapy

The principles of radiation therapy are described in the algorithm (pages 32 and 33) and are summarized here; the algorithm in the NCCN Guidelines for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer is also a useful resource (available at www.NCCN.org). In patients with MPM, radiotherapy can be used as part of a multimodality regimen; however, radiotherapy alone is not recommended (see next paragraph). Radiotherapy can also be used as palliative therapy for relief of chest pain or metastases in bone or brain (see also the NCCN Guidelines for Central Nervous System Cancers, available at www.NCCN.org).48 The dose of radiation should be based on the purpose of treatment. The most appropriate timing for delivering radiotherapy (i.e., after surgical intervention, with or without chemotherapy) should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team.

After EPP, adjuvant radiotherapy has been shown to significantly reduce the local recurrence rate.97,98 Patients who are candidates for radiotherapy have good performance status, pulmonary function, and kidney function (see Principles of Radiation Therapy, pages 32 and 33). However, in patients who have limited or no resection of disease (i.e., in the setting of an intact lung), highdose radiotherapy to the entire hemithorax has not been shown to improve survival, and the toxicity is significant.48 Radiotherapy can also be used to prevent instrument-tract recurrence after pleural intervention.45,66,98-101

CT simulation-guided planning with conventional photon/electron radiotherapy is recommended. The clinical target volumes should be reviewed with the thoracic surgeon to ensure coverage of all volumes at risk. The total doses of radiation are described in the algorithm (see Principles of Radiation Therapy, pages 32 and 33). A dose of 60 Gy or more should be delivered to macroscopic residual tumors, if the doses to normal adjacent structures are limited to their tolerances (see the NCCN Guidelines for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer). In addition to covering the surgical bed within the thorax, the volume of postoperative radiation should also include the surgical scars and biopsy tracks in the chest wall,102-104 although this is controversial.105-107

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows a more conformal high-dose radiotherapy and improved coverage to the hemithorax at risk.48,108 The NCI/ASTRO IMRT guidelines are recommended (http://www.astro.org/Research/ResearchHighlights/documents/Imrt.pdf). The ICRU83 (International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements Report 83) guidelines are also useful (http://www.icru.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=171). Radiation to the contralateral lung should be minimized,48,108,109 because the risk of fatal pneumonitis with IMRT is excessively high if strict limits are not applied.110-112 The mean lung dose should be kept as low as possible, preferably less than 8.5 Gy. The volume of contralateral lung receiving low-dose radiotherapy (e.g., 5 Gy) should be minimized.113 For patients with chest pain from mesothelioma, total doses of 20 to 40 Gy seem to be effective in relieving pain102,103; however, the optimal dose of radiotherapy for palliative purposes remains unclear.114

Individual Disclosures of the NCCN Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Panel

T1

References

  • 1

    PriceBWareA. Time trend of mesothelioma incidence in the United States and projection of future cases: an update based on SEER data for 1973 through 2005. Crit Rev Toxicol2009;39:576-588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    TsaoASWistubaIRothJAKindlerHL. Malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2009;27:2081-2090.

  • 3

    LanphearBPBuncherCR. Latent period for malignant mesothelioma of occupational origin. J Occup Med1992;34:718-721.

  • 4

    SelikoffIJHammondECSeidmanH. Latency of asbestos disease among insulation workers in the United States and Canada. Cancer1980;46:2736-2740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    ParkEKTakahashiKHoshuyamaT. Global magnitude of reported and unreported mesothelioma. Environ Health Perspect2011;119:514-518.

  • 6

    Malignant mesothelioma mortality—United States, 1999-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep2009;58:393-396.

  • 7

    NishikawaKTakahashiKKarjalainenA. Recent mortality from pleural mesothelioma, historical patterns of asbestos use, and adoption of bans: a global assessment. Environ Health Perspect2008;116:1675-1680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    LarsonTMelnikovaNDavisSIJamisonP. Incidence and descriptive epidemiology of mesothelioma in the United States, 1999-2002. Int J Occup Environ Health2007;13:398-403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    PriceBWareA. Mesothelioma trends in the United States: an update based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data for 1973 through 2003. Am J Epidemiol2004;159:107-112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    PetoJDecarliALa VecchiaC. The European mesothelioma epidemic. Br J Cancer1999;79:666-672.

  • 11

    LeighJDavidsonPHendrieLBerryD. Malignant mesothelioma in Australia, 1945-2000. Am J Ind Med2002;41:188-201.

  • 12

    TravisLBFossaSDSchonfeldSJ. Second cancers among 40,576 testicular cancer patients: focus on long-term survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst2005;97:1354-1365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    TetaMJLauESceurmanBKWagnerME. Therapeutic radiation for lymphoma: risk of malignant mesothelioma. Cancer2007;109:1432-1438.

  • 14

    De BruinMLBurgersJABaasP. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood2009;113:3679-3681.

  • 15

    CavazzaATravisLBTravisWD. Post-irradiation malignant mesothelioma. Cancer1996;77:1379-1385.

  • 16

    WitherbySMButnorKJGrunbergSM. Malignant mesothelioma following thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer. Lung Cancer2007;57:410-413.

  • 17

    CarboneMBarisYIBertinoP. Erionite exposure in North Dakota and Turkish villages with mesothelioma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2011;108:13618-13623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    TestaJRCheungMPeiJ. Germline BAP1 mutations predispose to malignant mesothelioma. Nat Genet2011;43:1022-1025.

  • 19

    AllenRKCramondTLennonDWaterhouseM. A retrospective study of chest pain in benign asbestos pleural disease. Pain Med2011;12:1303-1308.

  • 20

    AmeilleJBrochardPLetourneuxM. Asbestos-related cancer risk in patients with asbestosis or pleural plaques. Rev Mal Respir2011;28:e11-17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    van MeerbeeckJPHillerdalG. Screening for mesothelioma: more harm than good?Am J Respir Crit Care Med2008;178:781-782.

  • 22

    RobertsHCPatsiosDAPaulNS. Screening for malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer in individuals with a history of asbestos exposure. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:620-628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    PassHICarboneM. Current status of screening for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;21:97-104.

  • 24

    AberleDRAdamsAMBergCD. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med2011;365:395-409.

  • 25

    GadgeelSPassH. Malignant mesothelioma. Commun Oncol2006;3:215-224.

  • 26

    KaoSCYanTDLeeK. Accuracy of diagnostic biopsy for the histological subtype of malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Oncol2011;6:602-605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    GreillierLCavaillesAFraticelliA. Accuracy of pleural biopsy using thoracoscopy for the diagnosis of histologic subtype in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Cancer2007;110:2248-2252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    TremblayAMichaudG. Single-center experience with 250 tunnelled pleural catheter insertions for malignant pleural effusion. Chest2006;129:362-368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    SchneiderTReimerPStorzK. Recurrent pleural effusion: who benefits from a tunneled pleural catheter?Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;57:42-46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    ZahidIRoutledgeTBilleAScarciM. What is the best treatment for malignant pleural effusions?Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg2011;12:818-823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    ArapisKCaliandroRSternJB. Thoracoscopic palliative treatment of malignant pleural effusions: results in 273 patients. Surg Endosc2006;20:919-923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    SchneiderJHoffmannHDienemannH. Diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble mesothelin-related proteins in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in comparison with benign asbestosis and lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:1317-1324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    LuoLShiHZLiangQL. Diagnostic value of soluble mesothelin-related peptides for malignant mesothelioma: a metaanalysis. Respir Med2010;104:149-156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    HollevoetKNackaertsKThimpontJ. Diagnostic performance of soluble mesothelin and megakaryocyte potentiating factor in mesothelioma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2010;181:620-625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Wheatley-PricePYangBPatsiosD. Soluble mesothelinrelated peptide and osteopontin as markers of response in malignant mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2010;28:3316-3322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    CreaneyJYeomanDDemelkerY. Comparison of osteopontin, megakaryocyte potentiating factor, and mesothelin proteins as markers in the serum of patients with malignant mesothelioma. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:851-857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    GrigoriuBDScherpereelADevosP. Utility of osteopontin and serum mesothelin in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis and prognosis assessment. Clin Cancer Res2007;13:2928-2935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    PassHILottDLonardoF. Asbestos exposure, pleural mesothelioma, and serum osteopontin levels. N Engl J Med2005;353:1564-1573.

  • 39

    CristaudoAFoddisRVivaldiA. Clinical significance of serum mesothelin in patients with mesothelioma and lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res2007;13:5076-5081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    HusainANColbyTVOrdonezNG. Guidelines for pathologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma: a consensus statement from the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Arch Pathol Lab Med2009;133:1317-1331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    OrdonezNG. What are the current best immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma? A review and update. Hum Pathol2007;38:1-16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    RayMKindlerHL. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: an update on biomarkers and treatment. Chest2009;136:888-896.

  • 43

    de PerrotMFeldRChoBC. Trimodality therapy with induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and adjuvant high-dose hemithoracic radiation for malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2009;27:1413-1418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    KrugLMPassHIRuschVW. Multicenter phase II trial of neoadjuvant pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and radiation for malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2009;27:3007-3013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    BolukbasSManegoldCEberleinM. Survival after trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: radical pleurectomy, chemotherapy with cisplatin/permetrexed and radiotherapy. Lung Cancer2011;71:75-81.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    WederWStahelRABernhardJ. Multicenter trial of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Oncol2007;18:1196-1202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    SugarbakerDJFloresRMJaklitschMT. Resection margins, extrapleural nodal status, and cell type determine postoperative long-term survival in trimodality therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma: results in 183 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg1999;117:54-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    BaldiniEH. Radiation therapy options for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;21:159-163.

  • 49

    BaldiniEH. External beam radiation therapy for the treatment of pleural mesothelioma. Thorac Surg Clin2004;14:543-548.

  • 50

    AhmadzadehfarHPalmedoHStrunkH. False positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT in a patient after talc pleurodesis. Lung Cancer2007;58:418-421.

  • 51

    NguyenNCTranIHueserCN. F-18 FDG PET/CT characterization of talc pleurodesis-induced pleural changes over time: a retrospective study. Clin Nucl Med2009;34:886-890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    PillingJDartnellJALang-LazdunskiL. Integrated positron emission tomography-computed tomography does not accurately stage intrathoracic disease of patients undergoing trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2010;58:215-219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53

    RiceDCSteligaMAStewartJ. Endoscopic ultrasoundguided fine needle aspiration for staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Thorac Surg2009;88:862-868; discussion 868-869.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54

    PillingJEStewartDJMartin-UcarAE. The case for routine cervical mediastinoscopy prior to radical surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2004;25:497-501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    EdgeSBByrdDRComptonCC. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual7th edition. New York: Springer; 2010.

  • 56

    WilcoxBESubramaniamRMPellerPJ. Utility of integrated computed tomography-positron emission tomography for selection of operable malignant pleural mesothelioma. Clin Lung Cancer2009;10:244-248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57

    FloresRMAkhurstTGonenM. Positron emission tomography defines metastatic disease but not locoregional disease in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2003;126:11-16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    AelonyYYaoJF. Prolonged survival after talc poudrage for malignant pleural mesothelioma: case series. Respirology2005;10:649-655.

  • 59

    SchulzeMBoehleASKurdowR. Effective treatment of malignant pleural effusion by minimal invasive thoracic surgery: thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis and pleuroperitoneal shunts in 101 patients. Ann Thorac Surg2001;71:1809-1812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60

    PetrouMKaplanDGoldstrawP. Management of recurrent malignant pleural effusions. The complementary role talc pleurodesis and pleuroperitoneal shunting. Cancer1995;75:801-805.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    RiceDRuschVPassH. Recommendations for uniform definitions of surgical techniques for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a consensus report of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer International Staging Committee and the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. J Thorac Oncol2011;6:1304-1312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    KaufmanAJFloresRM. Surgical treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Curr Treat Options Oncol2011;12:201-216.

  • 63

    KindlerHL. Surgery for mesothelioma? The debate continues. Lancet Oncol2011;12:713-714.

  • 64

    RiceD. Surgical therapy of mesothelioma. Recent Results Cancer Res2011;189:97-125.

  • 65

    MaziakDEGagliardiAHaynesAE. Surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review and evidence summary. Lung Cancer2005;48:157-169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    HasaniAAlvarezJMWyattJM. Outcome for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma referred for trimodality therapy in Western Australia. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:1010-1016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    ZahidISharifSRoutledgeTScarciM. Is pleurectomy and decortication superior to palliative care in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma?Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg2011;12:812-817.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    ShahinYWellhamJJappieR. How successful is lungpreserving radical surgery in the mesothelioma and radical surgery-trial environment? A case-controlled analysis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2011;39:360-363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    FloresRMPassHISeshanVE. Extrapleural pneumonectomy versus pleurectomy/decortication in the surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: results in 663 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2008;135:620-626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    SugarbakerDJJaklitschMTBuenoR. Prevention, early detection, and management of complications after 328 consecutive extrapleural pneumonectomies. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2004;128:138-146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    YanTDBoyerMTinMM. Extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: outcomes of treatment and prognostic factors. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;138:619-624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    SchipperPHNicholsFCThomseKM. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: surgical management in 285 patients. Ann Thorac Surg2008;85:257-264; discussion 264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    TreasureTLang-LazdunskiLWallerD. Extra-pleural pneumonectomy versus no extra-pleural pneumonectomy for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: clinical outcomes of the Mesothelioma and Radical Surgery (MARS) randomised feasibility study. Lancet Oncol2011;12:763-772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    TreasureTWallerDTanC. The Mesothelioma and Radical Surgery randomized controlled trial: the MARS feasibility study. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:1254-1258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    SharifSZahidIRoutledgeTScarciM. Extrapleural pneumonectomy or supportive care: treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma?Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg2011;12:1040-1045.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76

    YanTDCaoCQBoyerM. Improving survival results after surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: an Australian institution experience. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2011;17:243-249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    ZaudererMGKrugLM. The evolution of multimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Curr Treat Options Oncol2011;12:163-172.

  • 78

    FloresRM. Surgical options in malignant pleural mesothelioma: extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;21:149-153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    LuckrazHRahmanMPatelN. Three decades of experience in the surgical multi-modality management of pleural mesothelioma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2010;37:552-556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    KellyRJSharonEHassanR. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies for unresectable malignant mesothelioma. Lung Cancer2011;73:256-263.

  • 81

    EllisPDaviesAMEvansWK. The use of chemotherapy in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review and practice guideline. J Thorac Oncol2006;1:591-601.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    VogelzangNJRusthovenJJSymanowskiJ. Phase III study of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2003;21:2636-2644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83

    KrugLM. An overview of chemotherapy for mesothelioma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am2005;19:1117-1136vii.

  • 84

    KatirtzoglouNGkiozosIMakriliaN. Carboplatin plus pemetrexed as first-line treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: a phase II study. Clin Lung Cancer2010;11:30-35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    CeresoliGLZucaliPAFavarettoAG. Phase II study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin in malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2006;24:1443-1448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    CastagnetoBBottaMAitiniE. Phase II study of pemetrexed in combination with carboplatin in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ann Oncol2008;19:370-373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    van HaarstJMWBaasPManegoldC. Multicentre phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Br J Cancer2002;86:342-345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    NowakAKByrneMJWilliamsonR. A multicentre phase II study of cisplatin and gemcitabine for malignant mesothelioma. Br J Cancer2002;87:491-496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89

    SantoroAO'BrienMEStahelRA. Pemetrexed plus cisplatin or pemetrexed plus carboplatin for chemonaive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: results of the International Expanded Access Program. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:756-763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90

    ScagliottiGVShinDMKindlerHL. Phase II study of pemetrexed with and without folic acid and vitamin B12 as front-line therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2003;21:1556-1561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    TaylorPCastagnetoBDarkG. Single-agent pemetrexed for chemonaive and pretreated patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: results of an International Expanded Access Program. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:764-771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    MuersMFStephensRJFisherP. Active symptom control with or without chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MS01): a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet2008;371:1685-1694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    JassemJRamlauRSantoroA. Phase III trial of pemetrexed plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care in previously treated patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2008;26:1698-1704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    StebbingJPowlesTMcPhersonK. The efficacy and safety of weekly vinorelbine in relapsed malignant pleural mesothelioma. Lung Cancer2009;63:94-97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    ManegoldCSymanowskiJGatzemeierU. Second-line (post-study) chemotherapy received by patients treated in the phase III trial of pemetrexed plus cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Oncol2005;16:923-927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    CeresoliGLZucaliPAGianoncelliL. Second-line treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Cancer Treat Rev2010;36:2-32.

  • 97

    YajnikSRosenzweigKEMychalczakB. Hemithoracic radiation after extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2003;56:1319-1326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    RuschVWRosenzweigKVenkatramanE. A phase II trial of surgical resection and adjuvant high-dose hemithoracic radiation for malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2001;122:788-795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    GuptaVMychalczakBKrugL. Hemithoracic radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2005;63:1045-1052.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    GuptaVKrugLMLaserB. Patterns of local and nodal failure in malignant pleural mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy and photon-electron radiotherapy. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:746-750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    BaldiniEHRechtAStraussGM. Patterns of failure after trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Thorac Surg1997;63:334-338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    BoutinCReyFViallatJR. Prevention of malignant seeding after invasive diagnostic procedures in patients with pleural mesothelioma. A randomized trial of local radiotherapy. Chest1995;108:754-758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    de Graaf-StrukowskaLvan der ZeeJvan PuttenWSenanS. Factors influencing the outcome of radiotherapy in malignant mesothelioma of the pleura—a single-institution experience with 189 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys1999;43:511-516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    Di SalvoMGambaroGPagellaS. Prevention of malignant seeding at drain sites after invasive procedures (surgery and/or thoracoscopy) by hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with pleural mesothelioma. Acta Oncol2008;47:1094-1098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    DaviesHEMuskAWLeeYC. Prophylactic radiotherapy for pleural puncture sites in mesothelioma: the controversy continues. Curr Opin Pulm Med2008;14:326-330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    O'RourkeNGarciaJCPaulJ. A randomised controlled trial of intervention site radiotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiother Oncol2007;84:18-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107

    BydderSPhillipsMJosephDJ. A randomised trial of single-dose radiotherapy to prevent procedure tract metastasis by malignant mesothelioma. Br J Cancer2004;91:9-10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108

    RiceDCStevensCWCorreaAM. Outcomes after extrapleural pneumonectomy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Thorac Surg2007;84:1685-1692; discussion 1692-1683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109

    RiceDCSmytheWRLiaoZ. Dose-dependent pulmonary toxicity after postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2007;69:350-357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110

    AllenAMCzerminskaMJannePA. Fatal pneumonitis associated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2006;65:640-645.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111

    KristensenCANottrupTJBerthelsenAK. Pulmonary toxicity following IMRT after extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiother Oncol2009;92:96-99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112

    MilesEFLarrierNAKelseyCR. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for resected mesothelioma: the Duke experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2008;71:1143-1150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113

    KrayenbuehlJOertelSDavisJBCiernikIF. Combined photon and electron three-dimensional conformal versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy with integrated boost for adjuvant treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma after pleuropneumonectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2007;69:1593-1599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    WaiteKGilliganD. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)2007;19:182-187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Article Sections

Figures

  • View in gallery
    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Version 2:2012

    Version 2.2012, 10-04-11 ©2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®

  • View in gallery
    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Version 2:2012

    Version 2.2012, 10-04-11 ©2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®.

  • View in gallery
    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Version 2:2012

    Version 2.2012, 10-04-11 ©2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines® and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN®.

References

  • 1

    PriceBWareA. Time trend of mesothelioma incidence in the United States and projection of future cases: an update based on SEER data for 1973 through 2005. Crit Rev Toxicol2009;39:576-588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    TsaoASWistubaIRothJAKindlerHL. Malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2009;27:2081-2090.

  • 3

    LanphearBPBuncherCR. Latent period for malignant mesothelioma of occupational origin. J Occup Med1992;34:718-721.

  • 4

    SelikoffIJHammondECSeidmanH. Latency of asbestos disease among insulation workers in the United States and Canada. Cancer1980;46:2736-2740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    ParkEKTakahashiKHoshuyamaT. Global magnitude of reported and unreported mesothelioma. Environ Health Perspect2011;119:514-518.

  • 6

    Malignant mesothelioma mortality—United States, 1999-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep2009;58:393-396.

  • 7

    NishikawaKTakahashiKKarjalainenA. Recent mortality from pleural mesothelioma, historical patterns of asbestos use, and adoption of bans: a global assessment. Environ Health Perspect2008;116:1675-1680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    LarsonTMelnikovaNDavisSIJamisonP. Incidence and descriptive epidemiology of mesothelioma in the United States, 1999-2002. Int J Occup Environ Health2007;13:398-403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    PriceBWareA. Mesothelioma trends in the United States: an update based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data for 1973 through 2003. Am J Epidemiol2004;159:107-112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    PetoJDecarliALa VecchiaC. The European mesothelioma epidemic. Br J Cancer1999;79:666-672.

  • 11

    LeighJDavidsonPHendrieLBerryD. Malignant mesothelioma in Australia, 1945-2000. Am J Ind Med2002;41:188-201.

  • 12

    TravisLBFossaSDSchonfeldSJ. Second cancers among 40,576 testicular cancer patients: focus on long-term survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst2005;97:1354-1365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    TetaMJLauESceurmanBKWagnerME. Therapeutic radiation for lymphoma: risk of malignant mesothelioma. Cancer2007;109:1432-1438.

  • 14

    De BruinMLBurgersJABaasP. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood2009;113:3679-3681.

  • 15

    CavazzaATravisLBTravisWD. Post-irradiation malignant mesothelioma. Cancer1996;77:1379-1385.

  • 16

    WitherbySMButnorKJGrunbergSM. Malignant mesothelioma following thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer. Lung Cancer2007;57:410-413.

  • 17

    CarboneMBarisYIBertinoP. Erionite exposure in North Dakota and Turkish villages with mesothelioma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2011;108:13618-13623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    TestaJRCheungMPeiJ. Germline BAP1 mutations predispose to malignant mesothelioma. Nat Genet2011;43:1022-1025.

  • 19

    AllenRKCramondTLennonDWaterhouseM. A retrospective study of chest pain in benign asbestos pleural disease. Pain Med2011;12:1303-1308.

  • 20

    AmeilleJBrochardPLetourneuxM. Asbestos-related cancer risk in patients with asbestosis or pleural plaques. Rev Mal Respir2011;28:e11-17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    van MeerbeeckJPHillerdalG. Screening for mesothelioma: more harm than good?Am J Respir Crit Care Med2008;178:781-782.

  • 22

    RobertsHCPatsiosDAPaulNS. Screening for malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer in individuals with a history of asbestos exposure. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:620-628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    PassHICarboneM. Current status of screening for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;21:97-104.

  • 24

    AberleDRAdamsAMBergCD. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med2011;365:395-409.

  • 25

    GadgeelSPassH. Malignant mesothelioma. Commun Oncol2006;3:215-224.

  • 26

    KaoSCYanTDLeeK. Accuracy of diagnostic biopsy for the histological subtype of malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Oncol2011;6:602-605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    GreillierLCavaillesAFraticelliA. Accuracy of pleural biopsy using thoracoscopy for the diagnosis of histologic subtype in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Cancer2007;110:2248-2252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    TremblayAMichaudG. Single-center experience with 250 tunnelled pleural catheter insertions for malignant pleural effusion. Chest2006;129:362-368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    SchneiderTReimerPStorzK. Recurrent pleural effusion: who benefits from a tunneled pleural catheter?Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;57:42-46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    ZahidIRoutledgeTBilleAScarciM. What is the best treatment for malignant pleural effusions?Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg2011;12:818-823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    ArapisKCaliandroRSternJB. Thoracoscopic palliative treatment of malignant pleural effusions: results in 273 patients. Surg Endosc2006;20:919-923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    SchneiderJHoffmannHDienemannH. Diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble mesothelin-related proteins in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in comparison with benign asbestosis and lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:1317-1324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    LuoLShiHZLiangQL. Diagnostic value of soluble mesothelin-related peptides for malignant mesothelioma: a metaanalysis. Respir Med2010;104:149-156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    HollevoetKNackaertsKThimpontJ. Diagnostic performance of soluble mesothelin and megakaryocyte potentiating factor in mesothelioma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2010;181:620-625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Wheatley-PricePYangBPatsiosD. Soluble mesothelinrelated peptide and osteopontin as markers of response in malignant mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2010;28:3316-3322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    CreaneyJYeomanDDemelkerY. Comparison of osteopontin, megakaryocyte potentiating factor, and mesothelin proteins as markers in the serum of patients with malignant mesothelioma. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:851-857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    GrigoriuBDScherpereelADevosP. Utility of osteopontin and serum mesothelin in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis and prognosis assessment. Clin Cancer Res2007;13:2928-2935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    PassHILottDLonardoF. Asbestos exposure, pleural mesothelioma, and serum osteopontin levels. N Engl J Med2005;353:1564-1573.

  • 39

    CristaudoAFoddisRVivaldiA. Clinical significance of serum mesothelin in patients with mesothelioma and lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res2007;13:5076-5081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    HusainANColbyTVOrdonezNG. Guidelines for pathologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma: a consensus statement from the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Arch Pathol Lab Med2009;133:1317-1331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    OrdonezNG. What are the current best immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma? A review and update. Hum Pathol2007;38:1-16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    RayMKindlerHL. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: an update on biomarkers and treatment. Chest2009;136:888-896.

  • 43

    de PerrotMFeldRChoBC. Trimodality therapy with induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and adjuvant high-dose hemithoracic radiation for malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2009;27:1413-1418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    KrugLMPassHIRuschVW. Multicenter phase II trial of neoadjuvant pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and radiation for malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2009;27:3007-3013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    BolukbasSManegoldCEberleinM. Survival after trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: radical pleurectomy, chemotherapy with cisplatin/permetrexed and radiotherapy. Lung Cancer2011;71:75-81.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    WederWStahelRABernhardJ. Multicenter trial of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Oncol2007;18:1196-1202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    SugarbakerDJFloresRMJaklitschMT. Resection margins, extrapleural nodal status, and cell type determine postoperative long-term survival in trimodality therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma: results in 183 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg1999;117:54-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    BaldiniEH. Radiation therapy options for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;21:159-163.

  • 49

    BaldiniEH. External beam radiation therapy for the treatment of pleural mesothelioma. Thorac Surg Clin2004;14:543-548.

  • 50

    AhmadzadehfarHPalmedoHStrunkH. False positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT in a patient after talc pleurodesis. Lung Cancer2007;58:418-421.

  • 51

    NguyenNCTranIHueserCN. F-18 FDG PET/CT characterization of talc pleurodesis-induced pleural changes over time: a retrospective study. Clin Nucl Med2009;34:886-890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    PillingJDartnellJALang-LazdunskiL. Integrated positron emission tomography-computed tomography does not accurately stage intrathoracic disease of patients undergoing trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2010;58:215-219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53

    RiceDCSteligaMAStewartJ. Endoscopic ultrasoundguided fine needle aspiration for staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Thorac Surg2009;88:862-868; discussion 868-869.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54

    PillingJEStewartDJMartin-UcarAE. The case for routine cervical mediastinoscopy prior to radical surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2004;25:497-501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    EdgeSBByrdDRComptonCC. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual7th edition. New York: Springer; 2010.

  • 56

    WilcoxBESubramaniamRMPellerPJ. Utility of integrated computed tomography-positron emission tomography for selection of operable malignant pleural mesothelioma. Clin Lung Cancer2009;10:244-248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57

    FloresRMAkhurstTGonenM. Positron emission tomography defines metastatic disease but not locoregional disease in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2003;126:11-16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    AelonyYYaoJF. Prolonged survival after talc poudrage for malignant pleural mesothelioma: case series. Respirology2005;10:649-655.

  • 59

    SchulzeMBoehleASKurdowR. Effective treatment of malignant pleural effusion by minimal invasive thoracic surgery: thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis and pleuroperitoneal shunts in 101 patients. Ann Thorac Surg2001;71:1809-1812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60

    PetrouMKaplanDGoldstrawP. Management of recurrent malignant pleural effusions. The complementary role talc pleurodesis and pleuroperitoneal shunting. Cancer1995;75:801-805.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    RiceDRuschVPassH. Recommendations for uniform definitions of surgical techniques for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a consensus report of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer International Staging Committee and the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. J Thorac Oncol2011;6:1304-1312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    KaufmanAJFloresRM. Surgical treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Curr Treat Options Oncol2011;12:201-216.

  • 63

    KindlerHL. Surgery for mesothelioma? The debate continues. Lancet Oncol2011;12:713-714.

  • 64

    RiceD. Surgical therapy of mesothelioma. Recent Results Cancer Res2011;189:97-125.

  • 65

    MaziakDEGagliardiAHaynesAE. Surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review and evidence summary. Lung Cancer2005;48:157-169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    HasaniAAlvarezJMWyattJM. Outcome for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma referred for trimodality therapy in Western Australia. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:1010-1016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    ZahidISharifSRoutledgeTScarciM. Is pleurectomy and decortication superior to palliative care in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma?Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg2011;12:812-817.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    ShahinYWellhamJJappieR. How successful is lungpreserving radical surgery in the mesothelioma and radical surgery-trial environment? A case-controlled analysis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2011;39:360-363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    FloresRMPassHISeshanVE. Extrapleural pneumonectomy versus pleurectomy/decortication in the surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: results in 663 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2008;135:620-626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    SugarbakerDJJaklitschMTBuenoR. Prevention, early detection, and management of complications after 328 consecutive extrapleural pneumonectomies. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2004;128:138-146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    YanTDBoyerMTinMM. Extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: outcomes of treatment and prognostic factors. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;138:619-624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    SchipperPHNicholsFCThomseKM. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: surgical management in 285 patients. Ann Thorac Surg2008;85:257-264; discussion 264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    TreasureTLang-LazdunskiLWallerD. Extra-pleural pneumonectomy versus no extra-pleural pneumonectomy for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: clinical outcomes of the Mesothelioma and Radical Surgery (MARS) randomised feasibility study. Lancet Oncol2011;12:763-772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    TreasureTWallerDTanC. The Mesothelioma and Radical Surgery randomized controlled trial: the MARS feasibility study. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:1254-1258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    SharifSZahidIRoutledgeTScarciM. Extrapleural pneumonectomy or supportive care: treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma?Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg2011;12:1040-1045.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76

    YanTDCaoCQBoyerM. Improving survival results after surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: an Australian institution experience. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2011;17:243-249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    ZaudererMGKrugLM. The evolution of multimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Curr Treat Options Oncol2011;12:163-172.

  • 78

    FloresRM. Surgical options in malignant pleural mesothelioma: extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2009;21:149-153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    LuckrazHRahmanMPatelN. Three decades of experience in the surgical multi-modality management of pleural mesothelioma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2010;37:552-556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    KellyRJSharonEHassanR. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies for unresectable malignant mesothelioma. Lung Cancer2011;73:256-263.

  • 81

    EllisPDaviesAMEvansWK. The use of chemotherapy in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review and practice guideline. J Thorac Oncol2006;1:591-601.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    VogelzangNJRusthovenJJSymanowskiJ. Phase III study of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2003;21:2636-2644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83

    KrugLM. An overview of chemotherapy for mesothelioma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am2005;19:1117-1136vii.

  • 84

    KatirtzoglouNGkiozosIMakriliaN. Carboplatin plus pemetrexed as first-line treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: a phase II study. Clin Lung Cancer2010;11:30-35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    CeresoliGLZucaliPAFavarettoAG. Phase II study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin in malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2006;24:1443-1448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    CastagnetoBBottaMAitiniE. Phase II study of pemetrexed in combination with carboplatin in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ann Oncol2008;19:370-373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    van HaarstJMWBaasPManegoldC. Multicentre phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Br J Cancer2002;86:342-345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    NowakAKByrneMJWilliamsonR. A multicentre phase II study of cisplatin and gemcitabine for malignant mesothelioma. Br J Cancer2002;87:491-496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89

    SantoroAO'BrienMEStahelRA. Pemetrexed plus cisplatin or pemetrexed plus carboplatin for chemonaive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: results of the International Expanded Access Program. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:756-763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90

    ScagliottiGVShinDMKindlerHL. Phase II study of pemetrexed with and without folic acid and vitamin B12 as front-line therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2003;21:1556-1561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    TaylorPCastagnetoBDarkG. Single-agent pemetrexed for chemonaive and pretreated patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: results of an International Expanded Access Program. J Thorac Oncol2008;3:764-771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    MuersMFStephensRJFisherP. Active symptom control with or without chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MS01): a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet2008;371:1685-1694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    JassemJRamlauRSantoroA. Phase III trial of pemetrexed plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care in previously treated patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol2008;26:1698-1704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    StebbingJPowlesTMcPhersonK. The efficacy and safety of weekly vinorelbine in relapsed malignant pleural mesothelioma. Lung Cancer2009;63:94-97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    ManegoldCSymanowskiJGatzemeierU. Second-line (post-study) chemotherapy received by patients treated in the phase III trial of pemetrexed plus cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Oncol2005;16:923-927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    CeresoliGLZucaliPAGianoncelliL. Second-line treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Cancer Treat Rev2010;36:2-32.

  • 97

    YajnikSRosenzweigKEMychalczakB. Hemithoracic radiation after extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2003;56:1319-1326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    RuschVWRosenzweigKVenkatramanE. A phase II trial of surgical resection and adjuvant high-dose hemithoracic radiation for malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg2001;122:788-795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    GuptaVMychalczakBKrugL. Hemithoracic radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2005;63:1045-1052.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    GuptaVKrugLMLaserB. Patterns of local and nodal failure in malignant pleural mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy and photon-electron radiotherapy. J Thorac Oncol2009;4:746-750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    BaldiniEHRechtAStraussGM. Patterns of failure after trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Thorac Surg1997;63:334-338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    BoutinCReyFViallatJR. Prevention of malignant seeding after invasive diagnostic procedures in patients with pleural mesothelioma. A randomized trial of local radiotherapy. Chest1995;108:754-758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    de Graaf-StrukowskaLvan der ZeeJvan PuttenWSenanS. Factors influencing the outcome of radiotherapy in malignant mesothelioma of the pleura—a single-institution experience with 189 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys1999;43:511-516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    Di SalvoMGambaroGPagellaS. Prevention of malignant seeding at drain sites after invasive procedures (surgery and/or thoracoscopy) by hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with pleural mesothelioma. Acta Oncol2008;47:1094-1098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    DaviesHEMuskAWLeeYC. Prophylactic radiotherapy for pleural puncture sites in mesothelioma: the controversy continues. Curr Opin Pulm Med2008;14:326-330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    O'RourkeNGarciaJCPaulJ. A randomised controlled trial of intervention site radiotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiother Oncol2007;84:18-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107

    BydderSPhillipsMJosephDJ. A randomised trial of single-dose radiotherapy to prevent procedure tract metastasis by malignant mesothelioma. Br J Cancer2004;91:9-10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108

    RiceDCStevensCWCorreaAM. Outcomes after extrapleural pneumonectomy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Thorac Surg2007;84:1685-1692; discussion 1692-1683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109

    RiceDCSmytheWRLiaoZ. Dose-dependent pulmonary toxicity after postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2007;69:350-357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110

    AllenAMCzerminskaMJannePA. Fatal pneumonitis associated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for mesothelioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2006;65:640-645.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111

    KristensenCANottrupTJBerthelsenAK. Pulmonary toxicity following IMRT after extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiother Oncol2009;92:96-99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112

    MilesEFLarrierNAKelseyCR. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for resected mesothelioma: the Duke experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2008;71:1143-1150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113

    KrayenbuehlJOertelSDavisJBCiernikIF. Combined photon and electron three-dimensional conformal versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy with integrated boost for adjuvant treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma after pleuropneumonectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys2007;69:1593-1599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    WaiteKGilliganD. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)2007;19:182-187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Information

Cited By

PubMed

Google Scholar

Related Articles

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 223 223 17
PDF Downloads 16 16 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0